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Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (1871)"

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California Stale Library 




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From an Acf prenci'ibing Ititlea for the Gofernmeiit of the Stntr Librari/, 
pasted March 8/A, 1861. 



Section U. Tlic Librarian shall cause to be kept a register of all 
books issued and returned : and all books taken by the members of the 
Legislature, or its officers, shall be returned at the close of the session. 
If any person injure or fail to return any bonk taken from the Library, 
ho shall forfeit and pay to the Librarian, for the benefit of the Library, 
three times the value thereof; and before the Controller shall issue his 
warrant in favor o' any member or officer of the Legislature, or of this 
State, for bis per dicra, allowance, or salary, he shall bo satisfied that 
such member or officer has returned all books taken out of the Library by 
him, and has settled all accounts for injuring such books or otherwise. 

Skc. 15. Books may be taken from the Library by the members of the 
Legislature and its officers iluring the session of the same, and at any 
time by the flovernor and the officers of the E.\ccutive Department of 
this ■'»tute who are required to keep their offices at the seat of government, 
the .Justices of the .'supreme Court, the Attorney-General and the Trustees 
of the Librarv. 




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Volume II.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 8, 1871. 



[Number 



The Grasshopper Pest. 

We are informed by Mr. Wm. K. Olden, 
our Los Angeles correspondent, wbo lias 
been spending several days in tbis city, 
tbat tbere is much reason to fear tbat se- 
rious damage will be done this season by 
the grassbop23ers, to tbe crops and fruit in 
Los Angeles county. This lamentable in- 
sect-plague always accompanies our dry 
seasons, and too often destroys the little 
remnant of vegetation which has been 
spared by the drouth. 

There is some consolation, however — al- 
though it may be slow in coming to frui- 
tion — in the unmistakable fact tbat the 
ravages of this insect are gradually becom- 
ing less and less, with a corresponding de- 
crease in its numbers. Mr. Olden has fur- 
nished us with his experience and observa- 
tion in this matter, gathered through a 
long residence in Southern California, 
which we find fully agrees with those col- 
lected by Mr. A. S. Taylor, of Monterey 
county, and published in the Transactions 
of the Smithsonian Institute for 1858. 

It seems that the appearance of this in- 
sect, in large numbers, can be assigned to 
no particular period of time; but is de- 
pendent on the greater or less abundance 
of rain over the region of country where 
their eggs have been dei^osited, and their 
abundance is always in proportion to the 
dryness of the season. Their last appear- 
ance in any considerable numbers, in this 
State, was in the dry year of 1864. Since 
that time they have appeared only in 
limited regions where there has been a 
local absence of the usual quantity of rain, 
and where the conditions of hatching have 
been fulfilled. 

Their eggs are always deposited in dry 
localities, and where the ground is com- 
paratively or nearly bare of vegetation. 
Their instinct teaches them that warmth 
and dryness, and the absence of sh".de are 
essential to the vivification of their eggs, 
which they always lay in large companies, 
and deposit only a half an inch or so be- 
low the surface. 

Means of Destroying Them. 

In thinly populated regions, as Califor- 
nia was before the advent of the gold seek- 
ers, fire is often employed to this end, it 
being set after the herbage becomes dry, 
and just before they commence laying; 
but, of course, such a remedy at the pres- 
ent time is out of the question. The insect 
must now be allowed to complete the end 
of its existence, and the eggs must 
there be looked after. 

Thorough and complete cultivation will 
most effectually destroy them. If the 
ground upon Avhich they have laid their 
eggs is once turned over to any consider- 
able depth by the plowshare, the eggs can 
never receive the warmth requisite for 
their vivification. If the rain falls in suf- 
ficient quantity to produce the usual 
amount of vegetation, the shade even of 
such growth efifectually keeps the eggs 
back from year to year, until a dry season 
occurs, and the necessary hatching condi- 
ditions are met. 



In the early days of the Mission Fathers 
on this coast, this part of the State was 
much troubled by these pests, although 
not so much as the more southern portions, 
on account of the excess of rains here; but 
the advent of the cultivators, with plow- 
shares and harrows, has jiretty nearly 
killed them out; so we hear but little of 
them north of Gilroy, and only in limited 
localities. As the more southern portions 
of the State are settled up, and larger 
quantities of land are brought into cultiva- 
tion, the grasshopper pest will gradually 
disappear. 

So in our foothills — they are now found 
only in localities where drouth prevails, 
and where the timber has been cut off, or 
the ground otherwise exposed to the direct 
rays of the sun. A more general cultiva- 
tion of the mountain valleys and clearings, 
will gradually decrease the pest. The 
abundance of irrigation which now seems 



Celebrated Trotters. 

In view of the interest which is now be- 
ing taken in this State in regard to the 
" style and speed" of horses, we have pro- 
cured and shall give, in successive num- 
bers, portraits of nine of the most cele- 
brated trotting horses which the country 
has produced. These portraits were orig- 
inally prepared for Moore's Rural New- 
Yorker, and are so spirited and life-like 
that any one who is at all familiar with 
them, will at once recognize them in the 
"counterfeit presentments," which we 
shall give. We shall subjoin a brief de- 
scription, pedigree, etc., of each of these 
famousanimals, as we give them, in turn. 
We commence to-day with the most cele- 
brated of the group, giving the description 
which was prepared originally for the pa- 
per alluded to, by one of the best posted 
horsemen in the country. No one who has 




THE CELEBRATED TROTTING HORSE, DEXTER. 



to be promised, will also do much to check 
them by bi-inginginto cultivation the dryer 
localities which the grasshopper, with his 
unerring instinct, always seeks, as the 
most favorable locality for securing the 
continuance of his species. 

The Vintage fob 1871. — The season i# 
now so far advanced that the character of 
the grape crop can be pretty well deter- 
mined, as the fruit is well out of danger 
from any source. It has suffered some in 
Los Angeles county from the grasshopper 
scourge and slightly by frost in Napa, So- 
lano, Yuba, Tehama and Colusa counties; 
but only in isolated places and nowhere to 
any considerable extent. As a general 
thing, so we infer from our exchanges, the 
fruit has set well and filled better than dur- 
ing any former season for the last three or 
four years. The coming vintage is vari- 
ously estimated at from five to eight mill- 
ions of gallons, which will command a 
better price and more ready sale than on 
any previous year. The demand for Cali- 
fornia wine is rapidly increasing. 

CuBRANTS. — The exhibition of currants 
in the market, this year, is unusually fine, 
and it would greatly benefit the State, to 
have some of this fruit sent East. 



ever seen the animal will fail to recognize 
in the finely figured portrait herewith 
given, the world-renowned 
Dexter. 
Of all the trotters ever bred and trained. 
Dexter is, beyond all question, the best 
and the most famoiis. He is a brown 
horse, with four white legs and a blaze in 
the face. He stands fifteen hands and one 
inch, on short legs. He has a fine, reso- 
lute head and piercing eye, and combines 
great power and substance with the clean 
out, wiry organization of the thorough- 
bred. His quarters and stifles are im- 
mense, his shoulders very fine, and he is 
uncommonly deep through the heart. He 
was got by Hambletonian, out of a black 
mare by American Star. The latter was a 
very high-bred trotter, and a horse of ex- 
traordinary game and bottom. Dexter never 
had a feed of oats until after he was four 
years old. His action was always of the 
boldest and finest character, and he is the 
fastest and stoutest trotter that ever was 
produced. Upon the turf he made the 
fastest mile in harness, 2m. 11 %s. — the 
fastest mile under the saddle, 2m. 18s. — the 
fastest mile to wagon, 2m. 24b, — and the 



fastest two miles to wagon, 4m. h&\i». He 
is good in all ways of going — light weight, 
heavy weight, good track, muddy track. It 
is certain that no other horse ever enjoyed 
so wide a reputation, unless it was Flying 
Childers or English Eclipse. It is proba- 
ble the greatest feat he ever performed was 
at Prospect Park Course, last fall, when, 
after having been driven from Mr. Bon- 
ner's stable in New York, he trotte.l a mile 
to road wagon in 2m. 21,'4S., pulling 319 
pounds of weight. His speed this year ex- 
ceeds that, however, for to another road 
wagon Mr. Bonner has driven him half a 
mile at Fleetwood Park, in Im. 6^s., with 
305 pounds behind him. The best judges 
think that he has never yet shown all that 
he is capable of doing; and he is righfully 
pronounced a King among horses. 

The Merced Cotton Experiment. 

We have received a specimen stalk from 
Col. Strong's cotton plantation in Merced, 
which measures 24 inches in length. This 
shows a good growth for less than eight 
weeks from planting. The stand, we are 
informed, is considered a very good one; 
much better than could have been expect- 
ed from the unfavorable weather which 
has prevailed since the jjlants made their 
appearance. The fields bid fair to turn 
out far above the average of the best lands 
of Mississippi and Tennessee, even in 
their best seasons. We regard che experi- 
ment as one of the most important ever 
undertaken in the State. If it is success- 
ful this year, notwithstanding the drouth 
and the cold, windy weather which pre- 
vailed throughout the month of May and a 
part of June, we may regard the problem 
of cotton growing in California as definite- 
ly settled, and a mine of wealth opened up 
to the State, worth more than either our 
gold or grain. We shall carefully note 
the progress of the growth and maturing 
of this crop, and publish the same for the 
benefit of our readers, as many of them 
will no doubt, in the event of Col. Strong's 
success, feel encouraged to test the soils of 
their respective farms, with a view to this 
crop — one of the most profitable which can 
^e grown. 

Salt Lake. — Our associate, I. N. Hoag, 
of Sacramento, has gone to Salt Lake in 
behalf of the State Agricultural Society, to 
induce co-operation on the part of the resi- 
dents of that Territory in the California 
Fairs, and the purchase of fine stock here 
instead of going Eastward for it, as the 
present custom is. The mission is an im- 
portant one, and we believe its successful 
issue will work to the advantage of the 
residents of that region as well as to the 
people of this State. 

Eeceipts of Gbain and FiiODB. — The 
receipts of California grain and flour at 
San Francisco, for the harvest year, ending 
June 30th embraces 4,496,000 centals of 
wheat and 481,500 sacks of flour. 

Gold in Contea Costa. — The Antioch 
Ledger reports the discovery of auriferous 
sands, on Marsh creek. Contra Costa 
county, which yield 50 cts. to $1 to the pan. 



*£^\ij<^' 



[July 8, 1871, 



ECHANICAL ^ROGRESS. 



The Heliotype Pkocess. — In Nature for 
June 1st, W. H. Harrison describes the 
late improvements by Mr. Ernest Edwards. 
We quote from the part in reference to tlie 
■working details: — " The films are prepared 
upon large sheets of accurately leveled 
finely ground glass, technically known as 
' greyed glass;' about 22 inches by 18 
inches is a convenient size. The surface 
of the glass is first polished by means of a 
clean piece of rag, with a little solution of 
wax in ether; the exceedingly thin film of 
wax thus left upon the glass permits the 
dried gelatine film to come o(re:isily. The 
glass plates after being waxed are leveled, 
and then a measured quantity of a warm 
mixture of gelatine, bichromate of potash, 
chrome alum, and water, is poured upon 
each plate from a jug with a piece of mus- 
lin tied over its mouth. The temperature 
of the solution in the jug is about 150" 
Fah., and after it is poured over the plate 
it sets in a very few minutes, but it re- 
quires a much longer time to dry. Curi- 
ously enough, until it is dry it is not sen- 
sitive to light; this fact was found out acci- 
dentally, for at first this part of the 
operations was carefully carried on in yel- 
low light. After the film is set, the plates 
are taken into a dark room to dry. If any 
of the fumes given off by burning gas es- 
cape into this room, they act upon the film 
just as light would do, therefore although 
a gas stove is used to dry the plates, the 
products of combustion are veiy carefully 
carried off. * * At a temperature of 90 
the films take about twenty-four hours to 
dry. As they dry they contract slightly, 
and thus separate themselves from the 
glass. These dried films are technically 
termed ' skins;' they are of an orange 
color, and about one-tenth of an inch thick. 
The picture is printed on them from a 
negative, and a faintly visible image is 
formed; when this image is fully cut the 
films are removed to a dark room. Here 
each skin is floated in water, and caught 
upon the surface of a thick plate of zinc; 
a fiat piece of wood, edged w^ith india-rub- 
ber is then scraped with considerable press- 
ure over the film, so as to squeeze out all 
the watar between the skin and the zinc. 
As the film still continues to absorb moist- 
ure, it is thus fixed to the zinc with the 
whole pressure of the atmosphere. After 
this the zinc with its attached film is left 
for half an hour at least ija a large vessel 
of water, for the superfluous bichromate 
of potash to soak out, and then the film is 
no longer sensitive to light. If the film 
bo thus soaked for several hours, or even 
daj's, it does not suffer. The film, upon 
its zinc i)late, is now ready for the printing 
press. It is damped between each im- 
pression, just like a lithographic stone. 
Then it is inked, and the best roller for the 
purpose is found to be one made of india 
rubber, backed inside with ' india-rubber 
sponge' to give additional softness. Or- 
dinary lithogfajjhic ink is used. If stifl" 
lithographic Ink be employed, the surface 
will only ' bite' where light has acted most; 
if thin ink be used, the leathery surface 
will only bite in the half tones of the pic- 
ture; hence each j'icture is produced by 
two inkings, and advantage is taken of this 
circumstance to use two colors, and get 
warm shades in the half tones. It is very 
interesting to see the picture graduallj' 
growing imder the inking process. By 
this method double-printing is executed 
with a single puU at the press." 

Ddckham's Hydbost.\tic "Weighin^RIa- 
CHiNE. — We copy the description from the 
Engineering and Mining Joia-nal: — "The 
apparatus is simply composed of a piston 
and cj'linder, which may be suspended for 
use from any crane hook; it is filled with 
water, which has a connection with an or- 
dinary hydraulic pressure gauge fixed on 
the exterior of the machine. The piston 
rod passes downward through the cylimler 
bottom, and forms a means of attachment 
for the goods. Immediately the.se ore 
lifted, as in loading or unloading ships or 
wagons, the weight is shown on the gauge 
dial without the slightest extra labor or 
manipulation, and, consequently, without 
cost. The piston is fitted with cupped 
leathers of such a shape as entirely to obvi 
ate leakage, as the water cannot escape, 
and is in itself incompressible. There is 
no movement of the piston, and, conse- 
quently, no friction to affect the accuracy 
of the weight denoted. Moreover, to in- 
sure absolute correctness, e&ch dial is 
marked to indications given by the attach- 
ment of actual adjusted weights or strains 
to each machine. One of the most note- 



worthy features in connection with this in- 
vention is, that whereas the few weighing 
contrivances which exist in other design of 
large capacity are almost too unwieldy to 
be worked at ail, a Duckham 30-ton ma- 
chine complete weighs only 234 cwt. It 
may bo transported from place to place and 
attached for use by a single man. The 
1-ton machine has a jjiston area of only 7 
in., and weighs only 18 fts. It is only 
necessary to regulate the strength of the 
metal to obtain a weighing machine light 
and delicate for low weights, or a machine 
combining in an eminent degree lightness 
and portability, but of sufficient power to 
indicate any amount of strain whicli can be 
possibly ajiplied to it." 

Pressure op Fibed Gt'NPOWDER.— In a 
lecture before the Royal Institution, Capt., 
Andrew Noble, F. E. S., dcsribes the latest 
experiments upon the firing of gunpowder 
in closed chambers. We quote the conclu- 
sions drawn therefrom: "The maximum of 
pressure of fired gunpower, unrelieved by 
expansion, is not much above 40 tons to 
the square inch. (2) In large guns, owing 
to the violent oscillations produced by the 
ignition of a large mass of powder, the pres- 
sure of the gas is liable to be locally exalted 
even above its normal tension in a perfect- 
ly closed vessel, and this intensification of 
isressure endangers the grun, without add- 
ing to useful effect. (3) Where large 
charges are used quick-burning powder in- 
creases the strain upon the gun, without 
augnmenting the velocity of the shot. (4) 
The position of the vent or firing point ex- 
ercises an imiJortant influence on the inten- 
sity of wave action, and in further enlarg- 
ing the dimensions of heavy guns we must 
look to improved powder and imjiroved 
methods of firing the charge, so as to avoid 
as much as possible throwing -the ignited 
gases into violent oscillation. (5) That 
in all cases it is desiral)le to have the charges 
as short as possible, so as to reduce the run 
of the gas to the shortest limit. Hence 
increase of the diameter of the gun by 
shortening the charge tends to save the gun 
from abnormal strains." 



^CIENTIFIC ^ROGRESS. 



Electrotype Imitation of Leather. — 
The following is from the Mechanics' Mag- 
azine for'Ma.y 12th:— "Messrs. Elkington & 
Co., of Birmingham, have arranged to 
produce by the electrotype process, imita- 
tions of the choicest grains of leather, by 
means of electro-deposited copper rollers. 
The system may be briefly described as 
follows:— An ordinary machine roller is 
fitted with a mandrel, upon which is de- 
posited, by a new process, the copper fac- 
simile. The latter is an exact copy of any 
rare or choice skin required to be repro- 
duced, and it is only by a recent improve- 
ment in electrotyping that the difficulty of 
depositing from such a substance as 
leather has been surmounted. An ordina 
ry skin can thus be impressed with the 
beautiful surface of morocco skin, even to 
the finest variations of grain, and several 
thousand may be copied by one deposit. 
In all cases the actual skin reqiiired to be 
copied must be sent. The rollers are sup- 
plied ready for the machine; or, if pre- 
ferred, manufacturers may send their own 
mandrels and have the fac-simile deposited 
thereon.' 



Invention for Bdrning Locomotive 
Sparks.— We find this in the editorial cor- 
respondence of the Chicago Railroad Ga- 
zelte, June 17th: "In Worcester, IMass., 
I had an opportunity |to examine Mr. Griggs' 
invention for burning sparks, which is 
novel, and which according to his account 
produces remarkable results in the ecffno- 
my of fuel. It consists of a bell-mouthed 
pipe placed inside the stack in the position 
usually occupied by the detiector. This 
pipe extends from the top of the stack 
backward to the top of the boiler in front 
of the cab. Thence it branches down on 
each side of the boiler and connects with 
openings in the tire box. By this means, 
all the si)arks which are collected by the 
bell-mouthed pipe are carried back into the 
fire-box and have a second chance of being 
consumed." 



Improved Method of Tinniso Cast- 
Iron.—" The surface of the cast-iron ob- 
jects is decarbonized by keejiing it for sev- 
eral days in closed vessels with powdered 
hematite, under the influence of a red heat, 
until a sample taken out, after being prop- 
erly cleaned, will take the tinning as easily 
as wrought-iron. Then the object is slowly 
cooled, taken out, placed in an acid bath, 
and plunged in the melted tin alloy, the 
surface of which is covered with fat or tal- 
low, to prevent oxidation." — Manufacturer 
and Builder. 



Diamagnetic Experiments. — London 
Engineering for June 9th says that the 
chief novelty at the Roj-al Institution Con- 
versazione on the Cth was the exliibition 
of electrical apparatus. We quote a para- 
grajjh: — "A powerful electro-magnet was 
exhibited by Lord Lindsay, and the fol- 
lowing magnetic and dia-magnetic exjjeri- 
ments were conducted with it and some 
vacuum tubes belonging to Mr. Cromwell 
Varley. The poles of the magnet, 2]^ in. 
square in section, were kept 3-iGth of an 
inch apart. A half-crown placed between 
the poles, when the magnet was not excited 
of course dropped instantly tlirough, but 
when the magnet was charged the half- 
crown was six seconds in falling the dis- 
tance of 2J^ in. In a second experiment a 
small india-rubber tube, filled with mer- 
cury was jdaced between the poles, and an 
electric current passed from the battery 
through the mercury; as soon as the mag- 
net was excited the tube instantly took mcf- 
tion, getting out from between the poles, 
and curling itself in the form of the letter 
S, while by reversing the current, the 
sliape of the curve was instantly reversed. 
Next a coil of copper wire was placed 
round the vertical pole of the magnet. 
When the magnet was charged, and a cur- 
rent of electricity sent through the copper 
coils in one direction, the ring of fine cop- 
per wire stuck fast to the magnet. On 
reversing the electric current, the ring 
jumped off the polo of the magnet some 
distance in the air. A lighted taper was 
then passed through a hole bored along 
the poles, the light being brought to the 
space of one-eighth of an inch wide be- 
tween the two poles; as long as the magnet 
was excited the light burned brillianflj-, 
the smoke coming out at the extreme ends 
of the poles, and not rising up directly off 
the flame, but as soon as the magnet was 
discharged the smoke rose straight up and 
suffocated the flame, which was then extin- 
guished. This experiment showed the 
dia-magnetic properties of warm air. Mr. 
Cromwell Varley exhibited tubes of vari- 
ous descriptions, to show that the luminous 
arch was dependent wholly upon the mag- 
netism, and independent of the direction 
of the electric current. This arch, discov- 
ered by Pliicker, has l)een examined by Mr. 
Varley, and found to consist of very atten- 
uated matter thrown off from the negative 
polo. This has been demonstrated in the 
following manner: — A strip of talc 1-10 in. 
broa<l and 1 in. long, weighing 1-10 of a 
grain, is suspended in the exhausted tube 
by means of a single fibre of raw silk. 
When the arch is allowed to play against 
this iiiece of tiilc it is repelled bj' it. The 
luminous arch does not burn the silk, yet 
where it strikes the glass tube it makes the 
tube hot; from which Mr. Varley infers 
' that the electric current passing into the 
negative pole detaches small particles of 
matter therefrom, which particles are 
thrown off with tremendous rapidity, and 
controlled in their course by tlie magnetic 
rays forming the luminous arch, and that 
tlie heat in the glass is produced by the 
concussion of these particles against the 
solid body.' Lord Lindsay, who is now 
becoming a well-known experimenter, and 
who hasa very large physical laboratorj', was 
present, and conducted many of the exper- 
iments himself. The magnet was excited 
by a 30-cell Grove battery." 

The General Oceanic Circulation. — 
From JVh;«re for Juno 8th:— "Having as- 
certained the existence of an outward un- 
der current in the Strait of Gibraltar, 
which carries back into the Atlantic the 
water of the Mediterranean that -has un- 
dergone concentration by the excess of evap- 
oration in its ba.sin. Dr. Carpenter applied 
himself to the consideration of the forces 
by which the superficial in-current and' the 
deep out-current are sustained; and came 
to the conclusion that, as had been previ- 
ously urged by Captain ISIaui-y, a vera 
causa for both is to be found in excess of 
evaporation, whicli at the same time lowers 
the level and increases the density of the 
Mediterranean column as compared with a 
corresponding column of Atlantic water. 
This conclusion, when scientifically worked 
out, was found to be applicable, mutatis 
7nulandis, to the converse case of the Bal- 
tic Sound; in which, as was long ago ex- 
perimentally shown (with a result that has 
recently been confirmed by Dr. Forchham- 
mer) , a deep current of salt water flows in- 
wards from the North Sea, whilst a strong 
current of brackish water sets outwards 
from the Baltic, the amount of fresh water 
that drains into which is greatly in excess 



of the evaporation from its surface. Com- 
paring, then, the Polar and Equatorial 
areas, it is shown by Dr. Carpenter that 
there will not only be a continual tendency 
in the former to a'lowering of level and in- 
crease of density, which will place it in the 
same relation to the latter as the Mediter- 
ranean bears to the Atlantic, but that the 
influence of Polar cold will be to produce 
a contiuual descent of the water within its 
area; thus constituting the primum mobile 
of the General Oceanic Circulation, of 
which no adequate account had previously 
been given. This conclusion has been 
most explicitly accei)ted by Sir John Her- 
schel." 



More About the Nervous ATHospaEitE 
Theort. — The following is an extract from 
the pajjer by Dr. Richardson to which we 
have once before alluded :—" The longer 
we think of the phenomena of muscular 
motion — and, indeed, of all motion in the 
living animal body — the less we are able 
to regard with favor, on the evidence be- 
fore us, the hj'pothesis of one force in the or- 
ganism, and of nerves and nervous centres 
as producers and conductors of that force; 
while we are the more inclined to extend 
our relations of life t« the univer.se as a 
whole, and to take in every motion as be- 
longing to our living receptive organiza- 
tion. But in order rightly to conceive the 
adaptation of the organism to the universe, 
the ideal of a nervous fluid, a true physical 
something pervading the nervous system, 
as the first, neuro-pliysicists taught, is in- 
dispensable. It, and it alone, afibrds the 
connecting-link between force and matter 
by which force can move matter. Why 
cannot force — electrical, if you will — move 
a muscle that has actually passed into the 
inertia of death? Why, but that the^mus- 
cle — or, rather, the nervous flatter it con- 
tarns — has lost some physical thing, with- 
out which it is dead to force ? Why will 
not the dead eye see ? Why, but that it 
has lost some physical thing with which it 
was wont to be charged, and through 
which the wave of light could extend vi- 
bration? Why, when I freeze a jmrt of 
the surface of the body, will not the frozen 
part feel? Why, but that in the act of 
freezing I have condensed or have expelled 
from the nervous matter of the ))art the 
physical agent liy which the part was con- 
nected, in arrangement and condition, 
with the same agent in the other portions 
of the nervous organism? Why, when I 
make an animal inhale a narcotic vapor, do 
I produce general insensibility? — Why, 
but that I distribute through the whole 
nervous system a foreign substance, which 
interferes with the natural condition for 
motion of the nervous matter." 

Office OF Protoplasm in Formation of 
Tissue.— The following is from Prof. Wy- 
ville Thomson's lecture at Edinburgh Uni- 
versity: "It is impossible in the prese t 
state of knowledge to subject any view as to 
the ultimate mechanism of the formation of 
tissue through the means of protoplasm to 
direct proof. It seems now to be a very 
generally received opinion, supported by 
Huxley. Max Schultze, Hofmeister, Beale 
and many others, and notably by Oscar 
Schmidt, who would seem to bring it almost 
to demonstration in his beautiful research- 
es on the sponges of the Adriatic, that pro- 
toplasm is simply converted, with a certain 
change of comjiosition, into tissue or 
"formed material." There are, however, 
almost insuperable objections to this view. 
The secondary products of organization 
(formed material) are mostvarious in their 
chemical constitutions, and it involves the 
admission that protoplasm may change in 
its chemical composition till it is almost 
carbonate of lime, or silica, or starch, or horn 
or cellulose; the last stage of the metamor- 
phosis being its absolute separation as one 
of these bodies. Another view which I 
have always regarded as more probable is 
that protoplasm, the substance which is en- 
dowed with the jieculiar vital property, has 
always the Kame composition, and that it 
acts simply by catalysis, inducing, under 
certain known laws, decomposition and re- 
combination in compounds which are sub- 
jected to its influence, without itself under- 
going any change, absorbing the nascent 
products of combination and decomposi- 
tion, and recombining them and reserving 
them with reference to the development or 
maintenance of the organ to which it gives 
its life." 



A humane way of killing insects for 
preservation is to drop them into a jar of 
carbolic acid gas. This does not injure their 
colors in any way, but kills them quickly. 
The gas may be easily retained in a stop- 
pered bottle, and is very easy to make. 



July 8, 1871.] 



kORRESPONDENCE. 



Notes on Half Moon Bay.— No. 3. 

Potatoe Culture. 

The potato is a good crop with us, and 
occupies a prominent place among our 
products. Planting commences as early 
as December, and continues till about 
June. Digging commences the last of 
April and continues late in the fall. The 
yield of the earliest planted is generally 
light; in many cases not amounting to any- 
thing. This spring has been unusually 
severe upon such, owing to continued cold 
north winds — being almost entirely de- 
stroyed where not well sheltered. The 
land has, however; been again planted with 
late potatoes, or sown- to English mustard 
or buckwheat; so the use of it will not be 
lost, the later planting is now coming in, 
and is a good crop. Two crops are usually 
made on early potato ground. After the 
potatoes are dug, the land is plowed and 
beans dropped and covered in the furrows; 
sometimes mustard or buckwheat is sub- 
stituted. In either case it is as good as a 
summer fallow for a grain crop the year 
following. The best potatoes are raised 
in the sandy bottom lands — alluvial de- 
posits — but as such lauds are of small area 
most of the potatoes are raised in the black 
sandy loam; even to the top of the hills. 

Seed Potatoes. 

Considerable injury is made every plant- 
ing season for jiotato seed; no one appears 
satiafied to replant their own, they want 
something better; they even want some- 
thing better than their neighbors. Quite 
a lot of Humboldts have been planted this 
season. Humboldts having a good reputa- 
tion were thought to be the best change of 
seed to be had. With some who have tried 
tliem heretofore they are no favorites, not 
doing with them any better than our own 
seed; at least not till planted two seasons. 
Some say they do not do so well. As there 
are doubtless worthless Humboldts, as 
well as of other kinds, the fault was proba- 
bly in the brand they tried. I have seen 
some hard looking ones come here for seed. 
The best brand of Pescadero, two or three 
years from Humboldt seed, appear to all 
do better .and have been planted exten- 
sively. But with all that no such potatoes 
are now raised as were eight or nine years 
ago — neither in quantity nor quality. The 
San Francisco dealer knows that a real 
good potato is hard to get, and that the 
good ones are confined to a very few brands. 
It cannot be said that the land runs out, 
for land equally rich is broken up every 
year. 

We know that the potato country changes 
from place to place. Union City and Cen- 
terville, were all the go in the early days; 
then came Bodega, Tomales, Humboldts, 
Lone Bay, etc. The best now come from 
the last three named, and even there the 
prime article is confined to a very few 
brands. How long they will hold the 
sceptre remains to be seen. They have 
held it longer than the others, probably for 
the reason that with the fate of their pre- 
decessors before their eyes, they have 
taken more pains with the cultivation, and 
more ^particularly in the selection of their 
seed. I refer to the late potatoes. The 
cultivation of the earlies has increased very 
rapidly with us, and no better potatoes find 
their way into market early in the season 
than those from Half Moon Bay. The seed 
potatoes introduced direct from the States, 
by the Americans, in their first settlement 
of this country, astonished the natives by 
their great yield and sujierior quality. 
They had been planting their potatoes 
here, over and over again, till they were 
small potatoes indeed. I am inclined to 
believe that we are following in their foot- 
steps, and unless we change aViout we shall 
also, soon get into the small potato busi- 
ness. 

New Varieties. 
In the Eastern States the great value of 
the potato crop is well understood, and 
more attention is being given to maintain 
a high standard of excellence. New va- 
rieties are introduced every year to take 
the jjlace of those inclined to run out or 
which have proved of no value. We have 
not the experience, and may I say — not the 
time or moans to originate new varieties; 
but we should by all means introduce into 
our State from the East, the new varieties, 
as they are proved valuable. There is no 
fear that they will suffer by the change ; 
per contra they are most likely to improve. 



With the facilities of the railroad, it is no 
trouble to have any variety one chooses to 
try at very short notice, and it might 
l^rove one of the most satisfactory experi- 
ments on the farm. 

Among the early varieties, the Early 
Kose was tried here, but being exposed to 
the cold winds was destroyed. A few of 
the " King of the Earlies," a successor to 
the Early Rose, have been planted and ap- 
pear to do well. Potatoes the size of a 
turkey egg were on the vines at the expi- 
ration of eight weeks from planting. They 
are a white potato, with very small vines, 
appearing to run to tubers i-ather than to 
tops. 

Another potato, a gi'eat favorite in the 
East, called the " Peerless," a late variety, 
is being tried on a small scale by a few. 
They look very well, have a finer, softer 
foliage than the old stock, of a lighter 
green, and, as a stock fancier would say, 
show more of the thoroughbred. One ob- 
jection to these potatoes is that they are 
white, the favorite color at the East; while 
with us the red has the preference. I will 
send you an item in regard to these pota- 
toes when they are dug, and let you know 
how they do. 

Irrigation for Potatoes. 

I saw an extensive field of potatoes being 
irrigated last week — the only circiimstance 
of the kind I have known on the coast. 
What it was irrigated for I cannot tell, a 
finer looking or more thrifty field I never 
saw. It gave evidence of the want of any- 
thing but water. The owners were Portu- 
gese who probably hold the idea that the 
more moisture the better the potato. I 
miist keep track of that field, and see if it 
proves any better than its neighbors. In 
my opinion it will not improve the quality 
of the potato, although it may be the 
bulk, and I should be afraid they would 
take a second growth. They were jjlanted 
about the 1st of March. The best crop of 
early potatoes I have seen this spring was 
from Humboldt seed, planted the last of 
January and dug about June 1st. 

o. w. T. c. 



Napa Valley. 

Editors Peess.^ — Since writing you last 
I have passed over a portion of this beau- 
tiful valley, and have been delighted with 
the fine prospects which everywhere meet 
the eye. Wild blackberries are in such 
abundance in many j^laces as to forcibly 
suggest the inquiry: Why have so few at- 
tempted their cultivation? For weeks, 
parties are searching along the unimproved 
lands near Napa creek for thi.3 excellent 
fruit. Worn, weary, and with torn gar- 
ments, they return with their precious 
load. Except the fun of the frolic, among 
young and old, no one would labor so long 
and hard for so many berries. I cannot 
help thinking how much better it would 
be for all parties if land-holders would sell 
these waste lands in small tracts and on 
reasonable terms, to such of those as would 
make a thorough business of clearing out 
the useless willows and covering the broad 
and fertile acres with blackberries, goose- 
berries, currants, or other fruit, or field 
crops. 

As an earnest of what may be done all 
along Napa creek I will refer to the 

" Magnolia Farm," 
situated six or seven miles above Napa 
City. When I passed iip this valley, last 
winter, I found Mr. Nash very busy plant- 
ing currants, gooseberries, etc. Just now 
he is gathering the fruits of his labors — 
and such fruits! You ought to see them. 
You shall see them. I will bring some 
with me when I come next week. Goose- 
berries are to be seen, rii^e and luscious as 
cherries, and certainly the largest I ever 
saw. You will see for yourelf when they 
come. 

Mr. Nash has planted three rows of 
fruits between rows of fruit trees, for the 
sake of a little shade. The result shows 
him to be right. He plants 2,300 bushes 
to the acre of currants or goosberries (the 
fruit trees being at usual distances) . His 
gooseberries average five or six pounds to 
the bush. He gathers about three pounds 
each from his yearling currants, and six 
pounds from two-year olds. From one 
two-year old bush he took ten pounds of 
gooseberries which sold for .$1.25 in your 
city. Mr. Nash and two boys, 11 and 13 
respectively, gathered, and packed for 
shipment, one morning, between G and 12, 
480 pounds of gooseberries. 

He believes in thorough culture, and 
his present showing will convince any one 
of his success. He expects 50 bushels to 
the acre from quite a large field of wheat. 
His ranch is oa the county road, a little 



north of Oak Knoll Station, where he is 
pleased to see persons interested in his meth- 
ods of culture and exhibit the results. He 
has tested eight varieties of English goose- 
berries. Four of them have proved a 
decided success — the Waver, White Smith, 
Queen Victoria — I have unfortunately for- 
gotten the name of the fourth variety, 
which I all the more regret from the fact 
that Mr. Nash considers it decidedly the 
best of the four. Jeioh Abhh. 

The gooseberries above referred to have 
come to hand and may be seen at this office. 
They are put up for preservation in alco- 
hol mixed with three parts of water, and 
are decidedly the largest and finest-looking 
gooseberries which we have ever seen. 

A Trip to Colorado— 1. 

[Written for the Press.] 

I start from Omaha. I travel on the 
Union Pacific through a fine country 
which is now being rapidly settled u]), 
owing to the building and the management 
of this great railroad. This corporation 
owns vast tracts of land which are appar- 
ently of the most fertile character, and 
which it has placed in the market. 
Through Nebraska. 

Nebraska, thanks to the Union Pacific in 
great measure, is growing most rapidly. 
The soil of the plains along the road, after 
waiting for centuries and gathering strength 
by its rest, is now producing the richest 
returns where the husbandman is giving 
his labor and is calling to his aid the fer- 
tilizing power of water. This young 
State, admitted into the Union in 1867, 
had a population in 1870 of over one hun- 
dred and twenty-three thousand. Favora- 
bly situated, with an excellent climate, fine 
soil, iind an immense area of pasture land, 
we see easily how it proves so attractive to 
the farmer. And we re-echo the song of 
Whittier: 

We cross the prairie, as of old 
The rilgrims crossed the sea, 
To raakc the West, as they the East, 
The Homestead of the Free. 

The following extract may be worth re- 
publishing: " Regarding the soil of Ne- 
braska, all farmers assure me that they can 
not be drowned out in wet seasons, nor 
yet dried up in years of drouth. This 
phenomenon is thus explained by a New 
York agriciiltural editor. 'The sub-soil is 
clay, slightly mixed with sand, having the 
singular quality of being poroiis without 
being spongy or clammy, absorbing the 
waters of excessive rains and holding them 
in reserve against a time of drouth, when 
the roots of vegetation, which easily pene- 
trate to this depth, draw from it the need- 
ful moisture.' In accordance with this 
view I have observed that Nebraska mud is 
never lasting. The soil on the uplands is 
from twelve to eighteen inches thick, and 
along the streams fourteen to twenty feet." 
On the Denver Pacific. 

We pass through Wyoming, a territory 
already famous for its mineral wealth and 
of great promise agriculturally, as well. 
In 25 hours after leaving Omaha, we reach 
Cheyenne, the capital of Wyoming, 516 
miles west of our starting point; and here 
we transfer our persons to the care of the 
Denver Pacific R. R. 

This road, 106 miles long, extending 
from Cheyenne to Denver, was completed 
June 23, 1870. Its annual report shows 
that it earned .$.304,715, at an expense of 
.1168,420, during 1870. It is ably managed. 
John Evans is President, C. W. Fisher, 
Supt. and Gen. Ticket and Freight Agent, 
and Jas. S. Potter is Road Master. 

Along the line of this road are some colo- 
nies of which 1 shall make mention. Evans 
is 27 miles from Denver and Greeley about 
52 miles. At Hughes, a station 18 miles 
from Denver, the Denver & Boulder Valley 
R. R. branches off to Erie, and is being 
continued thence to Boulder City, a place 
beautifully located in the foot hills and of 
which your paper has spoken frequently. 
The Union Colony at Greeley. 

Our train le.ives Cheyenne at 2 v. m., 
and arrives at Denver at 7 o'clock. We 
have a jjleasant ride, reaching, at 4:33, the 
flourishing town of Greeley. Here are the 
headquarters of the Union Colony. This 
is well known from its connection with the 
editor of the N. Y. Tribune. The people 
here are apparently making rapid progress 
and doing excellently well. All branches 
of industry h.ave their representatives, and 
editors ai'o found of no mean stamp, as 
evinced by the columns of the Greeley Tri- 
bune. 

On April 25th, 1870, the census of Gree- 
ley footed up 6 souls, and on July 4th, the 
1,200 citizens entertained themselves with 
reading the Declaration of Independence, 



with an oration and aball. No better farmiu^ 
land is reported than that here, and for 50 
miles farms join one another. Already 
rows of trees have been set out on all the 
streets, and a ditch, 12 miles long, conveys 
water to the city from Cache la Poudre 
River. Over 250 houses have been built. 
The projector of the enterprise and presi 
dent of the colony is Mr. N. C. Meeker, 
for mauv years agricultural editor of the 
N. Y. Tribune. 

The jjayment of $50 entitles any one to 
become a member and gives him 2 shares 
of stock and a resident lot valued at $50. 
The payment of .$100 gives 4 shares and a 
$100-lot. The payment of $150 gives 7 
shares and either water for 80 acres and 
the right to buy a 'railroad 80 acres' at con- 
tract price; or a resident lot valued at .$150. 

Chicago-Colorado Colony. 

Riding on still further we arrive at Bur- 
lington. Concerning the Chicago-Colorado 
Colony, here located, and the country 
around, I send you some extracts from the 
Rocky Mountain News, of May 27. 

From Denver to Burlington, by the way 
of Valmont and Boulder City, through the 
valleys of Rock, Coal, South Boulder, 
Boulder, Left Hand, and St. Vrain creeks, 
there is an almost uninterrupted succes- 
sion of farms and ranches. Indeed, 
throiigh these valleys there is scarcely a 
quarter section not improved in some way. 
On the unimproved portions grass is from 
six to eight inches high, and droves of 
cattle, horses and sheep are luxuriating in 
its length and abundance. Irrigating 
ditches are being improved and new ones 
built with wonderful rapidity, and are 
carrying the water, month by month, 
higher up the hill sides and farther over 
the prairies, increasing the area of agri- 
cultural lands in Boulder county, this 
year, by thousands of acres. 

But nowhere is more visible and tangible 
improvement seen than within the limits 
of the Chicago-Colorado colony. It should 
be noticed that wheat is looking remark- 
ably well; oats, ditto., and kitchen gardens 
as promising as can be desired. The 
creeks are bank full, with prospect of 
ample supply during the season. At the 
colony, the crops that have been put in, 
even by the most inexperienced, are look- 
ing well; out of about 35,000 trees that 
have been transplanted to the colony nur- 
series, a few score have died; the remainder 
are taking to the soil and climate as kindly 
as could be desired. 

Of eight-foot wide ditches, fourteen miles 
have been constructed; four-foot ditto., 
nine miles; side and lateral ditches and 
channels from two feet down, twelve miles. 
The main ditch is now completed, and 
the water is running the entire length of 
Main street, and in several other streets, 
shorter distances. The excavation of the 
lake in the northwestern portion of the 
town, which is intended to cover from two 
to four acres, is progressing rapidly. Up 
to the pi'esent time the field crops and 
gardens have flourished finely, without 
artificial irrigation. In addition to the 
ditches already mentioned, six miles of 
main and lateral ditches are under con- 
tract. 

There have been 315 memberships is- 
sued; there are 350 adults on the ground; 
many of these are single young men, 
others heads of families, come to get a 
home ready. As near as can be ascertain- 
ed, 150 families are already here, either 
occupying their own or hired houses, or 
boarding until they can build. 

The price of membership is the same as 
at the outset, .$155 each, for which the 
colonist receives a tract of land of forty, 
twenty, ten or five acres, according to lo- 
cation; or, if preferred, three town lots. 
In addition, the privilege is given to pur- 
chase one business lot 25x125, and one 
residence lot 85x125, at prices varying 
from $25 to $50. 

Plateville Colony. 

Thirty-five miles from Denver is another 
colony at Platteville. Here they have pur- 
chased a few thousand acres of railroad 
land and have laid out a town. A canal for 
irrigating their land is to be built from the 
Platte River. Coal and building stone are 
found near the place. Most of the land 
purchased is west of the Platte, lying be- 
tween that stream and the St. Vrain, and 
rtinning down near to the junction of the 
two. It is level, smooth and fertile; irri- 
gating ditches already in use, from St. 
Vrain and Boulder creeks, by enlargement 
and extension, will cover it all. These 
ditches will be lengthened in time for next 
year's planting. The intermediate govern- 
ment sections of land are being rapidly 
taken up by pre-emption and homestead, 
and the prospect is good for another large 
and productive settlement, convenient to 
market, and with natural resources equal 
to any. w. H. m. 



ii^iQri£ jLCi/' Jevj y^JEfes^*E»> ^JsA»3i?DSi 



[July 8, 1871. 



Wagon Making in California. 

Having made a comparative estimate of 
all the items of expense attending the 
manufacture of farm wagons in California 
and at the East, except the items of paint, 
coal and labor, we come now to the con- 
sideration of these. 

For the information of those who have 
not read our former articles we will state 
here that on the items of iron and hard 
wood and the freight on the same, in the 
rough and in a manufactured condition, 
across the countrj', we have heretofore 
shown that the California manufacturer 
has §16 advantage over the Eastern manu- 
facturer on each wagon. If in the items 
yet to be considered that advantage is not 
overcome we may claim that the California 
mechanic instead of laboring under a dis- 
advantage, as has been generally supposed, 
has really the advantage of his Eastern 
competitors. 

First as to paint. We can only figure on 
the paint used on the running gear as the 
boxes of imported wagons are, as hereto- 
fore stated, built and painted here. The 
paint on the running gear of most farm 
wagons consists of English Venetian red 
and oil, and a very little lamp black for 
sticking. The Venetian red is imported 
from England to New York and to San 
Francisco at equal cost, the freight being 
the same to each place. The freight from 
N*v York to Chicago is $15 per ton, and 
from San Francisco to Sacramento it is 
$2.50 per ton. So that u^jon this item the 
mechanics of Sacramento and other interioi- 
California towns have the advantage of the 
mechanics of Chicago or South Bend. If 
any white lead is xised in the jjaint, our 
mechanics can get that as cheap |is they 
can get it at Chicago or South Bend. The 
Atlantic lead being manufactured in the 
vicinity of New York can be laid down in 
San Francisco at §10 per ton freight, while 
it costs $15 to lay it down in Chicago. Our 
linseed oil is grown and manufactured in 
our own State, but the price is regulated 
by the ruling price of the imjjorted article. 
On this article our Eastei-n competitors 
probably have a very little advantage over 
us. However, the amount of paint used 
on each wagon is so little that a slight va- 
riation in the cost of the articles composing 
it, makes but a very small figure in the 
costs of the wagon; but whatever that 
figure may be we have shown it to be favor- 
able to the California manufacturer. Two 
pounds of Venetian red mixed with one 
pint of oil will paint the running gear of 
a single wagon. This mixture, in Sacra- 
mento, can be obtained of paint and oil 
dealers for eight cents per pound. So that 
it will be seen tliat the cost of the Jtiaterial 
in the painting of wagons is very slight. 
The labor is the ijrincijjle item of the ex- 
l)ense of painting a wagon. The exj)ense 
of labor we consider under the head of 
labor. 

Coal. 
We are informed by practical mechanics 
that it requires, on an average, just about 
one ton of coal to keep up the fires for 
ironing off six thimblo-skein farm wagons. 
Good Cumberland coal is worth in New 
York, on an average, say $10 per ton. The 
freight to San Francisco is §10 per ton — 
making it cost the imjiorters here, in bulk, 
a little over §20 per ton. The cost to 
manufacturers here is, on an average, about 
§21 per ton. The item of expense then for 
this article for six wagons, manufactured 
in California, may be put down at $24, or 
§4 for each wagon. 

We are not positively informed as to the 
exact cost of the same article of coal in 
(Chicago or South Bend, but will estimate 
it at a very low figure, so as to make no 
mistake in our favor, say §6 per ton. This 
estimate will make the item of expense to 
the Eastern manufacturer for coal, on each 
wagon, only §1, against §4 to the California 
manufacturer — a difference of §4 against 



us. Deduct this from §1G, which stands 
in our favor as above stated, and we still 
have $13 on each wagon in favor of the 
California manufacturer ; or, in other 
words, he has §13 margin over his Eastern 
competitors on each wagon. 
Cheap Coal. 
Some of our mechanics have of late been 
experimenting with Australian coal, and 
find that though it is not equal to the best 
•juality of Cumberland coal, still a good 
quality of the former is siiperior to a poor 
quality of the latter. 

To persons accustomed to the use of the 
Cumberland coal it requires some consid- 
erable persevering experiments to learn 
how to use the Australian, but when its 
peculiarities are once learned, mechanics of 
great experience and ability assure us that 
it is very little inferior in quality, and, con- 
sidering the price much more economical. 
The Australian coal can be laid down in 
San Francisco at §10 per ton, and can con- 
sequently be afforded to our manufacturers 
at about one-half the cost of the Cumber- 
land or Eastern coal. Coal mines are con- 
stantly being discovered and opened on 
the Pacific Coast, and we feel certain that 
within a very few years coal of the best 
quality will be afforded here as cheap as in 
any of the Atlantic manufacturing centers. 
This being the only item now in the way 
of equal facilities to our manufacturers, 
we think they should entertain no fears of 
final success in the competiou for the trade 
of the Pacific wliich is now going on be- 
tween them and their brethren east of the 
Bocky Mountains. 

Labor. 
One of the greatest drawbacks to the 
manufacturing industries of the Pacific 
Coast, and especially of California, has 
heretofore been the high price demanded 
for labor. The time was when a man with 
pick, shovel and rocker could go into the 
mines, and by industry dig out from §S to 
.^16 a day, and average this the year round. 
Under such a state of things the m.ann- 
factures could not of course be prosperous 
here, and importation was then all the rule. 
Eepairing had to be done here, and for 
this work mechanics commanded prices in 
proportion to the value of labor devoted to 
mining pursuits. All this is now changed, 
and although it has been a hard and dis- 
agreeable road to travel, labor has been 
compelled to go down hill until now it is 
glad to find employment on terms as low 
as it commands at many places in the 
Eastern States. This is a great change 
from former flush times in California; but 
the sooner this change is looked square in 
the face and acknowledged and acted on as 
a matter of fact, the better it will be for all 
parties concerned, for the employed as 
well as the employer. The products of 
labor are worth no more here to-day than 
in Illinois or New York. The coat of 
living is no more, if as much. Then why 
should labor demand a higher price? 
Such demand results only to its disadvant- 
age and to the disadvantage of the whole 
country. 

We liave before us a copy of the New 
York Herald, of March 19th, 1871, in wliich 
is given a list of jjrices paid for all kinds 
of labor in that city and vicinity, as report- 
ed by the free labor bureau of New York 
City. ■ We quote the prices paid some of 
the mechanics, and ask a comparison with 
those paid to similar employments in this 
State. 

Blacksmiths, per day $2.50 to $3.00 

Builtr inakera '" 4.00 

Carpenters " 3.50 

Cabinetmakers " 3.50 

Coopers " 3.00 

Coach makers " 3.00 to 5.00 

Engineers, per month fo. 00 to 100.00 

Machiuistb, per day 3.00 to 5.00 

Pointers " 3.50 to 5.00 

Wood carvers " 8.00 

Wheelwrights " 2,50 

The above is sufficient to show that the 
l)rices paid for mechanical labor in New 
York are fully as high, and if any differ- 
ence, a little higher than are paid for the 
same kinds of labor in California. 

We have now compared all the items of 
expense actually and directly involved in 
the manufacture of wagons in California 
and the Western States of the Atlantic 
slope, and find a margin still in favor of 
the California manufacturer to the extent 
of §13 on each farm wagon. With those 
facts in our favor we are yet confronted 
with the stubborn and damaging fact that 
one half of the farm wagons sold in the 
State within the past year have been im- 
ported from the East. In our next on this 
subject we will endeavor to show where 
the trouble lies. 



SjfEEp HySB^fJD^y. 



Superior French Merinos. 

Mr. R. Blacow furnishes us the follow- 
ing facts with regard to his flock at Cen- 
terville, in Alameda county. The original 
of his flock was a selection from the Ram- 
boula flock of France, and was brought to 
this State by J. D. Patterson, who ex- 
mented the oi)inion that they have largely 
improved in his (Mr. Blacow's) hands. 
This 82)ring his ewes averaged 18 pounds of 
wool — one fleece weighing 27^^ pounds. 
Mr. B. sends us the photograph of one of 
his rams, which is three years old, and 
weighs 284 pounds. His past years fleece 
weighed 35 pounds. He has also a year- 
ling which, with his fleece on weighed 254 
pounds, and a December lamb which 
weighs 125 poimds and a ewe, without fleece, 
which weighs 189 pounds, sheared this 
spring. 

Mr. B. has also sent us a photograph of 
the French merino ram, "Crystal Palace," 
which is the sire of his ram noticed above. 




FRENCH MERINO RAM. CRYSTAL PALACE. 

and one of the most celebrated animals of 
this breed ever brought to notice. He at- 
tracted much attention at the time of his 
exhibition at the Crystal Palace, London, 
whence his name. The portrait which we 
give herewith, is a faithful representation 
of the animal, engraved at this oflice from 
a photograph. 

This, one of the finest flocks of merino 
sheep in the State, selections from which 
will no doubt make a most creditable exhi- 
bition at the coming State Fair, and one 
which is well worth the attention of sheeiJ 
growers. 



Practical Experience in Sheep Raising. 

Editoes Press: — Much has been said of 
late about Cotswold sheep, and with your 
permission, I will give your readers some- 
thing of my experience in raising them. 

I commenced with graded South Downs 
and Merinos, and crossed with a full-blooded 
imported Cotswold buck. I find that the 
half-breed lambs shears double the amount 
of better wool, in a years' clip, than either 
South Down or Merino; and that the wool 
brings a better price by from three to five 
cents per pound, while in size and keeping 
quality, they far excel the original stock. 

I kept twenty-one head on the same 
amount of land this j'ear, that I have for- 
merly kept one cow on, the same length of 
time, and to-day those half breeds will 
weigh with their fleece on, 200 pounds, 
and will shear from ten to twelve pounds 
of very nice wool. 

I have another imported buck, that be- 
tween the 20th of February and the 1st 
of AprU, gained 50 i)ounda on grass, and 
every one knows there was very little grass 
on the 20th of February last. This one 
sheared, at ten mouths, 15 pounds. I 
have lambs from him crossed with South 
Down and Merinos, that weighed, at three 
months, 00 pounds; these same lambs will 
shear from three and one-half to four 
pounds. Ever since the first of June I 
have been keeping this buck tied up, 
starving him, so that he will be fit for ser- 
vice; but it is the hardest work I ever 
undertook, to get the flesh off; I had 
rather put it on. 



I think it is as easy to raise a sheep of 
three-quarters Cotswold to weigh 200 
pounds at two years old, as it is to raise a 
graded Merino* to weigh 100 at the same 
age; and in the place of getting from four 
and a half to six pounds of Merino wool 
in the year, we can get from ten to fifteen 
pounds of good glossy wool from a three 
qujirter Cotswold; and what is better still, 
this can be done on the same amount of 
land that you will need to raise the same 
number of Merino sheep. 

So far as their eating more grass is con- 
cerned, I will admit that is the case with 
the ewes, but the wethers will not eat a 
particle more than the Merino; and I will 
tell you 

Why It Is So. 

When you turn out a Cotswold herd, 
they will commence with the first thing 
they come to; they are always satisfied' 
with what is in sight, while the Merinos 
are always looking for something they 
have not got, until they have trodden dowm 
more feed than would keep the same num- 
ber of Cotswold. 

Again, if you are obliged )o feed th«' 
Cotswold sheep with cut hay or straw be- 
fore they are starved, but the Merinos must 
be starved before they will eat anything, 
which does not suit them. 

Other Considerations. 

Some object to the Cotswolds on account 
of their weight. I think that is no hind- 
rance; the three-quarter bloods certainly 
seem to be just as active as any other 
sheep. The}- climb as high; they feed a» 
well and keep fat longer on the same 
range; and what more can be asked for. 
Then why raise the little common Merino, 
with an increase of seventy-five per cent., 
and an inferior quantity of wool, with k 
ninety pound carcass, when you can 
raise a sheep that will increase a hundred 
and fifty percent., double on your wool, 
and at selling time realize $5 in the 
place of §3 ? The latt«r result can be at- 
tained with the same ease, and with ths 
same expense as the former. This makes a 
showing of double the profit in the first 
cross. 

Now all that it is necessary for sheep- 
men is to sell enough of their common 
stock to buy enough of the Cotswold to 
serve the balance, and the first year you 
will double your money on your increase', 
and that alone will pay the expense of buy- 
ing your improved stock. Then why stick 
to the old sj'stem, that because " my father 
always kept this kind of stock, why should 
I change mine?" 

We certainly live in an age of progress. 
The things of yesterday are not the things 
of to-day. If we stand still, we shall soon 
find ourselves like the Chinese — years and 
years behind the times. 

I have just weighed one of my full- 
blooded Cotswold lambs, four weeks old. 
It weighs 40 pounds, and is covered with 
wool two inches long, of as fine a luster 
as the Angora goat. If any one questions 
my statement, let him call and see me, at 
Pell orchard. Stony Point, Sonoma county, 
where I sholl be happy to show him the 
improvements I have made. I have the 
evidence here to substantiate what I have 
said in regard to sheep. 
Respectfully yours, 

A. CaldweIiL. 



Obegon Wool is quoted in this market 
at 37%@40o, for fair to choice clear; while 
the same grades of California are quoted at 
30@35c. Two lots of wool are reported 
from San Juan Island which have been en- 
tered for shipment. 



A Farmeb's Experience. — That the suc- 
cess of farming is in experience. 

That to ask a man's advice is not stoop- 
ing, but often of much benefit. 

That to keep a place for everything, and 
everything in its place, saves many a stop 
and is pretty sure to lead to good tools, 
and to keeping them in good order. 

That kindness to stock is like good shel- 
ter, is a saving of fodder. 

That to fight weeds, is to fnvor grain, and 
to do justice to j'our neighbors. 

That in making home agreeable, yon 
keep your boys out of the city. 

That it is a good thing to keep an eye out 
on experiments, and note all, both good 
and bad. 

That it is a good thing to g^ow into farm- 
ing — not jump into it. 

That it is a good rule to sell your grain 
when it is ready. 

That the first mellow soil in the spring 
is your mellowest, and should be first put 
in. 

That all farming is summed up in the 
manure heap on the farm. — Prairie Farmer. 



July 8, 1871.] 



lcJl,7Jf\^L POYES. 



CALIFORNIA. 

Grain from the Upper Sacramento. — 
The first grain ehipment of the present 
crop from the upper Sacramento was re- 
ceived at Sacramento City, on Friday of 
last week, by the Red Bluff steamers. The 
consignment embraced 50 tons, and was 
from the ranch of F. E. Corcoran, Tehama 
county. Large quantities will soon be 
coming forward. 

Gerke's ranch in the same county will 
furnish some 220,000 bushels. This ranch 
will average 25 bushels to the acre. 

The hay crop in Napa is all gathered, 
and though a light one, there is enough and 
to spare. The qiiality is good. The bar- 
ley crop is now being gathered and prom- 
iises to be equal to any crop of that grain 
.for several years. The wheat also is said 
to be of a superior quality. The Register 
-estimates that the yield will reach 1,000,000 
bushels'. 

Crops in Sonora County. — Mr. Thos. 
. R. Stoddart writes from Sonora, under date 
of July 1st, as follows: 

We are now in the midst of our harvest, 
and as I prophesied, it is turning out bet- 
ter than the croakers would have had us 
believe it would. The grain and hay crop 
are above average slightly — at any rate not 
below it in this neighborhood. Grain 
crops, liowever, here will hardly ever pay, 
owing to the distance from market. Hay 
pays better. Fruit is our main crop, and 
this year will be very abundant, especially 
Igrapes, and consequently wine. Figs, 
lliowever, will be short the first crop, other 
ifruits will be more abundant. The bal- 
•ance of our correspondent's letter Avill ap- 
jpear next w«ek. 

The Galistoga Tribune says the present 
wheat crop in Napa Valley is equal to any 
.past G<r<»p in area, stands thicker on the 
■grottm^H, has larger and better filled heads, 
'with more plumi> kernels. The best crops 
aire those sown upon fallowed lands. 

Singular Tillage. — The Tribune noiiceB 
the singular mode of tillage in one " re- 
markably fine field of 40 acres:" — "It was 
sown on the first day of November, after 
corn. On the 26th of March it stood near 
three feet high and had commenced to 
" lodge." Half of the field was then 
mowed down to about ten inches and half, 
fed on for five days by twenty-five hundred 
sheep until the crop was thought by some 
to be ruined. The field will yield thirty 
bushels to the acre, and in the parts mowed 
and fed there is no perceptible difference. 
A still heavier piece of wheat (promising 
forty bushels to the acre) may be seen on 
this farm — the result of drainage and good 
tillage. 

One of the best crops of 250 acres in the 
entire valley, says the same paper, may be 
seen on the farm of Thomas Rutherford — 
near Rutherford's Station. It was worked 
on shares by Mr. EJdington. We are in- 
iformed that he sold last week his two-third 
interest in this crop to Messrs. Linn & 
JPreston for $6,000 U. S. coin. The cost 
Hsf putting in the crop was about five dol- 
lars per acre, which gives Eddington a 
iprofit of forty-five hundred dollars for two 
imoiitlis labor. 

Crops in Nevada. — The Grass Valley 
Kfiiioii says the harvest is over in the lower 
:})art of the county, and that the yield of 
Doth hay and grain is s imething over the 
average quantity, and superior quality. 
The Union adds that Nevada farmers are near 
to the best wheat market in the State — the 
mines, and yet the mountain farming lands 
are almost neglected. 

The North BuTTES. — The Marysville Ajy- 
peal says the harvest is progressing finely 
at the North Buttes, and that the wheat 
will average 10 bushels and the barley 15 
bushels to the acre. The grain though 
light to the acre, is nevertheless of a very 
superior quality. The farmers decline to 
sell at present prices, looking for some- 
thing better. We think they will miss it. 

An Eccentric Hen.— The Appeal tells of 
an eccentric hen in Nevada county which 
made her nest in a field, where a quail came 
also and laid her eggs in the same nest. 
Biddy's owner took her and her eggs to 
the house as a more fit place to bring out 
the brood, leaving the quail eggs in the 
nest. Biddy resented the interference 
with her pleasure, returned to the field, 
killed the quail which had commenced set- 
ing and did not relinquish the nest until 
she brought out a brood of quails, which 
she is now rearing. We are curious to 
know whether the quails will become do- 
mesticated or not— we think not. 

Chili Clover in Yolo.— The Yolo Mail 
says that Mr. Blowers has just finished the 



first cutting of Chili clover, which yields 
over seven tons of hay to the acre. He 
expects to cut hay from that same field 
twice more, and thinks the total for the 
season will amount to eighteen or twentj' 
tons. 

Vineyard Prospects in Sonoma. — The 
A'^allejo Chronicle of the Istinst. learns from 
St. Helena that the grapes have set abund- 
antly and well, and that the prospect is 
that they will realize a most luxuriant 
crop. Every other description of fruit is 
equally promising. The season could not 
have been more formable to the fruit crop, 
generally, throughout the State. 

Handsome Grain. — The Oakland Netos 
has seen a couple of stalks of wheat from 
Kimbal Island, near Antioch, on which 
there were 247 heads. The grain was well 
develoijed and looked splendidly. That 
beats the specimen we noticed last week. 
It should be exhibited at the State Fair. 

Oats on Kimbal Island. — A sample of 
oats from Kimbal Island was exhibited in 
Oakland a few days since which measured 
7% feet in length. 

KiMBOL Island, which yields such won- 
derful productions contains according to 
the Antioch Ledger about seventy acres, 
one-half of which has been reclaimed by a 
substantial levee. About fifteen acres are 
under a high state of cultivation. The 
fruit trees are in a bearing condition, and 
one may find strawberries, blackberries, 
raspberries, currants, etc., in abundance. 
Along the levee there are innumerable vines 
laden with fine clusters of grapes. This 
island, which formerly 'produced nothing 
but tules and willows, has been converted 
into one of the loveliest spots that can be 
found on the San Joaquin. Truly the 
wilderness may be " made to blossom like 
the rose." 

Grain from Sherman Island.— A bunch 
of oats from Sherman Island has been ex- 
hibited in Vallejo, many of the stems of 
which, according to the Chronicle, are half 
an inch in diameter and from six to seven 
feet in length. The Norway oats, have 
heads from sixteen to twenty-one inches in 
length, each very large, plump and solid 
There are hundreds of acres of grain equal 
in luxuriance, and farmers are now cutting 
it, preparatory to putting in anotlier crop. 
On Twitchell's island in one field, 1,700 
acres of very fine wheat may be seen, which 
will yield from fifty to sixty fjushels to the 
acre. As fast as farmers on these islands 
take off one crop, they put in another, and 
on a piece of ground which had just been 
mowed for hay, a crop of barley is put in. 
Tall Rye. — A sample of rye was exhib- 
ited in this city last week, grown by a Ger- 
man farmer near Searsville, in San Mateo 
county, the stalks of which measured eight 
feet three inches in length, and the heads 
are at least six inches long. The field con- 
tains about fifteen acres, consisting of bot- 
tom land. The grain has, of course, not 
suffered at all from drouth. 

Pea Nuts. — Twenty tons of peanuts, 
raised by a Chinaman on some of the sandy 
bars in the uper Sacramento river, were re- 
ceived at Sacramento last week. 

Breeding Frogs. — Pete Lozier, accor- 
ding to the Alta, who hangs out at the Sev- 
enteen-mile House, has taken to breeding 
frogs, and already has a family of several 
hundred thousand. He keeps them in the 
vicinity of the house; and so vast are their 
numbers that they can be fished out by the 
handful. So far Pete has only used them 
for his guests; but we understand he in- 
tends importing them to this city, when 
our French population will have a chance 
to indulge the national taste to an unlim- 
ited extent. 

Land Troubles in Liveemoee Valley. 
This valley, according to the Oakland 
Transcr/pf, is laboring under an excitement 
consequent upon the recent decision con- 
firming the Livermore grant to two leagues 
instead of eleven as originally claimed by 
the parties in interest, which latter decis- 
ion will throw into the market 40,000 acres 
of Government land, and vei-y many 
settlers are taking advantage of this oppor- 
tunity to select 160 acres (quarter section) 
for a homestead. In several sections they 
have gone into occupation of land already 
improved, and on which there is growing 
crops of grain, and are refusing to allow 
the claimants to harvest their crops. It is 
hoped the matter will be amicably arranged, 
and that all parties will have their just and 
equitable rights. 

The Harvest in Contra Costa. — The 
Gazette says tlie farmers in that vicinity 
ai-e now busy harvesting, with various re- 
sults. Some fields of summer-fallow are 
turning out very well. A sample lot of 
wheat from a field of 250 acres, belonging 
to James T. Walker is as plump and full as 



oatsand the dej)redationsof squirrels would 
yield 16 sacks per acre. Some fields in the 
vicinity of Walnut creek are said to be un- 
excelled, although in many localities the 
crops are an entire failure. Present esti- 
mates place the yield at less than one- 
fourth of a crop. 

A Bouqu:et of Apricots. — The Sacra- 
mento Union has received an apricot 
limb a little over tlii-ee feet long, from the 
ranch of C. S. Lowell near the Lake House 
in Sacramento county, which contains 
250 full grown apricots of excellent flavor. 
This is the only State in the Union where 
such extraordinary exhibition can be made. 

Norway Oats, Etc.^ — On the grounds of 
the Pioneer Silk Manufacturing Company, 
at San Jose mission, says the ^Zto, there are 
now growing some magnificent Norway 
oats which will yield one hundred bushels 
to the acre, and are now five feet high. 
On the same grounds are some eight hun- 
dred trees of the morus 7iiger yarietj , most- 
ly three or four years old and raised from 
cuttings. Twenty-five of the trees are nine 
years old. The older trees will feed 
worms enough to yield eight or ten pounds 
of cocoons each. 

A Lake to be Drained. — The Gilroy 
Advocate says that Henry Miller, "the 
Champion Stock-raiser of California," in- 
tends draining Soap Lake into the Pajaro 
river, thus opening up to agricultural and 
general utility some 1,200 acres of first- 
class bottom land. 

Poisonous Vegetable. — Four persons 
came near being poisoned one day last 
week, in Santa Cruz, by eating greens 
which they had purchased. Dr. Anderson 
on examining them found that they were 
what is known as Jamestown weed (stramo- 
ninvi) , or thorn-apple, which may be found 
growing along our river bottoms, in damp 
places. He considered it a miracle that 
the result in the case did not prove fatal to 
the whole j^arty. 

Crops in Santa Cruz.— The Timers thinks 
Santa Cruz stands ahead, this season, of 
all the counties in the State, so far as the 
crops are concei'ned. While in Santa 
Clara county the effects of the drouth ai*o 
only too perceptible; as we near Gilroy, 
the crops give indications of a more favor- 
able character, and, as one farmer remark- 
ed to us, there is a chance for half a crop. 
At San Juan, Monterey county, the same 
characteristics may be observed as in Santa 
Clara, and only as you enter the lovely 
Pajaro valley are you greeted with any- 
thing bearing the semblance of good crops. 
Indeed, we are fortunate, and the farmers 
may well look cheerful and gloat with an 
ticipation of bountiful harvests and lively 
times. 

Santa Clara — Low Water.— The water 
in Los Gates creek and in the Artesian 
wells throughout this county is getting 
very low. The Water Company has issued 
stringent orders limiting to four hours per 
day the consumption of water for sprink- 
ling or irrigation, and ijrohibiting alto- 
gether the iise of water for fountains or 
for sprinkling the streets. 

Monterey County. — The Castroville Ar- 
guft of July 1st says: — The harvesters are 
fairly at work in the fields surrounding 
our town, and the whirr and whistles of 
thrashing machines are again in the air of 
the valley. 

Reclamation. — The work of reclaiming 
the. tule land is making rapid advance. 
The Alia of Monday summarises the work 
now going on as follows: — The reclamation 
on Brannan Island will be completed this 
season. In a few weeks the dam across the 
mouth of Jackson Slough will cut off the 
chief channel by which the tides reach the 
interior of the island. The work on the 
levee is soon to be commenced on Grand 
Island, containing 17,820 acres, between 
Old river and Steamboat Slough. The 
needful security is to be given by an em- 
bankment 27 feet wide at the base and 10 
or 12 feet high. The dirt to make the 
levee is to be taken from the outside not 
from the inside, as has been customary 
heretofore. A strip of several thoiisand 
acres of tule extending about four miles 
westward from Rio Vista, on the north 
side of the Sacramento river, is to be re- 
claimed this season. The work on Sand 
Mound' district, at the northeastern base 
of Mt. Diablo, is in progress. A contract 
for .$100,000 or more has been made for 
building an embankment round the large 
tule district between the Sacramento and 
Feather rivers, at their junction. It is 
likely that the embankm<uit on Twiichell 
Island will lie enlarged. A levee 23 miles 
long and 3 feet high on Bouldin Island, 
between the San Joaquin river and the 
South Fork of the Mokelumne, has been 



need be, which, were it not from mixture of ' completed at a cost of .$528 per mile 



OREGON. 

Lane County. — From the Eugene City 
papers we learn that wool is selling there 
for thirty-five and a half cents and has 
been in great demand even at that figure. 

Farm Lands. — A farm of four hundred 
acres on Coast Fork sold lately for $3,000; 
one hundred and sixty acres at Springfield 
for .$4,500; two lots in Eugene City for 
.$3,500; and one-half lot for $1,000. 

Horace Greeley to be Invited. — Many 
citizens of Portland have published a letter 
requesting the managers of the State Agri- 
cultural Society to call a meeting at an 
early day, for the purpose of taking into 
consideration the propriety of extending 
an invitation to Horace Greeley to deliver 
the Annual Address at their next State Fair. 
Washington Territory, — The citizens 
of this territory, says the Williamette i'Tw- 
mer are aiming not to be behind the times 
in the frtiit business. Mr. S. W. Brown, 
of Vancouver, has a nursery that would 
be a csedit to any country. His ground is 
in the most perfect order. He sold nearly 
twenty-five hundred dollars worth of trees 
last year, and now has growiugabout eight- 
ty thousand grafts of the very best varie- 
ties. Many orchards are being set out in 
the Walla Walla Valley, which is destined 
to be one of the finest fruit growing re- 
gions on this coast. 

The Vancouver Register says the dam- 
age to the farmers in Clark county from 
high water will reach $100,000. Many 
have lost their whole crops. 
• We clip the following items from the 
Orcgoninn of July 1st: 

Fine Stock. — Mr. A. J. Myers, of Santa 
Clara, California, arrived by the John L. 
Stephens, with three thorough-bred, and 
one half-bred, Devonshire bulls, three of 
them only one or two years old. They are 
very fine animals, imported to Dr. Shap- 
less, Eugene City, who is going into the 
raising of blooded cattle. Mr. Myers 
starts with them this morning for Eugene 
by the O. and C. Railroad. 

Notes from the Country. — We hear 
from all directions that the country is en- 
joying a fine growing season. The late 
rains have been very advantageous to late 
sowed grain, and a fine crop is anticipated. 
The Columbia bottom lands have suffered 
greatly from the flood, and the greater 
part of the vegetable crop has been de- 
stroyed. A large part of the supplies of 
this city are unusually received from that 
part of the country, and the crop being 
thus a failure, we shall have to draw the 
Upper Willamette Valley for potatoes, on- 
ions, turnips, cabbages, etc., — articles not 
generally brought in in large quantities 
from that direction. Vegetables will bear 
a good price next fall, and the interior 
farmers would do well to take care of their 
crops and promote the yield by all availa- 
ble means. This city is now buying pota- 
toes and many kinds of vegetables from 
California. 

Goose Lake. — The Jacksonville Sentinel 
says that Dr. E. H. Greenman has returned 
from a trip to Goose Lake valley. He re- 
ports that the valley is rapidly filling up 
with settlers, also that droves of stock, cat- 
tle and sheep are constantly arriving. The 
country is healthy and peaceable, giving 
but little employment to doctors or law- 
yers. 

The Jacksonville Times says: Settlers 
are pouring into Klamath Lake valley. 
They come from Wallamet chiefly, and are 
settling on Lost river and Alkali lake. 

Large quantities of Chesapeake Bay 
oysters have been taken to Puget Sound 
for i^lanting. The Indians on the Sound 
are also planting native oysters. 
MISCELLANEOUS. 
The Cranberry Crop at the East. — The 
following statistics give the amount of 
cranberries in some of the Eastern States: 
Maine produced 1,000 barrels; Massachu- 
setts, 8,000; Connecticut, 2,000; New Jer- 
sey, 40,000 — principally from cultivated 
fields. At nineteen stations on the St. 
Paul and Milwaukee railroad 14,585 bar- 
rels were freighted during the berry sea- 
son of the same year. A ten-acre lot in 
New Jersey produced in one year 900 bush- 
els— value'$6,000. The owner was offered 
and refused $2,000 per acre for his lot. 

The Rain Fall throughout the Eastern 
States has been very small the past year; 
the gauge at Cincinnati for the year end- 
ing May 30th shows but 29'^ inches— over 
nine inches less than the usual average. 

The potato bug is committing great 
ravages in Wyoming Territory. The Tri- 
bune published at Cheyenne, speaks of one 
man who has a little patch of less than an 
acre upon Avhich he estimates he has 
slaughtered about five bushels of full 
grown bugs — to say nothing of their in- 
fantile progeny which he has destroyed. 



iii^i© sawmji. ^mis; 



[July 8, 1871. 



A New Door and Gate Spring. 

In onr issue two weeks ago we made 
brief mention of a new door and gate 
spring, recently invented in the East, and 
now being introduced here by Mr. Geo. 
B. Davis, of Alameda, promising at an 
early day to give a fuller and an illustrated 
description of the same. This promise is 
now fulfilled, and the mode of construct- 
ing and operating the spring may be read- 
ily learned by examining the annexed en- 
gravings. 

The object of this invention is to pro- 
vide a more serviceable and reliable spring 
than has heretofore been presented for the 
p:irposes named. Of the many devices of 
t'je kind hitherto in use there are none to 
■which grave objections may not be made. 
One overloads the door with iron, present- 
ing an unsightly appearance, another 
crowds the door too hard when open, and 
loses its force before it is closed, while 
others disturb us with creaking or rattling 
noises, etc., etc. The inventor of the 
spring herewith presented, claims to have 
essentially obviated all these objections, 
and to have brought out a device which, 
for neatness and durability, cannot fail to 
commend itself to the public. It has a 
force nearly equal at all points, and while 
it allows the door to swing back against 
Fig. A. 




Telescoping. 

One class of railroad accidents which 
has the most fearful effect on the mind, is 
telescoping, — the running of cars into each 
other like the joints of a telescope. Any 
sudden checking of a passenger train in 
motion may, and too often does, under the 
old system of platforms, couplers and 
bufl'ers, break oflf the platforms of the cars 
and permit the ends of the car bodies to 
come ^in contact ; and if the speed of 
the moving train is equal to ten or twelve 
miles per hour, the ends of the bodies of 



broken platform, in a collision. The 
result is shown in Fig. 2. One car is 
raised up, by the broken platform, and 
made to strike the opposite car above iis 
sills, where nothing but light studding 
and paneling is encountered in its course 
into and through the same. 

Fig. 3 shows the proper method of con- 
struction of car platforms and the applica- 
tion of the coupling and buffing apparatus 
which accords with mechanical laws. Here 
A A are the car bodies; D B, the sills of 
the cars: c c, the platform sills; D I>, a 
method of coupling without link or pin or 
substitute therefor, entirely aiitomatic in 
its operation, and capable of being attached 
to auj' other kind; E, the buffer, located 




such cars are liable to be broken, and the 
cars to jjass into and through each other. 
This is "telescoping" the cars. The ter- 
rible accident of this kind which happened 
in Alameda some two years ago, is still so 
fresh in the minds of most of our readers, 
that anj- device which promises to obviate 



trated by taking a cut nail and bonding it, 
as at iV, Fig. 1, to correspond with the 
line, /A g, Fig. 1; this crooked nail cannot 
be driven into a soft pine board; a light 
of bufBng, which ensures that a platform 
cannot be broken off by a collision, as is 
possible with the previous construction. 
Tlie two methods may be plainly illus- 



NORTONS DOOR SPRING. 

the wall, it will close it from any point, 
tightly, quietly and surely. 

This spring may be seen in ojjeration at 
the office of the agent, G. "W. Blake, 305 
Montgomery street. It may be made orna- 
mental as well as useful, and may be 
plated or painted to suit the taste of the 
individual. 

We understand that it has been submit- 
ted to most of the leading architects of 
this city who are almost or quite unani- 
mous in their expressions of approval of it. 
Fig. A. gives a general idea of the con- 
struction of the spring and the mode of its 
application to a door. The spring consists 
of a coil of spring-brass wire, working 
loosely upon a metal standard and secured 
to the door casing by screws. One end of 
the spring, which will be seen projecting 
from the upper right hand side of the coil, 
rests firmly against the casing, while the 
opposite or lever end is hooked to an ad- 
justable spring, secured to the door. Its 
working will be readily understood without 
further explanation. 

Fig. B. represents the gate spring as ap- 
plied to a gate. This is the same as the 
door spring, only double, being made 
with matched pairs of springs, right and 
left, and placed upon a double support, 
secured to the gate post, as shown. The 
lever arms rest on a swinging brace at- 
tached to the gate. These double springs 
are also adapted to heavy doors. 

Mr. Davis owns the rights for all the 
States and Territories on the Pacific Coast. 
In anticipation of a large demand for the 
article, as is the case at the East, Mr. D. is 
making arrangements to have them manu- 
factured in this city, and under his own 
especial supervision. 




such danger will be read with interest. 

Tlie Miller Trussed Platforms, Com- 
pres.sion Bufl'ers and Automatic Couplers, 
it is claimed, will so effectually prevent any 
liability to this class, as well as other 
classes of accidents, and which are certainly 
in the highest repute among railroad men. 



in the center-Hue,//; g g, the course of the 
truss rods that liold the platform in the 
line of the sills of the cars. 

This shows the straight line method 
blow with a hammer will break it, as 
shown at 0, Fig. 2; while a straight nail — 
as P, Fig. 3^may be driven with hard 
blows into the hardest kind of wood. 




The following cuts serve to show the prin- 
ciple of telescoping, how it is caused by 
faulty construction, and how it is prevent- 
ed by correct construction. They likewise 
show the principle of the Miller platform. 

Fig. 1 shows how telescoping can occur 
with the old construction. A A, are the 
car bodies; D B, the sills of the cars; c c, 
the platform sills; D D, the drawheads, 
which serve also as buffers; E, the coup- 
ling link; ///, the center line of the sills 
of the cars; g, the point of contact; and 
h g, the line of depression from the center 
line,///, to the point of contact, g. 

These platforms are located below the 
sills of the cars, and the buffers far below 
the platforms, bi-inging the point of con- 
tact at g, instead of /" (directly above g) . 
This crook in the line, fh g, will cause a 



This is the way in which Col. Miller 
shows the superior construction of his in- 
ventions. Letters to him may be addressed 
toE. Miller 231 Broadway, New York City. 



To the Apprentices of California. 

The Board of Managers of the Eighth 
Industrial Exhibition, desiring to encour- 
age and advance the interests of the Me- 
chanical Apprentices, will, at the incom- 
ing Exhibition, award special prizes for 
the best specimens of drawing, designs, 
models, or mechanical workmanship, and 
space will bo allotted to this department. 
The class and value of premiums, to be 
awarded on the merit of the exhibit, by a 
Committee appointed by the Board of 
Managers. 

Each exhibit must have attached the 
name age and residence of exhibitor; and 
an application to exhibit in this Depart- 
must must be accompanied with a voucher 
from the employer, that the exhibit is the 
solo work of the exhibitor. 

Information will be furnished and appli- 
cations for sijace may be made to J. H. 
Gilmore, Special Agent Eighth Industrial 
Exhibition at the Mechanics Institute, 27 
Post street, San Francisco. 

A RemarKable Plant from Nevada. 

At a late meeting of the California 
Academy of Sciences, Dr. Blake presented 
some specimens of Phjcochroinaecea: of 
Algte which, in an excursion into Nevada, 
he had found 

Growing in a Hot Spring 
In the Penebla valley. The temperature of 
the spring he believed to be about 140" to 
150', but having no thermometer, this 
could not be ascertained with accuracy. 
These Alga) consist of delicate hair-like 
Fig. B. 



CuRiotts Instinct of a Dog. — In a small 
town in Kentucky there is a Newfoundland 
dog who is so pacific by nature that he 
cannot bear to witness an outburst of pas- 
sion. All the turkeys, ducks, geese and 
chickens regard him with affection, since 
he will not isermit any of them to (juarrel 
one with another. He keeps a watchful 
eye upon all, and instantly puts down 
every pugnacious disturber of the barn- 
yard peace. The work keeps him busy; 
still he does not tire. 




He submits to be seen through a micro- 
scope, who suffers himself to be caught in 
a fit of passion. 



NORTON'S GATE SPRING. 

cells, and ijrobably constitute the smallest 
vegetable known. Withamagnifyingpower 
of 700 diameters they still appear no larger 
than a hair, and approximately measured 
about l-70,000th of an inch. They belong 
probably to the Spirulinic and Oscillariiii. 
The most marked peculiarity of these 
plants is the extraordinayy places in which 
they grow. They are found not only in 
hot saline springs, but in chemical solu- 
tions of the most poisonous substances, as 
arsenical solutions, which would be fatal 
to every other form of vegetable and ani- 
mal life. They are the lowest forms of 
organized beings, developing no spores, but 
multiplying by simple division. Their 
growth in hot saline solutions renders it- 
probable that they were the 

Earliest Form of Vegetable Life 
On the globe, as they would grow in the 
older seas where the temperature of the 
water must have been far higher than it is 
at present. Many diatoms were found as- 
sociated with these algic, the forms of 
which werj considered to be more closely 
related to those found in infusorial earth 
than to the diatoms of our colder waters. 
This point, however, was reserved for fur- 
ther investigation. 

Rabbits fob Food. — They have begun in 
Canada to cultivate rabbits as an article of 
food, and in European countries, hundreds 
of miles of coast lands are used as rabbit war- 
rens, and their product furnishes a cheap and 
nutritious food for millions, while the furs 
have considerable value in trade. 

Antioch RAiiiROAD. — The Antioch Led- 
ger, of June 24th, says that eastern capi- 
talists are engaged in an enterprise which 
promises the building of the Antioch and 
Visalia R. R. 



July 8, 1871.] 




Moflern Historical Research. 

[Prof. SwiNTON before the MeohanIo Arts Colleoe 
Mer.hanics' Institute Hall, S. F. Seventh Series, Ee 
ported expressly lor the Press.] 

Lect. III. July 1.— In this, the last 
regular lecture of the course, Prof. Swin- 
ton gave a very interesting resumi of the 
methods and results of modern historical 
5:esearch. He traced rapidly the stejis by 
■which history has grown to be a science, 
and advance has been made from the 
national egotism and narrowness of the 
ancient Greek and Hebrew, to the broad 
ground of prevalence of general laws, 
which characterizes the modern historian. 
And the results of historical research, prop- 
erly conducted, he claimed, were destined 
to influence morals, religion, and the life 
of society. 

Two Great Nations Discovered. 

In his lecture, the Professor dwelt at 
length on the two great discoveries made 
about the beginning of this century— the 
disinterment of two great nations, of Egypt 
and of India, two or three thousand years 
older than the Greek. He showed how the 
discovery of the Bosetta stone, in 1799, 
during the French occupation of Egypt, 
gave the key-note to the whole reconstruc- 
tion of Egyptian civilization, whereby the 
modern world learned that, 5,000 years 
ago, there lived in the valley of tlie Nile a 
irace of a stable i>olitical organization, a 
liigh state of civilization, with its own 
•architecture and copious literature. 

So too, the introduction among scholars 
•of a knowledge of Sanscrit, the ancient 
A-cligious speech of India, has taught of a 
race older by a thousand years than the 
oldest known monuments of the classics, 
and has given rise to the science of com- 
parative philology. By this, moreover, is 
explained the resemblance of the classics 
to one another, and of the Teutonic, Slavic 
and Celtic languages; and it is shown how 
nations have migrated from Western Asia 
in early times^pavt eastwards to India, 
and part westwards to Europe. 

While we have thus in modern times 
learned of the existence and history of na- 
tions thousands of years earlier than was 
before described in history, some geologi- 
cal discoveries, the finding of flint instru- 
ments in the French drift, have thrown the 
existence of man back over a space of time 
of which we have no definite measure, and 
■which is counted not by years, but by 
thousands of years. 

The Professor referred to the various 
auxiliaries to the study of history, as com- 
parative philology, ethnology, physical 
.geography, statistics, myths, ballads, tra- 
ditions, etc. 

The IVIost Important Fact. 

That fact which makes history a philoso- 
phy is the discovery of progress made con- 
tinually from the earliest times. This is 
a modern doctrine, not to be found in Aris- 
totle or his followers. The old idea was that 
order and progress are incompatible; the 
new idea is that they are inseparable. 

The Professor gave several examples of 
the law of progress in language, morals, 
etc., but which has its most perfect illus- 
tration in science. 

la conclusion, he j^ointed out the pro- 
gress made in historical narration — how, 
in place of a mere pictorial relation, it has 
become a science showing the connection 
and relation of facts; how, in place of a de- 
■scription of a single person or nation, it 
treats of the ■whole of mankind. 

Succeeding Exercises. 
At the request of very many persons, 
Prof. Swinton will repeat his lecture on 
War Correspondents next Saturday, (July 
8), and on the following Saturday (July 
15) , the concluding exercises of the course 
■will be held, when addresses will be made 
by President Durant, Rev. Horatio Steb- 
ibins and others. 



Cows and Sheep vs. Coal Oil. 

Editors Pkess: — The claim of superior- 
ity of climate on the part of any one coun- 
ty naturally causes the institution of an 
" odorous " comparison on the part of the 
circumjacent counties. I say " odorous " 
advisedly; sheep and coal oil, the sources 
of the "peculiar ambrosial influences" that 
pervade the air of San Luis and Santa 



Barbara counties might have a more forci- 
ble adjective applied to them. It must re- 
quire a highly educated and' susceptible 
nose — well, say the nose of a coyote — to 
discover the ambrosial part in the abomi- 
nable stench of a sheep corral. However, 
our neighbors to the south have rested 
their claims on sheep and petroleum, and I 
now proi^ose to enumerate the claims of 
Monterey to rank as one of the heathiest 
cities on the coast. 

First — Let me suggest to your corres- 
23ondent "Medico" that an overdose of 
steel must have induced the overflowing 
jro/iieal vein that runs through his letter. 
I sincerely commiserate him on the unfa- 
vorable (?) locality in which he has his 
professional connection, and would recom- 
mend to his notice the plan, extant in some 
Asiatic State, of having his patients pay 
him so long as they keep free from sick- 
ness; although the counterpart, viz., the 
stripes bestowed on the physician every 
day his client suffers, might not equally 
meet his views. And if, even on this plan, 
he cannot find sufficient occupation, let 
him "doctor "to his heart's content the 
numerous coyotes that ever love to hover 
round his "white merino" sheejJ. 

Of course, being much nearer to that 
dangerous breeder, incubator and dessemi- 
nator of noxious germs, San Francisco, our 
climate would be suj^posed be that much 
more unhealthy; so it will be necessary to 
find some more jiowerful health-giving in- 
fluence than sheep or coal oil to counteract 
or neutralize their baneful tendencies. I 
think I can venture an "Jiypothesis equally 
startling " with " Medico's." I concede to 
him that San Luis is pre-eminently a 
" sheep " county, and Monterey must be 
equally allowed to be a "cow" county. By 
the Darwinian theory of selection or evo- 
lution, or whatever it is called, a cow is 
only a modified sheep; and of course, if 
wool absorbs noxious germs, modified wool 
— cows hair— must be a better absorbent, 
so that in this respect our climate must be 
superior to that of San Luis. 

If this position should be found untena- 
ble (and possibly Prof. Tyndall might de- 
mur to having " respirators " made of cows' 
hair in place of cotton wool) I take my 
stand on the well known assertion, jjrover- 
bial even ere the time of our gi-andmothers, 
that the breath of a cow is healthy, not to 
mention sweet. Now no one can maintain, 
as I have before said, that there is any- 
thing sweet in the odor of sheep ; so I think 
we may fairly put San Luis out of the 
question. 

Now for Santa Barbara and Petroleum. 
Not belonging to the faculty of "Medicos," 
I can't discuss the medicin*! qualities of 
the oil, but I am .acquainted with the "am- 
brosial" nature of its odor, and I think that 
I can -pvove Monterey eqnal to the situa- 
tion. If your readers will accompany me 
for a stroll one-half mile from Monterey we 
shall arrive at a low dark shod near which 
are sundry greasy looking barrels; a little 
farther on we perceive several men at work 
round certain roughly made boilers, others 
are cutting up a i-epulsive looking, whitish 
substance, known as blubber. This they 
are putting into caldrons, and if the " am- 
brosial influence " arising from those cal- 
drons does not put coal oil ambrosia into 
the shade, I'll back down at once and allow 
Santa Barbara to be the healthiest place. 
Furthermore, spite of Dr. Shaw's opinion, 
I believe that cod-liver oil (or its still more 
agreeable substitute, thick cream) is still 
the popular remedy for lung diseases. By 
the Darwinian theory a whale is a modified 
cod; and as mathematically, the greater in- 
cludes the less, so the whale must contain 
the cod, liver and all, and whale oil there- 
fore includes cod liver oil. Both Allopath- 
ists amd Homeopathists administer medi- 
cines occasionally by means of the sense of 
smell, notably so in the pungent scents 
applied to the nose of a person in a faint- 
ing fit. How beneficial then to invalids 
must be the air of Monterey, where the 
minute particles of whale oil continually 
impinge on the nasal membranes, at once 
supplying medicine and " ambrosial influ- 
ences!" 

The softness the oil imparts to the skin, 
and its uses as a cosmetic, generally, is 
known practically to but few, and those of 
the sterner sex; but the floating essence that 
pervades the air induces such radiancy of 
beauty in the fair sex, that recourse is had 
to the flour barrel to dim its lustre, lest 
would-be admirers should be so dazzled as 
to become blind to the adored ones charms. 

If after all tliis, San Luis and Santa Bar- 
bara do not allow our claim, have we not 
in Carmel an Indian woman of unijaralleled 
longevity — 130 years ? If native savagery 
can do this, what may we not expect to ac- 
complish with theaid of civilization, "Med- 
icos," hot cakes, and aqua ardiente." 

Agricola. 




Rules of Health for Married Ladies. 

Get up at 3 o'clock in the morning, clean 
out the stove, take up the ashes, sweep the 
front side walk, and scrub the front steps, 
nurse the baby, put the mackerel to soak, 
build the fires, ^rind the cofi'ee, get out 
your husband's things to warm, see the 
shirt aired, boil the mackerel, settle the 
cofi'ee, set the table, rouse the hbuse, carry 
up some hot water for shaving to that 
brute of a lazy husband, and dry the morn- 
ing paper. By this time you will have an 
appetite for breakfast. Hold the baby 
during the meal, as you like your breakfast 
cold. 

After breakfast, Avash the dishes, nurse 
the baby, dust everything, wash the win- 
dows, and dress the baby — (that pantry 
needs cleaning out and scrubbing) — nurse 
the baby, draw the baby five or six miles in 
the wagon for his health, nurse him when 
you return; i)ut on the potatoes and the 
cabbage — nurse the baby — and the corned 
beef — don't forget to nurse the baby— and 
the turnips — nurse the baby — sweep every- 
thing, take up the dinner, set the table, fill 
the castors, change the table-cloth- — there, 
that baby wants nursing. Eat your dinner 
cold again; and nurse the baby. 

After dinner wash dishes, gather up all 
the dirty clothes, and put them to soak; 
nurse the baby every half hour; receive a 
dozen calls, interspersed with nursing the 
baby; drag the baby a mile or two; hurry 
home; make biscuits, pick up some cod- 
fish, cut some dried beef. Catnip tea for 
baby's internal disarrangement; hold the 
baby an hour or two to quiet him; jjut 
some alcohol in the metre; baby a specimen 
of perpetual motion; tea ready; take yours 
cold, as usual. 

After tea, wash up the dishes, put some 
fish to soak; chop some hash; send for some 
more sugar; (good gracious ! how that su- 
gar does go, and thriteen cents a pound;) 
get down the stockings and darn them — 
keep on nursing the baby — wait uji till 12 
o'clock, nursing the baby till husband 
comes home with a double shuttle on the 
front steps, a difficulty in finding the stair- 
wfiy, and a determination to sleep in the 
backyard. — Drag him up stairs to bed; 
then nurse the baby and go to sleep. 

Women in delicate health will find that 
the above practice will either kill or cure 
them. 



Acidity of the Stomach. 

Acidity of the stomach always arises 
from that organ not being able to digest, 
to work up the food eaten, to extract the 
nutriment which it contains, hence two re- 
sults: First, the food decays, that is rots, 
becomes sour and generates a sour gas, 
which is belched up, causing a burning or 
raw sensation, located apparently at the 
bottom of the neck, or in that vicinity. 
Sometimes an acid liquid is generated and 
is belched up, and so very sour occa- 
sionally that it will take the skin off 
some parts of the throat, mouth or lips. 
Second, the food not being properly work- 
ed up, does not give out its nourishment, 
the system is not fed, and consequently be- 
comes weak, the circulation becomes feeble, 
the feet grow habitually cold; the person is 
easily chilled, and dreads going out of 
dooi-s; is happiest when hugging the fire, 
and takes cold so easily that the expression 
is frequently used, " the least thing in the 
world gives me a cold." When such a con- 
dition is reached these colds are so fre- 
quently repeated that before one is cured 
another comes, and there is a perpetual 
cough which the most unintelligent know 
is the certain harbinger, the forerunner of 
consumption of the lungs. 

When persons are troubled with indiges- 
tion, and one of its effects, acidity, the ad- 
vice given in nearly all cases is to take 
something to correct the acidity, such as 
cream of tartar, soda, saleratus, ammonia, 
the ley of wood ashes, and other alkalies. 
These things correct the acidity, but the 
stomach gets no power of a better digestion ; 
the effects as far as sensation is concerned 
are removed, but the system continues to 
thinner and weaker ; and with wasting of flesh 
be improperly nourished; the man grows 
and strength, there is diminished power of 
circulation; the person becomes chilly, 
colds are taken from slight causes and at 
diminishing intervals, and before he knows 
it he has an annoying hacking cough, 
which too often ends in a wasting, fatal 
disease. 

When acidity follows eating, it is always 
because there has been an error in the qual- 
ity or quantity of the food eaten; the stom- 
ach could not manage it, could not perform 



the work imposed upon it. The true rem 
edy is to eat less and less at each meal, un- 
til no acidity is perceptible; or to change 
the quality of food; and in a short time the 
stomach, not being overtasked, gets time 
to rest, to recuperate, to get strong; then it 
digests more food, and digests it better, 
with the inevtible result of a more vigor- 
ous constitution, more power of endurance 
more strength of body and greater elastici- 
ty of mind, more happiness and a spirit and 
energy to grapple with life's duties, which 
makes existence a jjleasure. — Hall's Jour- 
nal of Healh. 

Philosophy of Bathing. 

The following is from Dr. Mayo G. 
Smith, on the subject, and is worthy of 
consideration: 

There are in the human body 2,700,000 
glands and 7,000,000 pores, and but one per 
cent, of all perspirable matter consists of 
solid substances. The change in muscles, 
tissues and bones, occurs in from one to 
three years, and in the entire body in from 
six to seven years. If this old matter be 
retained, it causes disease — itis areal virus. 

Some diseases are relieved almost in- 
stantly by opening the pores. Diarrhoea is 
frequently cured; matter from the mucous 
membrane is expelled through the skin; 
tobacco, opium and mercury have been 
thus exuded. Whatever through the skin 
the body can exijel, it can absorb. Hold 
the end of your finger in spirits of tur- 
pentine — it is absorbed; goes through the 
system, and may be detected by its odor. 
Constant liandling of arsenic has produced 
death by absorption. 

A doctor relates an account of a gentle- 
man in Barbadoes, who was in the habit of 
daily intoxication, and had constructed a 
tub, with a pillow to accommodate his 
head, and when in this state was jilaced 
therein, and the tub was filled with cold 
water, in which he reposed for two or 
three hours, and would then arise re- 
freshed and invigorated. When his wife 
or family required him, they would wake 
him up by taking out the plug, and allow 
the water to escai^e, Avhen he would pleas- 
antly complain of the "loss of his bed- 
clothes." 

Dr. Brock, a student of Sir Ashley 
Cooper, once poisoned a dog, which imme- 
diately plunged into a neighboring river, 
and remained for some time with his body 
entirely submerged, after which he left his 
watery hospital and ran home cured. Dogs 
have l)een repeatedly cured of hydropho- 
bia by holding them in water. 

Thirst has often been relieved by im- 
mersion even in salt water, the salt proba- 
bly being excluded during the process of 
transition. 

At Charleston, during the epidemic, 
among several northern mechanics who 
had gone thither, but one escaped the pre- 
vailing fever, and he alone bathed fre- 
quently, and never slept at night in any of 
the clothes worn by day. 

Injudicious Early Rising. 

One of the very worst economies of time 
is that filched from necessary sleep. The 
wholesale but blind commendation of early 
rising is as mischievous in practice as it is 
arrogant in theory. Early rising is a 
crime against the noblest part of our physi- 
cal nature, unless it is proceeded by an 
early retiring. Multitudes of business 
men in large cities count it a saving of 
time if they can make a journey of a hun- 
dred or two miles at night by steamboat or 
railway. It is a ruinous mistake. It 
never fails to be followed by a general want 
of well-feeling for several days after, if, 
indeed, the man does not return home ac- 
tually sick, or so near it as to be unfit for 
a full attention to his business for a week 
afterward. When a man leaves home on 
business, it is always important that he 
should have his wits about him; that the 
mind should be fresh and vigorous, the 
spirit lively, buoyant and cheerful. No 
man can say that it is thus with him after 
a night on a railroad, or on the shelf of a 
steamboat. The first great recipe for 
sound, connected and refreshing sleep is 
physical exercise. Toil is the price of 
sleep. We caution parents particularly 
not to allow their children to be waked up 
in the mornings; let nature wake them up, 
she will not do it prematurely; but have a 
care that they go to bed at an early hour; 
let it be earlier and earlier, until it is 
found that they wake up of themselves in 
full time to dress for breakfast. Being 
waked up early, and allowed to engage in 
difficult or any studies late and just before 
retiring, has given many a beautiful and 
promising child brain fever, or determined 
ordinary ailments to the production of wa- 
ter on the brain. — Journal of Health, 



8 



SS** 



[July 8, 1871. 




PULLI8HED BY 

DEIlATBir <SK CO. 

A. T. DBWKT. W B. EWKR. O. H. STRONG. J. L. BOONE. 



PkiNCIPAI, EDIToa.... 

AssociATK Editor 



W. B. EWKR. A. M. 

.1. N. HOAG, (Sacramento.) 



OrriCE, No. 4U Clay street, where friends and patrons 
are invited to our Scientific Pbkss Patent Agency, En- 
graving and Printing eBtablishment. 

NEW YOnK OFFICE : Room 25, Park Bow. W. E. 
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ScMCBrBEBS receiving the Pacific Rural Pkkss, 
who would prefer the Scientific Pbess, will 
obliye by sendiiiy early notice to this office. 

SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 8, 187 1. 



Our Weekly Crop. 

It is getting fashiouiible on our coast to own 
Celebrated Trottiug Horses. As we cannot 
present each of our readers with a valuable 
steed in the flesh, we do the next best thing and 
present each with the fastest American horse, 
Dexter, in ink, hopeing the substitute will be ac- 
ceptable. 

Mounted on a still faster steed, however, than 
Dexter, on the wings of thought, we ride off to 
examine the matter of the Grasshopper Pest, to 
calculate the Vintage of 1871, and to visit the 
scene of the Merced Cotton Experiment. Dis- 
mounting, we examine carefully the novelties 
in Mechanical and Scientific Progress, and then 
are ready for a fresh start. This time we go to 
Half-Moon Bay, thence up to Napa Valley, and 
thence again over the mountains to Colorado 
and its Colonies. 

Returning westward, we visit the Manufacto- 
ries of Wagons in California, and listen to some 
Practical Experience in Sheep Raising. And 
then comes our flying visit over the coast, note- 
book and pencil iu hand, to jot down the Agri- 
cultural Notes of the week. 

As we pass through the farm gates, we see a 
new Gate Spring. From a safe distance we 
view a railroad disaster, of the kind called Tel- 
escoping, and " thank oiu' stars " that, what- 
ever the vagaries of our steed, wo can always 
steer clear of this accident. We pluck a Re- 
markable Plant from Nevada, and chat con- 
cerning Historical Research; we smile at the 
effect of Coal Oil on Cows and Sheep; and im- 
mediately after examine the state of our Health, 

Getting into a botanical frame of mind, we 
frisk about the California Hop, roll over 
the California Hay, doze under the 
Palm Tree, vault over the California Hedge 
Plant, and fall to work Preserving Flowers. 
Getting inventive, we run over the last list of 
Patents. Getting lively, we climb to the top of 
Needle Rock and slip down the Devil's Slide. 
Getting literarj',we look over the New Publi- 
cations, review a Protest against the Tariff, 
and examine the Relics of the Stone Age. Get- 
ting hungry, we devour a number of California 
Khad. 

Mourneen Flanagan brings the Home Circle 
to our aid iu appeasing our appetite, and is 
helped by the other ladies, by the Young Folks, 
and by the people in the Kitchen who practice 
Domestic Economy. Between them we man- 
age to completely satisfy ourselves. 

Then we run down to a meeting of the Santa 
Cruz Farmers' Club, pluck a few items concern- 
ing Floriculture, and walk through the Mar- 
kets out " into the middle of next week." 



Prolifio Oats. — Mr. Pierce Wiggins, 
of Alvarado, has presented us with a stool 
of oats numbering 136 stalks from one 
seed. The stalks are from three to four 
feet high, and grew as volunteers on a piece 
of 15 acres of uncultivated salt marsh land 
which Mr. W. is reclaiming. His method 
of reclaiming is by means of flood-gates 
placed in the ditches, which are closed 
during high tide. The tract is flooded with 
fresh water by an Artesian well, and 
drained at low water by opening the flood- 
gates. 



Something for Hop-Growers. 

While we can with truth assert that 
California cannot be surpassed in many 
features, still we are willing to admit that 
we do not "know everything." Hop-grow- 
ing in our State is becoming a feature — a 
business of no small interest to both con- 
sumer and producer. We have, however, 
much to learn in_ bringing the business to 
a perfectly successful basis financially. 
Whatever aids the consumption of the 
article must be considered, and whatever 
aids the perfection of the growth and 
yield is absolutely indispensable. In view 
of this we desire to call the attention of 
the hop-producers to a recent improvement 
in hop-trellising. If Eastern growers are 
benefitted by the improvement, why should 
not the Californian derive a similar benefit? 
We would advise hop-raisers to send to 
Frank G. Pernell, at Honeoye, N. Y., for a 
full description of the new trellis he has 
invented, and which is being almost exclu- 
sively used in the hop-yards of the Eastern 
States. 

For the benefit of tlie hop -growers of 
California we collate from the private cir- 
cular of the inventor a partial description 
of tliis trellis, that they may judge for 
themselves of its practicability. If hop- 
raising is worth attention at all, it is worth 
doing well, and it becomes producers to 
avail themselves of every improvement 
calculated to ensure a successful produc- 
tion. 

The expense of the new hop trellis is on- 
ly one-fourth, and the cost of tying is but 
one-half, of a yard poled in the usual man- 
ner, of two poles to the hill, besides 
spreading the vines and giving double the 
amount of running surface. With this 
mode of trellis, each row forms a long and 
perfect arbor of itself, causing a steady 
amount of air underneath, producing a 
healthy growth of vine, and firm, heavy 
hops, entirely doing away with the dull, 
moist atmosphere, so favorable to the in- 
crease of vermin and fatal to tli« interest of 
the hop producer. 

The nature of the hop is such that when 
trained so as to hang horizontal or pendant, 
its growth is much earlier and the yield 
larger. Any hop-grower of experience has 
observed that when a pole bends so as to 
form a semi-circle the hops growing on it 
are superior to all others in the yard. 

The vine is so suspended from the stake 
to the wire in an oblique form, that in the 
event of wind or rain, or both combined, 
it turns completely over, thereby cleans 
ing it from vermin of all kinds. 

In raising hops it is a matter of much 
importance that the vines should be kept 
separated from each other, 'so as to allow a 
free circulation of air between them, and 
exposure to the sun. 

When the vines are allowed to grow in 
masses they are more subject to the rava- 
ges of insects and to the formation of mil- 
dew and rust, which greatly deteriorates 
their growth and lessens their yield. 

By the use of this hop trellis these diffi- 
culties are obviated. 

The vines are not only kept separated 
and each one allowed a separate growth, 
but by the open net-work of the trellis, the 
air is allowed a free circulation throughout, 
and the vines are eft'ectually exposed to the 
light and sun. 

In short, this trellis meets the wants of a 
large class of hop-growers, and especially 
thoge who have become discouraged with 
the heavy labor and the uncertainty of the 
business attending its culture under the 
old modes of growing. 

Opium CuiiTdbe in Louisiana. — It is 
said that a farmer in Louisiana has been 
experimenting in opium culture, obtaining 
140 pounds of the drug from seven acres 
of land. The opium was sold for $10 i^er 
pound, or $1,400. 

The Hay Chop in Lake County is the 
largest ever produced in that section of the 
country. It is selling there at $10 per 
ton. 



Philosophy of Hay Making. 

We copy the following precious bit of 
information from the Pacific Rural Pbess: 

"Heat, light, and dry wind will take the 
chief part of the sugar and starch — its most im- 
portant qualities — out of bay in a very short 
time, after it has lost sufficient water to become 
wilted." 

Where, either in the grand realms of 
science, or in the broad fields of experi- 
ence, the above "fact" became apparent, 
we are puzzled to know. 

We feel prepared to assert that neither 
the ordinary heat and light of the sun, nor 
the dry winds will, unaided hi/ dews and 
rains, voltilize, dissipate or decompose 
the organic compounds existing in fresh 
hay. —Santa Clara Af/ricxdturist. 

We assure our neighbor of the Santa 
Clara Agriculturist that, notwithstanding 
his over-confident assertion to the con- 
trary, either the " sun" or " dry winds" 
will, "unaided by dews and rains" " decom- 
pose," even to a destructive extent, and to 
a certain degree " voltilize" [volatilize] 
and " dissipate" the organic compounds 
existing in fresh hay." 

The very fragrance of " new mown hay" 
proves, to an unerring certainty, that the 
latter is true; while we have such eminent 
authority for the former, as Dr. Volker, 
Prof. Johnston, and others, who explain 
the philosophy of the change, in substance, 
as follows: When grass has been cut and 
partially dried, the cellular structure be- 
comes broken up by contraction and rough 
handling; and then, if the grass is still 
allowed to continue for a considerable 
time, exposed to the hot sun or drying 
winds, a raj.id fermentation sets in, which 
comi>letely "decomposes" or destroys, and 
eventually tate out the chief part of the 
sugar, starch, etc., which constitutes the 
chief nourishing principle of the hay. This 
is done without the least assistance from 
rain or dew— outside moisture of course 
will render the work more rapid and com- 
plete; but the sun and wind alone will in a 
short time efi"ect such a chemical change in 
the sugar, starch, etc., by simple y<?rOTe/i/a- 
lion, that those substances will nearlj' all pass 
ofi" by evaporation, leaving the haj' without 
the intervention of either " dew or rain," 
as colorless and as useless for food as straw. 

If the editor of the Agriculturist persists 
in teaching his readers that no harm will 
come from leaving hay out in the hot sun 
for an indefinite time, provided no rain or 
dew intervenes, he will take a wide " de- 
parture" from his usually correct and really 
valuable course of agricultural instruction. 

Palm Trees in California. 

Experience is teaching us that we have 
heretofore had a very imperfect idea of the 
capacity of tropical trees for enduring the 
semi-tropical climate of California. But 
that which has already been obtained would 
seem to show that the elegant fan palm, at 
least, bids fair to become quite a feature 
in the landscape of Santa Clara Valley. 
There are already quite a number of them 
growing there, in open grounds, present- 
ing all the luxuriance •f tropical vegeta- 
tion. The slight frosts and cold of our 
winter seasons seem ""to have no other 
effect on them than to check their growth 
during its continuance; for we have beard 
of none which have been winter killed. 
There are two • fan palms in front of 
the residence of Mr. V. Hofi'man, on 
Third street, San Jose, which are over 
seven feet in circumference and eleven feet 
to the first leaves. They are about four- 
teen years old, and have become the admi- 
ration of all who behold them. 

We have already in one of the early 
numbers of the Press, described the two- 
fan palm and the date palm in the grounds 
of the Santa Clara College. The Agricul- 
turist mentions the fact that since it has 
been ascertained that these trees will grow 
readily in that region, some of the nursery- 
men there have commenced propagating 
them in anticii^ation of an early demand 
for such trees. 



Preserving Flowers Fresh. 

A correspondent at Petaluma asks for 
" a receipt for preserving flowers perfect- 
ly." He has searched the Press for some- 
thing but without avail. The object of 
seeking to so preserve them is to send 
them to the East, so as to show them in all 
their freshness of color and bloom. 

We give in another column, under tho 
bead of Domestic Receipts, a plan for 
"crystallizing" them as it is called, or 
coating them with a thin crystalline cover- 
ing of alum, by which means the form and 
color may be preserved. We should sup- 
pose they might in that condition be 
packed in sand as hereinafter shown, and 
safely transported. 

They might possibly be covered with a 
coating of parafine, as fruit is sometimes 
covered for preservation; but we doubt 
whether they could in that condition bo 
safely transported. 

There is still another method for pre- 
serving them, so as not to seriously affect 
their form or color, as follows: — Take a 
vessel of suitable size, cover the bottom 
with a sufficiency of clean sand, thorough- 
ly dried in the stove oven, so that the stem 
may be so inserted therein as to sup2)ort 
the flower. Then gently pour in more 
sand until the flower is entirely covered — 
care being taken not to injure or displace a 
single leaf. When the vessel is entirely 
filled, cover tight and your flower may be 
transported safely to any distance, and 
when taken out will still retain its form 
and color. We have never tried it; but 
have read that the plan works well. We 
quote from memory only. 

Perhaps, however, a better way is to 
carefully pack the flower — a bouquet, if 
you choose — in a box with fine clean moss, 
well dampened. The box must be closed 
tight, but must be perforated with several 
small holes to admit of slight ventilation. 
Boquets liave in this manner been sent to 
New York and other Eastern cities, where 
they have arrived almost as fresh as when 
first picked. Of course only verj' hardy 
flowers can be so sent. The ends of the 
stems we believe are generally diiijied into 
melted wax, which may be cut off when 
they arrive at the end of the journey, and 
the flowers revived by being immersed in 
fresh water. 



Volume Two. — We commence to-day 
Volume II of the Pacific Rural Press, 
and the occasion presents a most favorable 
opportunity foi" more subscribers to send 
in their names. While we are not obliv- 
ious to many imperfections and short-com- 
ings in the past, we feel conscious that we 
have ever pressed steadily onward in our 
earnest efforts to provide the farmers of 
California with a journal which shall prove 
a valuable medium for intercommunica- 
tion and for the diffusion of useful knowl- 
edge among all engaged in agriculture on 
the Pacific Coast. 

Our motto is " Upward and Onward," 
and we propose to fight it out on that line 
until we are able to present to tho i>eoplo 
of California an agricultural jjaijer that 
shall be second to none on the continent. 
Our ijresent readers will do us a favor if 
they will inform their friends that tho 
Pacific Rural Press is now fully estab- 
lished, and urge them to send in their 
names at the commencement of a new 
volume. 



ACalifornla.HedqePlant. — The Santa 
Clara Agriculltirisl recommends the Cali- 
fornia wild cherry — cerasus illici/olia, as a 
very superior plant for ornamental hedges. 
It is an evergreen, with a foliage of a 
sprightly, delicious green, that sparkles in 
the sunlight. It is very dense and com- 
pact, stands pruning well, and with its 
crinkled leaves hides both limbs and stocks. 
Mr. F. B. Fuller, opposite the Los Gates 
nursery has a splendid showing of hedges 
of this plant, from seed which he planted 
where thej- were to grow. The hedges are 
in their fourth year, have been pruned 
twice each season, and stand now about 
three feet high and two broad — models of 
neatness, elegance and thrifty growth. 



July 8, 1871.1 



9 



Patents & Inventions. 



Full List of U. S. Patents Issued to 
Pacific Coast Inventors. 

(From Official Reports to DEWEY k CO., tJ. S. and 
Foreign Patent Agents, and Publishers or 

THE SeiENTIFIO PREBS.] 

For the Week Bndino June 20th. 

Roller-Skate. — Allen Thompson Covell, 
San Leandro, Cal. 

Dyeing and Coloring Furs. — 
Adolph Mliller, San Francisco, 
Cal. 

Machine for Molding, Pressing 
and Cutting Sugar. — Peter 
Sioreckels and James Peterson, 
San Francisco, Cal., assisinors 
to Claus Spreckles and Peter 
Spreckels, same place. 
reissue. 

Spark- Arrester. — Edw'd Waud, 
for himself, and Benjamin F. 
Dorris, assignee of Edward 
Waud, Eugene City, Oregon — 
Patent No. 99,378, dated Feb- 
ruary 1, 1870. 

designs. 

Steam-Pump. — William W. Han- 
scom, San Francisco, Cal. 

Grate-Hearth. — John G. lis, 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Editorial Notes Eastward.— 9. 

To have visited Salt Lake City, 
and to have seen the i^lace of 
■which so much has been said, 
where the wonderful works of re- 
ligious zeal have wrought the 
most surprising change in the 
face of Nature and made "the 
waste i>laces glad," would have 
been a great pleasure to me; but 
the nature of my errand to the East admit- 
ted of no such delay, and I hastened on 
toward the rising sun. 

Soon after leaving Ogden we come to 
one of the most noted localities on the 
road. We ride straight for the tall barrier 
of mountains, through which we 
find, however, the Weber river 
has cleared a grand way for us. 
As we puff slowly up a steep 
grade, we see wonderful cliffs and 
buttresses of rock, lofty walls be- 
tween which the river rushes 
frantically at our feet. We jjass 
into the infernal regions, accord- 
ing to the nomenclature of the lo- 
calities, for we have d.ashed out of 
the sunny plains into the " Devil's 
Gate." 

We climb along the steep sides 
of the mighty walls, and are 
crowded from one side of the river 
to the other. ,We pass into and 
out of a tunnel, and by a noted 
rock, called Finger or Needle 
Rock, of which we hear, which 
we do not see, but which has been 
in-eserved by the skill of the 
artist. Natural obstacles present 
themselves every moment, but 
mortal skill has enabled us to 
overcome them. 

On we go, winding under, 
around and through the stone 
obstructions of Nature, the scen- 
ery continually presenting new wonders. 
Here we see the Devil's Slide, two ridges 
of granite projecting as parallel, irregular 
slabs of rock from 50 to 100 feet high and 
about 100 feet apart. How his Satanic 
Majesty managed to slide down those rocks, 
and how he enjoyed it; whether he took it 
as a daily pastime, or whether one trial 
sufficed; these and other interesting facts 
are left to the imagination of the visitor. 

That lonely sentinel of Nature, the One 
Thousand Mile Tree, sees us come and go 
unchallenged, and marks the place for our 
memory. The accompanying engravings 
are found, with others of much interest, 
in Crofutt's Transcontinental Guide. 

d. 

April 13, 1871, 



New Publications. 

Sign Writing and Glass Embossing; a 

Complete Practical Illustrated Manual of the Art. By 
James Callingbam. To which are added uumerous 
Alphabets. Philadelphia: Henry Carey Biiird, Indus- 
trial Publisher. 40G Walnut street, 1871. 8 vo. pp 210. 
Price $1.50. For sale by A. Roman & Co., S. F. 

This is a most excellent work, gotten up 
in fine style and containing most valuable 
matter for the interest of which it treats. 
It is said to be the first work which has 
appeared on the subject of Sign Writing, 



personally. I know nothing of your edu- 
cation or capabilities. Some men with the 
requisite skill and capital would make a 
fortune out of the manufacture of wooden 
clothes-pins. I could not. Whether you 
could or not is more than I know. If you 
had a son you designed to put into mer- 
cantile life, you would not ask. Does it 
pay, but. Will my son make a successful 
merchant ? 

More and more attention has been turned 
to farming of late years. Many are think- 
ing of following the example of myself and 




Thus our country has to this extent lo: 
the benefits of this industry, which is 
larger in the value of its product and the 
number of hands employed than any other 
single industry in the country." 

A most pregnant fact is the following 
statement: "The combined taxes upon all 
the articles forming the materials of our 
industry yield the government a revenue 
of only $3,500,000, Avhile they impose upon 
the manufacturers of boots and shoes a tax 
of $18,000,000— which must eventually be 
paid by the wearers of these necessary 
articles " 

"The sy.stem of pi-otective du- 
ties raises the price of house-rent, 
fuel, food, clothing and all sup- 
plies, so as to render extravagant 
wages a necessity to our workmen. 
This apparent increase of wages, 
however, yields no substantial 
benefit to our workmen, because 
it is all consumed in the greater 
cost of living. 

"We believe that the entire re- 
moval of all protective duties 
would greatly advance our in- 
dustry, as we should then have 
the market of the world in which 
to sell our products, thus largely 
increasing the labor employed 
and the profits of manufacturing. 
We, moreover, believe that the 
enhanced wealth and comfort of our 
own people, consequent upon a 
change of system, would be evi- 
denced in an increased consump- 
tion of our goods." 

The wool manufacture at the 
East seems to be another industry 
which is being crushed by the 
tariff, and other manufactures are 
beginning to ask to be "protected 
against protection." 



FINGER OR NEEDLE ROCK, WEBER CANON. 



and takes precedence as treating of glass 
embossing. Such a book as this will be 
found of great value to many on our coast. 
It is full of valuable rules and hints, and 
we recommend it cheerfully. Beginners 
Avill find the book the greatest help, and 



husband. For them I have but one word : 
Be sure and farm "with brains, sir." 



A Protest Against the Tariff. 

We have received "a protest against the 
tariff by the shoe manufacturers of the 




THE DEVIL'S SLIDE, WEBER CANON. 



even old hands will find very much of the 

greatest use to them. 

Gardening for Money. How it was 

done, in Flowers, Strawberries, Vegetables By 
Charles Barnard. Loring, Publisher, Boston. 8 vo., 
pp. 345. Price $1.50. 

The author has managed to weave many 
valuable facts and figures into a story, 
which is told in an interesting manner. 
The picture of the farmer is held uiJ in 
plain, practical colors, and the imagination 
is held in check by fact. The last para- 
graphs of the book are worthy of repub- 
lication: 

The question is often asked. Does farm- 
ing pay? This is not a fair question. Does 
any business pay ? Does boat-building, or 
soap-making, or carpentry pay? The 
question is not. Does farming pay, but. 
Can you make it pay ? This is something I 
cannot answer, seeing I do not know you 



U. S," and we make some extracts there- 
from for the consideration of our readers. 

"The legislation of other countries has 
aimed to secure for manufacturers and 
artisans the raw materials of their industry 
at the cheapest rates. The opposite system 
has generally prevailed in our country, and 
has retarded the naturally vigorous growth 
of our industries. 

"The tariff tax upon our leather amounts 
to 35 i^er cent.; duties on cotton and silk 
rubber webbing are 35 and 50 per cent., 
respectively: on lastings and serges, 85 
per cent. Although these highly protect- 
ive duties have been levied for four years, 
they have succeeded in stimulating only 
two manufactories, who make these articles 
only in limited quantity and of too inferior 
quality to suisorsede the imported goods. 

"The result is that tlie manufacture of 
our products has been transferred lo a great 
degree to Canada, where it enjoys greater 
advantages and has fewer impediments. 



Relics of the Stone Age. — 
There are but few of the valleys 
in Arizona in which may not be 
met with the remains of ancient art, which 
furnish abundant evidence that the country 
was once inhabited by a people who had 
attained a high standard of civilization. 
Among the most remarkable of these ' 
relics, says the Arizona Miner of June 10, 
are those recently exhumed from 
a monument in the valley of Salt 
river, on the land owned by Mr. 
McKinnie. This gentleman has, 
for some time past, employed his 
leisure hours at excavating among 
the ruins which constitute the 
principal mound on his premises. 
At two points, after having re- 
moved the debris which covers 
the ruins to a depth of about two 
feet, he discovered a number of - 
apartments, varying in dimensions 
from nine to eleven feet square, 
regularly built, and still contain- 
ing the cement with which the 
walls are coated within. Besides 
various kinds of agricultural im- 
jilements made from fragments of 
slate rock, he has obtained several 
stone hatchets and various kinds 
of ornaments made from different 
kinds of colored stones, shells 
and the bones and teeth of ani- 
mals. It is quite probable that 
further research will lead to dis- 
coveries of much greater inn)ort- 
ance — as the work has tluis far 
been confined to the extreme sides 
or edges of the mounds, and valu- 
ables would probably bo dejjositcd 
at or near the center. Mr. Mc- 
Kinnie intends sending a few of 
his most remarkable specimens to 
the Smithsonian Institute. 



California Shad. — The Fish Commis- 
sioners of California, besides exerting 
themselves to protect and save valuable 
native breeds of fish, are laboring to intro- 
duce choice varieties from abroad. Their 
first experiment in this line is the deposit 
of 15,000 young shad, from the Hudson 
river, in the upper waters of the Sacramen- 
to. This river, at Tehama, where tlie young 
fish were placed, is comparatively clear, 
the bi'anch streams that convey the mining 
discharges, entering it far to the southward. 
The water had been tested and found con- 
ducive to the health of the fish and full of 
food for their support, and there is every 
reason to believe that the young fish placed 
in it Avill prosper and multiply until our 
rivers are stocked with thom. The liabits 
of the shad are much like those of onr s 
native salmon. It descends to salt water 
periodically, returning to the upper chan- 
nels of fresh streams to spawn. 




ii iM ^ •i*' y^ ^*fv> J© o 



@ 



[July 8, 1871. 



BY OTJR LADY EDITOKg. 



" Was It An April Fool ? ' 

[Written for the Pntsa.] 

An slinre! if my name is Mouvueen 
Flanagan, an' I live in Vermont, its no 
sign but I can read an' write, an me sister 
that lives in California sent me the Pacific 
KiTRAL PiiESS. An shure I cammenced at 
the back end of it, an' I thinks to meself, 
I'll find out what kind of a jiapor it is. 
An' I found it was going to give" honest, 
intelligent, and correct information," an' 
that is just what I want, for if my name is 
Mourneen Flanagan, I'm not one of thim 
low Irish, an' I likes to have things look 
nice; an' says I to Dennis (Dennis, my 
husband) says I, Califoruy is a big coun- 
thry; an' may be it aint all in the sile an' 
the climate, an' maj'be, if we look sharp to 
the recates, as they call 'em, we may turn 
out something that'll astonish the neigh- 
bors" 

" Me hopes riz as I read of 'practical 
knowledge of science;' an' says I, " I'll 
practice somethin' as is in this very paper. 
I read about the Humboldt praties, and 
the cream half an inch thick. I turned 
another leaf an' faith, I found the recates 
for the housekeeper. The ftrst was for 
corn bread, an' didn't meself make a big 
pan full that same mornint, as tine an' 
brown as iver it could be. Whate bread, 
an' indeed I had nivei a bit in the liouse. 
Cottage cheese — I read that, an' I guess I 
know how to make Dutch cheese widout 
the telling of me at all, at all. 

" An' there was a recate for ' scorched 
goods.' Faith! I niver heard of the vegi- 
table in ould Ireland, or in Vermont — ' to 
be boiled in milk and turpentine, with half 
a jjound of soap.' Be Jabbers! it may do 
for people that live in Calforny climate; 
but niver a bit would I jiut sech a mess 
on my table. 

"liut I'll surprise Dennis with some 
white bread, so I read, ' Take a teacupfuU 
of salt;' indade, au' wouldn't it be rather 
salt; but I says, says I, that must be the 
science, an' it'll come out all right, so I 
dumps it in the pan. ' Mi.x^ Hour enough 
to knead well,' so I puts in some flour an' 
mixed it, but it would not nade at all, at 
all. I worreked an' worreked it, sui)posin' 
the science would bring it right; an' shure 
that I had naded it enough, I set it away 
to rise. Every hour I took a pape at it, 
an' if you can believe it, as shure as I'm 
alive, it didn't rise the vally of a hair's 
breadth. I thought I must have made a 
mistake; but no, the recate said just ' salt 
and Hour.' 

But after three hours it i)op[)ed into my 
head that this climate lacked the moisture 
of Californy climate, an' says I, Mourneen 
Flanagan, you ain't a fool if you found 
that thought in your brain, for shure the 
paper promised its all honest and correct; 
an' I'll just drop in the wet that's lacking, 
an' I ins with a (juart of warm milk, quite 
shure the science was in it now. Tliis was 
about tin o'clock iu the mornint. The re- 
cate said ' when light, pour the dough out 
ou the mixing board.' Faith, an' I waited 
till dark that same blessed night, thinkin' 
it would rise, an' then says I, Ah! Mourneen 
Flanogan, yer a fool now if ye ever was. 
Indade, it must mean the blessed moriiiu' 
light, an' I set it carefully away, that 
Dennis might not discover it an' spoil my 
surprise." 

"Now cut the dough into four equal 
l^arts, butter your baking tins, mold your 
loaves and place them iu the tins." I 
didn't know much about molding, but I 
thought they liad set nigh about long 
enough to mold theirselves. " When 
light, place in the oven and bake." The 
saints defend us ? another 24 hours; faith ! 
an' that beats me, California science is al- 
together too slow to live by. 

But Dennis would have that same for 
his breakfast to-morrer mornint, an' I 
dreamed all that day au' night of the enor- 
mous vegetables, the turuii)S, the bates, 
an' the cabbages — oh ! the luscious cab- 
bages — an' the praties, an' the crame an 
inch thick. When the mornin' light came 



into me window, plain like, *I put my 
loaves into the oven to bake, spaking the 
names of the saints manewhile, an' shure ! 
they would come out big like the Califor- 
ny counthry itself — faith ! an' how could 
they help it ? I tended the fire carefully 
an' got my breakfast on the table; in half 
an hour I looked iu the oven. Ah ! an' my 
faith in Californy recates began to wane. 
We had to cat without the whate bread. 
Then I hustled the childer off to school an' 
Dennis to work, an' I took the loaves out, 
an' if ye've tried that recate ye know how 
they looked. I read that same again. "If 
the crust is too hard, wet it a little, when 
cold." Arrah ! an' what a provident cra- 
thur the leddy was to be sure. What else 
could it be but hard ! indade, Pat could 
dance an Irish jig on it, an' not dint it in the 
laste. An' I might wet it all the way thro' 
an' it would take the best teeth iu the 
world to take a bite. "An' what do you 
call em," said Dennis over my shoulder." 

"Arrah! bad luck to it, its the Californy 
recate." 'An' what is it, shure'?' says ho; 
an' I saj-8, says I, "If you don't know that 
for whate bread, I'll tell 'em how to make 
whate bread that is whate broad." He took 
up the paper, an' says he, 'It's dated April 
1st, you're April fooled.' 

"Nary a bit of it," says I, "an here it is 
the middle of May before I read a word of 
it, none the less a fool for thrying that 
same tho.' 

"Arrah. mither, an' is supper ready." 
I rubbed my eyes, an' there stood 
Pat; an' hadn't I been fast asleep 
wid the Californy jjaper in my hand. 
I looked for the recate, an' 'twas there 
shure enough, and then I remembered 
laughing over it 'fore I went to slape. 

Faith, Mr. Editor, was ye April fooled ? 
If ye say it was a mistake of tlie divil, I 
say I think the divil himself 'ud know 
better. But I'll give ye a recate, Mr. 
Editor, if ye'll print it in your paper. 
Faith an' it will make good whate bread, if 
ye'll try it as I say: — 

Put one handful of hops in two quarts 
boiling water, an' let it boil while prepar- 
ing the following: Take four large jiraties 
(faith 'an if your i^raties don't increase in 
size more nor thim four loaves of breatl, 
bad luck to 'em, ye may take a dozen or 
more) i)are thim an' gi-ate tliim, then put 
in one cup sugar, one spoonful of flour 
and one sjjoonful of salt; stir together, 
then pour over tlie hop water, after strain- 
ing, set on the stove and boil ton or fifteen 
minutes, stirring all the time; take it off", 
shure, an' let it cool. When about milk 
warm put in oue cup of good yeast, an' let 
it rise, then jug it for use. This is the 
yeast to be shure. An' whin ye want to 
make yer bread, take (for three loaves) 
three pints of milk, an' one cujj of yeast, 
an' one small spoonful of salt, an' put in 
flour enough to make a batter. Do this in 
the evening, sir, an' the next mornint put 
in more flour, till it is thick enough to 
nade, an' nade it, sir. an' put it in tins, an' 
let it rise, an' if ye plase whin it is light 
an' big, put it in the oven and bake it, an' 
if ye don't burn it ye won't have to wet 
the crust to make it soft. It'll be just light 
and crispy if my name is 

Mourneen Flanagan. 

June 7th, 1871. 

A Word to Girls. 

The woman who is indifferent to her 
looks is no true woman. God meant woman 
to be attractive, to look well, to please, 
and it is one of her duties to carry out this 
intention of her Maker. But that dress is 
to do it all, and to suffice, is more than I 
can be brought to believe. Just because I 
do love to see girls look well, as well as live 
to some purpose, I would urge upon them 
such a course of reading and study as will 
confer such charms as no modiste can sup- 
ply. N. P. Wills wrote once a very pretty 
paragraph on the power of education to 
beautify. That it absolutely chiseled the 
features; that he had seen many a clumsy 
nose and thick pair of lips so modified by 
thought awakened and active sentiment as 
to be nurecoguizablo. And he put it on 
that ground that we so often see people, 
homely and unattractive in youth, bloom 
in middle life into a softened Indian sum- 
mer of good looks and mellow tones. 



and if such service could be rendered gen- 
erally available, it is not too much to say 
that a wider and more social life would 
arise for mankind. Man's occupation 
would in no sense be prejudiced, whilst 
women would at once find that outlet for 
their faculties for which many of them 
have been so long striving. A certain re- 
sponsibility would increase their self-reli- 
ance. A capacity for earning would re 
move the sense of dependence; a definite 
occupation would bring both health and 
cheerfulness, and the larger experience of 
life would give force and com2)lotcness to 
their mental character." 



Y©^[<^ Folks' CQLJ|y»[<. 



Woman at Home. 

"The stream of jjuro anil gemiine love 
Derives the current from above; 
And earth a second Eden shows 
Where'er the healing water flows." 

Home is the throne of empires on 
which woman sits, the scepter with which 
she wields the destiny of nations. All 
that is dear and holy, noble and divine, in 
society or the nation, centers back to home 
where woman presides as the angel of love. 
If she would seek the honor of exerting an I 
influence which shall last after the jiresent 
order of the universe is changed, a philan- 
thropist whose name though not lauded by 
the fickle multitude, shall be remembered 
by the good and pure in the ages of eterni- 
ty, let her not, for any .social interest or 
cause, neglect the hallowed duties of home 
but watch over them with jealous trust, 
with devotional constancy, with unruffled 
vigilance, to keep that home the nursery of 
all the virtues, the sanctuary of the heart's 
deepest loves, the "holy of holies," where 
the divine presence may shine forth in her 
looks, and be manifest in her actions. 

Home is woman's true sphere. There is 
nothing in this wide world that will con- 
fer greater honor upon her than for to 
make that home a type of what society 
should be, and of what heaven is in the 
graces of exalted character. As a wife, she 
should be to her husband a guardian angel ; 
as a mother, charged with the high trust of 
directing the child, she should see that, 
like the work of the skillful artist, she 
molds it "true to nature," beautiful and 
pure. 

ScHOOii-BoYs' Hobbies. — School boys al- 
ways have some pai-ticular hobby, and al- 
ways bring it home with them. Sometimes 
the mania is for cricket or foot-ball, fish- 
ing or boating. I have known of a passion 
for ferrets which was very trying to the 
other members of the family, to say noth- 
ing of eager collectors of birds' eggs or 
btitterflies. A fresh-water aquarium is a 
fine invention for making a mess of a boy's 
clothes and filling the house with small, 
slimy monsters; but, on the whole, speak- 
ing individually, iilaying the banjo is the 
most distressing taste for a school-boy to 
bring into the bosom of his family. The 
only comfort is that there are intervals of 
respite from the dreary thrumming while 
the banjo is being warmed by the fire ; for 
happily the parchment of this cheap in- 
strument stretches so much as to be useless, 
or rather harmless, -unless it be constantly 
contracted by heat. This banjo of ray ac- 
qaintance, therefore, passed quite half its 
time silently reclining on the hearth-rug 
before the fire, while its joyous owner 
watched impatiently for it to be in a fit 
state to resume the intei-rupted melody of 
"Rosalie the Prairie Flower," which, I 
may mention hero is the most wearisome 
of tunes. 



Daughters. — An intelligent writer says, 
" It is not jjossible to over-estimate the ad- 
vantages which would result from men in 
trades and professions allowing their 
daughters some participation in the daily 
work of their lives. What girls want is a 
larger observation of the world, and a 
deeper knowledge of human nature. * * 
There are few of our merchants and manu- 
facturers and professional men who could 
not largely avail themselves of the service 
of their educated and competent daughters; 



TheEtiquette of HatLitting — In pass- 
ing a lady on the street the hat should be 
raised with either the right or left hand, 
according to the side on which you ])ass 
the lady. The rule is that when a gentle- 
man lifts bis hat to a lady, he should not 
place his hand between lii.s eyes and hers; 
consequently if he passes the lady on her 
left, he lifts his hat with the right hand; if 
he passes her on her right, he lifts it with 
the left hand. Vice versa, his hand would 
come between her eye and his and he 
would not see whether she recognized liim 
or not. 



Pretty but Useless. — As a fashionably 
dressed young lady passed some gentle- 
men, the other day, one of them raised his 
hat, whereuijon another, struck by the fine 
.appearance of the lady, made some in- 
quiries concerning her, and was answered 
thus: "She makes a pretty ornament in 
her father's house, but otherwise is of no 



A little girl, on coming home from a 
party, told her mother that she was so 
happy that she couldn't be happier unless 
she was bigger. 



Boys, be Accurate. 

Tliere was a young boy in the office of 
a western railway Superintendent. He was 
occujjying a position that four hundred 
boys in that city wotild have wished to 
get. It was honorable and " it paid well," 
besides being in tho line of promotion. 
How did he get it ? Not by having a rich 
father, for he was the son of a laborer. The 
secret was his beautiful accuracy. He be- 
gan as an errand boy and did his work ac- 
curately. His leisure time ho used in per- 
fecting his writing and his arithmetic. Af- 
ter a while he learned to telegraph. At 
each step his employer commended his ac- 
curacy, and relied on what he did because 
he was just right. 

And it is thus with every occupation. 
The accurate boy is the favored one. Those 
who employ men do not wish to be on the 
constant look-out, as though they were 
rogues or fools. If a carpenter must stand 
at his journeyman's elbow to bo sure that 
his work is right, or if a cashier must run 
over his book-keeper's columns, he might 
as well do the work himself as employ an- 
other to do in that way ; and it is very cer- 
tain that the employer will get rid of such 
•an inaccurate workman as soon as he can. 

Don't Fret. 

Some young folks are always fretting. 
Are you a member of the "Fretting Society'?" 
Do you fret when it rains, because you 
can't go out '? and do you fret when it's 
a fine sunshiny day, because of the heat? 
Fretting because nobody comes to see you, 
and fretting because you d6n't want any- 
body to come? A fretty girl is a tiresome, 
troublesome creature. Perhai)s you say, 
" But I have so many trials to bear, so 
manj' hard lessons to learn, or too much 
work to do." Well, suppose you have, 
does fretting help you any ? The longer 
you sit fretting, the larger will your 
troubles appear. Do your duty, and bear pa- 
tiently the troubles wliich may beset j'ou. 
Be satisfied with what God gives you; look 
to him for help, and stop this disagreeable 
whimpering and fretting about trifles. — 
Youth's Cabinet. 

" Mamma," said a little boy who had 
been sent to dry a towel before the fire, "is 
it done when its brown V" 



Children's Holidays. 

Holidays are to children even as the gol- 
den gate to a paradise of enjoyment. We 
know that in after-life scarcely anj-thing 
can elate us as did a "half holiday" in the 
early schooldays. How we bounded for 
very glee, and felt as though a vast field 
were opened out between us and to-morrow's 
tasks! Marvelous elasticity of childhood! 
buoying up the y6utliful sjiirit above the 
really grave troubles then met with, able 
at a word to carry the heart gleefully past 
all touch of grief, and float it away as on 
the wings of a sea-gull across an ocean of 
rapturous gladness! Who h.as not known 
the unaccountable and sudden passages of 
happiness that will dash across the heart 
of childhood, like wind-ripples suddenly 
seen on a lake, and leave us wondering 
whence they came. Such strange flashes 
of causeless, or apparently causeless, glad- 
ness grow less and less frequent as we ad- 
vance beyond the sunny fields of childhood. 
What measureless pleasure then we took 
in the simplest toys ! what infinite amuse- 
ment in a top, or a kite, or sling ! what re- 
sources in a fishing lino or a bag of marbles, 
how useful that old knife with the broken 
blade ! what interest taken in a bird-trap, 
or night-line set for ells ! We can well re-, 
member how delighted we were at our old 
grammar school, if by writing a Latin let- 
ter to the doctor we could induce him, on 
any pretext soever, to grant us a holiday. 
Books were pushed aside as though gone 
forever, and away we, sped like arrows 
from tho stiing. What delight we took in 
making long marauding excursions into 
the country-around, regardless sometimes 
we fear, of the right of property ! Those wal- 
nut trees so convenient overlmng the road 
by that old mile-post not far from the mill 
and the enclosure of a certain ancient man- 
sion charitably afforded some great chest- 
nut trees in such a field near the broad 
lake ! What a charm lingers about the 
memory of those long free strolls into the 
country, and the extravagant fun we had 
by the way, with a daring abandonment to- 
rollicking humor not known, and perhaps 
not fitting, to onr after years. 

Ladies' conventional clubs are becom- 
ing popular in the Western States. 



July 8, 1871.] 



11 



OMESTIC 



V&jiS 



ahCONOMY. 

0? 



We gather the following items on do- 
mestic economy from one of Kate Hunni- 
bee's late contributions to the Hearth and 
Home : 

Some one asks how, with a baby a month 
old, a mother can find time to attend to 
flower beds, or other out-door matters. 
She is answered as follows: 

"Have a little carriage, put a pillow in 
it, wrap up the baby warm, and while you 
work at the flowers, the little one will be 
breathing piire air — a hard thing to find in 
many dwellings. It is very easy to accus- 
tom children to passing many hours every 
day in the ojjen air, and they are far less 
subject to colds, coughs, and other com- 
plaints, if they spend a part of every 
pleasant day under the blue sky. A car- 
riage is as indispensable as a crib. If it is 
only a box with two wheels and some sort 
of a shade arranged over it, to keeis the 
light out of baby's eyes, it may save a big 
doctor's bill." 

Breakfast Bill of Fare on the Farm. 

The following is given as a list of break- 
fast dishes, which may come upon the table 
in the spring — to be varied some one morn- 
ing, some another: Warm rolls, toast, fried 
mush, hominy, eggs boiled, scrambled, 
shirred or poached; fish, in its season, 
broiled or fried, cold corned-beef and ham, 
hash, beefsteak broiled, veal and lamb cut- 
lets, rice cakes or flannel cakes, wafiles and 
mutfins. We farmers make great account 
of our pork barrel in spring, and of our 
hams. I often hav£ fried pork for break- 
fast, and by way of variety, dip each slice 
into a batter of eggs, beaten up with flour, 
and then fry them. This makes an appe- 
tizing and nutritious dish, very good for 
workingmen to plow on. 

How to Cook Salt Mackerel. 

We use salt mackerel at breakfast, too; 
for the fish wagon seldom passes our door, 
and we are two or three miles from market. 
I am always careful, in removing it from 
the brine, not to let it touch the oil float- 
ing on the surface of the salt water, to 
wash it clean, and then soak it, with the 
flesh side down, eight or ten hours. Then 
I wash it, and soak it over night in sweet 
milk, and dry it by the fire. It is next 
broiled five minutes, flesh side down, over 
lively coals, turned so as not to break the 
skin, and left over the fire ten or fifteen 
minutes until done. Thus cooked, it can 
be eaten with zest by almost any one. Cod- 
fish, too, comes frequently on our table by 
way of variety. This is soaked over night 
in water to freshen it, then shred fine into 
sweet milk, scalded and thickened with 
flour or eggs. 

Tomato Toast 
Is a favorite breakfast dish with my fam- 
ily. A pint of canned tomatoes, the same 
of sweet milk, plenty of butter, the whole 
brought to a boil and thickened a little 
Avith flour, then potired over bread nicely 
toasted — my boys and girls think there is 
nothing better. 

Fruit, Etc., for Breakfast. 

Fruit of some kind is very desirable on 
the breakfast table, more so, I think, than 
at either dinner cr supper. Everybody 
ought to indulge, at the mornino- meal, in 
cantelopes and muskmolons in their season, 
if they have to raise them in a barrel of 
rich earth in the back yard. 

Tliere is one dish farmers might enjoy 
every moi-niug, and that is cream cheese. 
Let the whey be drained from lobbered 
milk through a colander, and the curd 
served with sweet cream and white sugar. 
Tliere is nothing more delicious of a warm 
8i)ring or summer morning than this. 
Dinner and Supper. 

It is always easy to get up dinner and 
supper for a private family. For the latter 
good bread and butter, a plate of cold 
meat or dried beef, a little cheese, a bit of 
cake, a cup of tea or chocolate, is enough 
for ordinary occasions. 

Table Cloths fob Children. — A very 
neat and serviceable table cloth to si^read 
under children's plates may be made by 
simply giving a piece of coarse muslin two 
coats of white paint. The first coating 
should be thoroughly dried before the sec- 
ond is ajiplicd. 

Sweeping Carpets. — Persons who are 
accustomed to use tea-leaves for sweeping 
carpets, and find that they leave stains, will 
do well to employ fresh-cut grass instead. 
It is better than tea-leaves for preventing 
dust, and gives the carpet a very bright 
fresh look. 



Apples as Food, 

We have several times referred to the 
excellence of apples as food, either raw or 
baked. There is no kind of fruit that en- 
ters into the various combinations of cook- 
ing which is superior to the apple. For 
pies, esj^ecially, there is nothing better, 
cheai^er, or more healthy. Care, however, 
must be taken in making them, if you 
would have them really good and palate- 
able. A very excellent cook book gives 
the following receipt, than which we have 
never seen a better: — 

Peel and cut about two pounds of apples, 
tart ones being the best for that purpose; 
cut each into four pieces, removing the 
cores; then cut each quarter into two or 
thi-ee pieces, according to the size. Put 
half of them into a jjie-dish, slightly press 
them down; put over them two ounces of 
brown sugar; put in the remaining apples; 
then add another two ounces of sugar, 
making the apples form a kind of dome, 
the center being two inches higher than 
the sides; add a small wine-glass of water; 
cover the top with paste, and bake in a 
moderate oven, from half to three-quarters 
of an hour. 

And here is a receipt for making what 
may be called an apple cake: — Mix unbolt- 
ed wheat or rje-meal with cold water, 
making a dough or batter soft enough to 
nearly level itself. If shortening is desired, 
use sweet cream or butter. Fill a rather 
deep i^ie-plate about a third full of the 
batter, and sprinkle over a little sugar. 
Wash, quarter and coi-e tart apples, and 
place as many in the batter (skin side up) 
as it will hold. They may be pressed down 
and leveled with a stift' spoon. Over the 
top sprinkle some sugar, and bake till 
nicely brown. This cake is both whole- 
some, nutritious and delicious. Children 
and grown folks can eat of it without 
danger of injury. 

Preserving Figs. 

Now is the season for preserving this ex- 
cellent and healthful fruit. The following 
directions ai-e given for preserving them in 
sugar: — Take the fruit when not quite ripe. 
Soak for ten or fifteen minutes in weak, 
warm soda water to remove the skin; or 
peel thinly with a sharp pen knife. To one 
pound of tigs use three-quarters of a pound 
of sugar. When the syrui) is made, put in 
the fruit, and let it boil until half done; 
take them up and si^read on a dish, and 
put in the sun. Let the syrup simmer 
slowly, always carefully removing any im- 
purities that may rise to the surface. 
When clear, put in the figs; let them cook 
until transparent, taking them out sepa- 
rately when done. Set in the sun again; 
if the syrup is not clear, skim again; do 
not let it boil away too much. Put the 
figs in jars, and when the syrup is cold, 
pour it over them. Very email and thin- 
skinned figs, like the "Celestial," are better 
if put up without being skinned. 

Will some of our readers who have had 
experience in drying figs furnish us with 
the manner in which they succeed best in 
so i)i-eparing them; also the variety of fig 
experimented with. We occasionally meet 
with California figs eqiial to any ever im- 
ported, but many are quite inferior. We 
would like to give a reliable method for 
the benefit of the public. We trust that 
some one who has made this business a 
success will be public spirited enough to 
communicate his experience for the 
benefit of others. California might and 
should furnish the entire Union with figs 
and iraisins. 



Canned Meats. 



Canned meats are coming into extensive 
nse in New York and elsewhere at the East. 
A correspondent of the Hearth and Home 
says: "We have used several dozen cans of 
Texas beef in our family since last summer, 
and very much preferitto the tough, flavor- 
less, stringy steaks that are often all one 
can procure in our Busydalo market. It 
costs only about half as much as that we 
get of the butcher, and is, on an average, 
fully twice as good. If day laborers, who 
must have a meat diet, could only be made 
acquaintedwith its value as food, they w^uld 
buy it freely, and so get the worth of their 
money. For those who.se teeth are imper- 
fect, and for children who cannot be made 
to chew their food thoroughly, this meat 
cannot be too highly recommended. 



Domestic Receipts. 

To Crystallize Flowers. — Construct 
some baskets of fancy form with pliable 
copper wire, and wrap them with gauze. 
Into these tie to the bottom violets, ferns, 
geranium leaves— in fact, any flowers ex- 
cept full blown roses — and sink them in a 
solution of alum, of one pound to a gallon 
of water. After the solution has cooled, 
the colors will then be preserved in their 
original beauty, and the crystallized alum 
will hold faster than when from a hot solu- 
tion. When you have a light covering of 
crystals that covers completely the articles, 
remove the basket carefully, and allow to 
drip for twelve houi-s. These baskets make 
a beautiful parlor ornament, and for a long 
time preserve the freshness of the flowers. 

To Eemove Stains From a Book — To re- 
move ink stains from a book, first wash the 
paper with warm water, using a camel's 
hair brusli for the purpose. By this means 
ink is got rid of; the paper must now be 
wet with a solution of oxalate of potash, or, 
better oxalic acid, in the proportion of one 
ounce to half a pint of water. The ink 
stains will immediately disappear. Finally, 
again wash the stained place with clean 
water, and dry it with white blotting pa- 
per. 

To MAKE A Good Mucilage. — The best 
quality of mucilage in the market is made 
by dissolving clear glue in equal volumes 
of water and strong vinegar, and adding 
one-fourth of an equal volume of alcohol, 
and a small quantity of a solution of alum 
in water. The action of the vinegar is due 
to the acetic acid which it contains. This 
prevents the glue from gelatinizing by 
cooling; but the same result may be ac- 
complished by adding a Small quantity of 
nitric acid. Some of the pre2Jai-ations of- 
fered for sale are merely boiled starch, or 
flour, mixed with nitric acid to prevent the 
gelatinizing. 

To Cleanse Wool. — Make a brine, take 
a i^int of salt to a pail full of water or 
thereabout, heat it hotter than the hand 
can be held in it, but not to boiling; put 
in the wool, set it oft' from the fire, let it 
stand from ten to thirty minutes, as con- 
venient; take it out to drain, as it will be 
too hot to wring, then wring it, saving the 
brine, as a pailful may be used to cleanse 
fifteen pounds by heating over. Rinse in 
two or three waters; warm water is best. — 
Try this, and if you are not pleased with it 
I am mistaken, for many of my neighbors 
come to me to know how I cleanse my 
wool to have it so white. 



LifE ThoiICtllTs. 



Mechanical Hints. 



An AprKOATTD Whitewash. — The fol- 
lowing is sent out by the Lighthouse 
Board of the Treasury Department: "The 
following recipe for whitewashing has been 
found, by experience, to ans^ver on wood, 
brick and stone, nearly as well as oil paint, 
and is much cheaper. Slake half a bushel 
of unslaked lime in boiling water, keeping 
it covered during the process. Strain it 
and add a peck of salt, dissolved in warm 
water; three pounds of grcmnd rice put in 
boiling water, and boiled to a thin paste; 
half a pound of powdered Spanish whit- 
ing, and a pound of clear glue, dissolved 
in warm water; mix these well together, 
and let the mixture stand for several days. 
Keep the wash thus prepared in a kettle or 
portable furnace, and when used put 
it on as hot as possible, with painters' or 
whitewash brushes." 

Durable and Cheap Wrought Nails. 
We presume every farmer understands the 
usual method of making cut nails flexible 
by heating them; but if, instead of allow- 
ing them to cool in the open air, they are 
thrown when red hot into linseed oil, it 
will prevent their rusting almost as long 
as though they were galvanized. Those 
who have occasion to use cut nails instead 
of wrought, should not forget this simjjle 
method of preventing rust. 

Poisonous Painted Pails. — The prac- 
tice of i)ainting the inside of wooden pails, 
to prevent leakage, is only to be recom- 
mended when the paint contains no white 
lead or baryta, both of which we found in 
the paint of some pails examined lately. 
All over the country these pails are used in 
the kitchen, and although neither lead nor 
baryta are very soluble in water, yet fre- 
quently the j)aint peels off in flakes, and 
may have serious consequences when get- 
ting into the tea-kettle, and thus into the 
food. Baryta is, however, mucli less inju- 
rious than lead. The paint for such pur- 
poses should be either whiting or gypsum, 
if required white; but most preferable is 
ochre, against which the sanitary objection 
cannot be raised. — Manufacture and 
Builder, 



He who sows brambles must look well to 
his shoes. 

The way to Babylon will never bring you 
to Jerusalem. 

To argue with an angry man is like 
preaching to the sea. 

A horse is neither better nor worse for 
his trappings. 

He who wastes time throws away that he 
can never replace. 

It was well said by a Roman emperor 
that he wished to put an end to all his ene- 
mies by converting them into friends. 

Should misfortune overtake you, re- 
trench, work harder, but never fly; con- 
front difficulties with unflinching perse- 
verance. 

Seven years of silent inquiry are need- 
ful for a man to learn the truth, but four- 
teen in order to learn how to make it known 
to his fellow men. — Plato. 

Life is too much for most. So much of 
age, so little of youth; living for the most 
part in the moment, and dating existence 
by the memory of its burdens. — Alcott. 

Religion, if it be ti-ue, is central truth, 
and all knowledge which is not gathered 
round it, and quickened and illuminated 
by it, is hardly worth the name. — Chan- 
>ii>'9- 

The World's Work. 

Our external lives are not made up ci 
great occasions, and our greatness is not in 
superhuman and exhaustive efforts, but in 
gradual growth, and this is nourished by 
little daily acts and sacrifices andeSbrts 
which call into exercise every facility of 
soul and sense; and the lives which most 
deserve to be called sublime are those of 
which the world and history and poetry 
take little account. The lives of men and 
women around us are, for the most part, 
common-place, and we could not afford to 
have it otherwise. If all of them were 
reaching after occasions of rendering them- 
selves sublime, how would the world's 
work be done ? The world's work is tire- 
some, perplexing, uncongenial, and some- 
times, and for some people, of necessity, it 
is very disagreeable and menial service, 
yet in the spirit in which this work may be 
conceived and carried forward to the end, 
there is a sublime purpose and consecra- 
tion, be the end never so humble. 



Stand Like an Anvil. 

BY BISHOP DOANE. 

" Stand Uke au anvil!" while the stroke 
Of stalwart man falls fierce and fast; 

Storms but more deeply root the oak 
Whose brawny arms embrace the blast. 

" Stand like an anvil!" when the sparks 
Fly far and wide a fiery shower; 

Virtue and truth must still be marks, 
Where malice proves its want of power. 

" Stand like an anvil!" when the bar 
Lies red and glowing on its breast; 

Duty shall be life's leading star, 
And conscious innocence its rest. 

" Stand like an anvil!" noise and heat 
Are born of earth and die with time; 

The soul, like God, its source and seat. 
Is solemn, still, serene, sublime. 



MAiiE Others Happy. — Some men move 
through life as a band of music moves 
down the street, flinging out pleasure on 
every side through the air to every one, 
far and near, who can listen. Some men 
till the air with their presence and sweet- 
ness, as orchards, in October days, fill tjie 
air with the perfume of ripe fruit. Some 
women cling to their owne houses like the 
honeysuckle over the door, yet like it fill 
all the region with the subtle fragrance of 
their goodness. How great a bounty and 
a blessing it is so to hold the royal gifts 
of the soul that they shall be music to 
some, and fragrance to others, and life to 
all ! It would be no unworthy thing to 
live for. to make the power which we have 
within us the breath of other men's joy; 
to fill the atmosphere which they must 
stand in with a brightness which they can- 
not create for themselves. 



The Grave.— It buries every error, cov- 
ers every defect, extinguishes every resent- 
ment. From its jjeaceful bosom spring 
none but fond^regrets and tender recollec- 
tions. Who can look down upon the grave 
of an enemy and not feel a compunctive 
throb that he should have warred with the 
poor handful of dust that lies moulding 
before him ? 



12 



m^ 



iA 



O D 



[July 8, 1871. 



Economical Uses of the Grape. 

The Santa Clara Agriculturist condemns 
the use of the grape for tlie manufacture 
of wine, and alludes to the great number 
of harmless and really valuable uses to 
•which it may be put. It alludes particu- 
larly to its uses for food and unfermented 
drinks. The Mohamedans never use wine, 
yet cultivate the graj^e largely for those 
purposes. They eat them, fresh and dried, 
in immense quantities. They have a way 
of keejiing them fresh in earthen jars half 
of the year, in which condition, or as 
raisins, they form a large proportion of 
their every day diet, and frequently take 
the place of bread and meat on long 
journeys. They also make a syrup or 
treacle from them which is quite sweet and 
very wholesome. 

We may here suggest to the Agriculturist 
and our readers generally that a very ex- 
cellent and healthy summer drink may be 
made by soaking the raisins in water, the 
fruit being afterwards very palatable and 
more healthy than in the first instance for 
food. One of onr San Diego correspond- 
ents, iis we published some weeks ago, 
uses them in large qiiantities in this man- 
ner. 

Tlie Arabs also feed grapes to their 
horses, which thrive wonderfully under 
such diet. Tliey might also be economi- 
cally raised as food for hogs and poultry, 
where land is cheap and labor not too high. 

The intimation of the Agriculturist that 
grape sugar is made from this fruit in 
(rcrmany, and that they might be utilized 
for the same purpose here, has no economic 
value. Grape sugar is never made — com- 
mercially — from the grape, as its name 
would seem to imply; but from corn and 
potatoes, from which substances it can be 
made at a mere tithe of the cost which 
would be required to 2'ro'liice it from 
grapes. 

Potatoes — New Varieties. —Mr. A. D. 
Pryal, of Oakland, has shown us two new 
varieties of potatoes produced by him, by 
hybridization, which wo shall notice at 
length next week. They are undoubtedly 
peculiar and valuable. Mr. P. is doing a 
good and much needed work in this direc- 
tion. Our Half Moon Bay correspondent 
would, no doubt, bo much interested in 
seeing Mr. P., and examining his remark- 
able products. 

Fkuit Shipment East. — It is believed 
that an aggregate of about 2,000 tons of fruit 
of all kinds was shipped East by rail, last 
season, from this State. The experience 
thereby gained in packing, and in knowl- 
edge of the Eastern market, will be turned 
to good account, and will undoubtedly re- 
sult in largely increased shipments this 
year. 

N0KW.1Y Oats in Napa. — Mr. W. H. 
Baxter, of Spring Dale farm, showed us 
recently several stools of Norway oats over 
six feet high. The heads were of graceful 
form and fine-looking, and the stalks green 
and probably about throe-quarters grown 
in hight. Mr. B. thinks the Norways have 
dime splendidly where they have had 
favorable ground and cultivation, consid- 
ering the season. He has 80 acres, from 
the best of which he exi)ects 100 bushels 
to the acre. 



MusQuiT Gkass Seed. — In answer to the 
item of enquiry with regard to musquit 
grass seed, Mr. William H. White, of 
Bloomfield, Sonoma county, writes us that 
he has a good article of the kind which he 
will sell for one dollar per pound. 

Fine Cheubies. — Cherries have been ex- 
hibited from the garden of Rhoda, of Fruit 
Vale, Alameda county, which measure 
three inches and three-quarters in circum- 
ference. There are ten pounds in all in 
the consignment, nearly all of the cherries 
being as large as those notieed. 

Crops About Visalia. — The Delta hears 
that the settlers on Mussel Slough have 
cut their hay and that the general result 
has been quite satisfactory. Some grain 
was cut, but not as much as would have 
been, for want of machinery. The corn 
crop is looking splendid and the settlers 
are in fine spirits. Mr. Gray had a bunch 
of barley growing from one grain, which 
contained one hundred heads in full bear- 
ing. Not bad for such a season on land 
which is pronounced unfit for farming. 



Cranberry Culture In California. 

Mr. C. Berry asks for information with 
regard to the cost of setting out one acre 
of cranberries on tule land, in this State. 
As the cost depends largely on the nature 
of the ground, we do not know that wo 
can do better than give the following as 
the estimated cost for preparing ground 
for similar culture at the East, by a corres- 
pondent of the N. Y. Tribune, and allow 
our correspondent to modify the same for 
any particular locality in this State. 
Expenses. 

In the average situation it costs SlOO an 
acre to clear off, grub and scalp. Then it 
consumes at least §100 more to sand. The 
ditching and dyke may cost $50 more, and 
it can be done in some places for ^25. The 
plants and setting must cost $25 more. 
This makes the first cost of an acre §250 or 
S275. The outlay is often much greater, 
on account of stumps to be removed from 
the muck and the distance from which 
good clean sand must be hauled. I have 
known bogs to cost $.500 and $750 an acre. 
On the other hand, when some stumps are 
left in and the plow and harrow can be 
used, I have seen acres that did not cost 
$100 to put in. But $225 is a low estimate 
for a good bog, and most cranberry men 
will say their best acres have cost them 
from $300 to $.500 outlay before there were 
many berries to sell. 

The Visalia Delta, in alluding to cultiva- 
ting cranberries in this State says : — The 
sandy river bottoms of Tulare are well 
adapted to the culture of this fruit; and 
the man who gets a start with one acre 
will soon be able to buy out his neighbors. 
We have seen people at the East supjjort- 
ing a familj' and getting rich off of a five 
acre lot. There is no surer crop, and few 
things require less cultivation. 



The Santa Clara Farmers' Club. — 
This organization has become a live insti- 
tution and will soon get to work in earnest. 
The election of permanent officers was 
held ou Saturday last, with the following 
result: President, Oliver Cottle, San Jose; 
Vice-Presidents, J. W. Haskel, San Jose, 
and F. Garrigus, Santa Clara; Secretary, 
S. Harris Herring ; Treasurer, Jesse 
Hobson, San Jose; Directors, John Fitz- 
gerald and F. Garrigus. By the constitu- 
tion any person may become a member. 
Its objects are also as wide and liberal as 
its membership. Not only will agricultural 
and industrial questions be discussed; but 
it is also proposed to make it a sort of 
Farmer's Exchange, where any one can 
buy or sell any kind of farm i)roduce, ani- 
mal or vegetable. Vfe shall look with 
much interest to the " sayings" of this as 
sociation of practical California farmers. 

Since the above was in type, and just as 
we are going to press, we received a full 
report of what the organization has done- 
its constitution, etc., to which we will give 
attention next week. 



Shad Culture. — Fish Commissioners 
Greene and Bedding last week attended to 
the interesting duty of depositing in the 
upper waters cf the Sacramento river, at 
Tehama, the importation of young shad re- 
cently brought overland from the East. 
Tehama was the point selected, after due 
examination of the river deposit and test- 
ing temperature of the water by tasting 
and i^lacicg in a small vessel filled with it 
to observe its effect upon them, the proofs 
that the right spot had been found. The 
cans were emptied over a prepared space 
in the river at 9 o'clock at night. Mr. 
Greene estimates that 20,000 are healthy, 
and unless they encounter some unexpect- 
ed enemies, will make their way to and 
from the ocean, and within a few years 
stock the Sacramento with their sjiecics. 

Second Crop of Strawberries. — The in- 
dications are that the second crop of straw- 
berries will be very light this year. The 
Santa Clara Agriculturist attributes the 
prospective short crop to a too heavy first 
cropping. 



Santa Cruz Farmers' Club. 

June 17. — President Mattison in the 
chair. Attendance small; farmers very 
busy with their hay croi), which is good 
throughout the county — in some cases un- 
precedented. 

The Club voted an annual tax of $1 from 
each member; principally for purchase of 
books for the library. The best method of 

Conducting a Dairy Farm in California 
Was discussed with considerable interest. 
Mr. Kingsley thought the gi-eat secret, if 
any, was in getting good stock, and then 
taking good care of them. 

Selecting Stock. 

Mr. Feelei/. — I have seen, I think in the 
American Agriculturist, [I think in Pacific 
Rural Press, of May 2Gth. — Reporter | 
that stock should be selected with refer- 
ence to what is wanted of them, and the 
range. If for milk, on our rough, moist 
pastures, the Ayershire or the milk family 
of the short horns; if for beef, the short 
horns or Herefords; if for work cattle, the 
Devous, etc. 

Mr. Kingsley. — Cows good for cheese, 
may not be the best for butter. 

Mr. Cahoon. — I think if milk is rich in 
butter, it will also make rich cheese. Mr. 
Mattison explained that milk rich in 
casein — the cheese element — may be very 
poor in butter. This is a well-established 
fact among dairymen. 

Mr. Kingsley. — I think the Alderneysare 
best for butter. 

Mr. Locke. — As to breeds, I should pre- 
fer first the Ayershire, and second the Hol- 
land or Holstein. I can saj% from expe- 
rience, that those who select the short-horn 
for dairy i^urposcs, must be very careful, 
or they will find they have got beef instead 
of butter. 

Dairying in California. 

The only essential difference between 
dairj'ing in California and elsewhere, is in 
the care of the cows, and the time they 
come in — our climate allowing us to carry 
on the business all through the winter 
months, if we choose. I believe nearly all 
the large dairies in the State only milk 
through the flush season of green grass, 
and never think of feeding, even in the 
severest winter weather. 

The result is a very short dairy season, 
a low average yield (about 100 pounds per 
cow) , cows in a miserable condition when 
they come in, if they have not died out- 
right from exposure and starvation. 

Some dairymen pursue another course. 
They have their cows come in the fall; 
feed all winter, principally on cut hay and 
shorts or bran stirred together and moist- 
ened , say 10 or 12 hours before feeding. 

As compensation they claim — high price 
of roll butter through the winter, im- 
proved condition of cows in the spring, 
making them worth as much (or more) 
for the summer, as those that come in in 
the spring, and better calves. 

Mr. Kingsley, — I concur in this plan. 

M'-. Mattison. — Those who have few 
cows — raising no calves — may do this; but 
at last winter's price of feed, it will not do 
to feed much; feed and help will equal the 
product of the dairy. 

Mr. Humphries. — I have been paying 
$35 per ton for bran — thought it did not 
pay, and so left oft" about one week ago; 
but my cows have fallen off so much that 
I am losing the hay I give them and the 
labor. 

Mr. Mattison. — You left off just at the 
wrong time. I have always fed the year 
round with bran until this year. Am now- 
feeding green peas — vines and all. Not 
quite so good as bran. 

Mr. Humphries. — Cabbages would be 
better. 

Mr. Mattison. — But we cannot raise them. 
I think green corn equal to bran, if suf- 
ficient is given. Plant corn for soiling 
from three to five kernels to the foot, in 
diills, which are about three feet apart 
Cut up with a hoe sharpened and handle 
made short. 

A Member. — How would it do to let the 
cows gather it for themselves ? 

Mr. Mattison. — It would require about 
three times as much corn. If farmers 
would practice the proper rotation, their 
corn crop would cost them but little, as 
the improvement of the land for the next 
year's grain croi> will nearly, if not quite 
pay for it all. 

Mr. Kingsley. — I take the poorest land 
for corn, following next year with hay and 
grain. 



Norway Oats. 

Mr. Cahoon.—l have seen 71 stalks of 
Norway oats, from one kernel, grown by 
Mr. Geo. Dyer. 

Mr. Kingsley.— They are a humbug, and 
will soon be cheaper than common oats. 
They should be sown thin. 

Mr. Cahoon.— How are you to get them 
thin when 71 stalks grow from each kernel? 

Mr. Feeley. — They have had no fair test 
yet. 

Mr. Humphries.— And can have none 
this season. 

Mr. Mattison. — I soaked some in blue- 
stone — no benefit. I think them no better 
than the common oat. 

Cultivating Corn. 

Mr. Locke. — Is corn growu as a crop 
benefited by cultivation ? 

3/r. Mattison. — Not unless it is weedy. 
Stirring the soil will start more weeds. 

Mr. Sawin.— The more soil is stirred, the 
moister it is. Our common black soil 
stirred once in two weeks, will always be 
moist. 

Mr. Matti.son. — If much rain fell after 
planting, the Sjjaniards used to plow again 
and replant. 

Mr. Humphries. — I have raised corn 
here for thirteen years upon upland, and 
never cultivated unless to kill weeds. 

Adjourned. d. m. l. 



pLORIcdLTVIl^E. 



A New English Gladiolus, named 
" John Standish " has recently been pro- 
duced in England and exhibited at a lato 
meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society. 
It has flesh-colored flowers,- marked with 
crimson and purple, forming a magnificent 
spike. 

New Hollyhocks. — Quite a number of 
new and beautiful hollyhocks have recent- 
ly been produced by Mr. William Chater, 
of Saffron Weldon, Eng. Tjlr. C. annually 
produces quite a number of new flowers of 
various kinds, usually very perfect in 
shaj)e, firm in quality and varied in color. 
He makes this department of floriculture 
quite a specialty. 

Extraordinary Growth op a Rose 
Slip. — The Los Angeles News of June 22d, 
says: " One year ago Mrs. Bettis, at her 
residence on Main street, set out a rose 
slip about a foot long. It grew, divided 
in two branches, and is now trained over 
the window. If straightened out the vine 
would reach to the top of the two-story 
building at the foot of which it was planted, 
and the two branches united would mea- 
sure over fifty feet in length. Flowers 
and trees have but to be planted and 
watered; soil and climate do the rest. The 
above, though but one instance of the 
rapid and wonderful growth often at- 
tained under the genial influence of our 
southern sky, will doubtless appear incred- 
ible to the dwellers in less favored regions." 

How to Convert a Nuisance into an 
Ornament.— If there is an old dead tree 
near the house, you can easily convert it into 
a "thing of beauty." Let it bo sawed off 
smoothly, two or three feet from the 
ground; an old wooden bowl or something 
similar, painted green, fastened on it, filled 
with earth, and planted with hanging 
vines and a variety of upright flowers. 
This will be a continual source of pleasure. 
If there is a stump big enough to be hol- 
lowed out, so as to serve as a receptable for 
earth and flowers, let it not be taken away. 
A Madeira vine or Mexican Creeper or a 
graije-vine, can be trained over it. 

Tree or Hanging Baskets, are a very 
great ornament to a house inside or out. 
They may be easily and cheaply made by 
any one, out of small copper wire. A com- 
mon ox-muzzle is not bad for a pattern. It 
may be ornamented according to the taste 
of the maker. Such baskets lined with 
moss, filled v.-ith earth and flowers and 
hung up on the porch or under the trees 
about a house, are as graceful ornaments 
as one need have. The varieties of Saxi- 
frage, or W^andering Jew, are easily pro- 
cured, and grow rapidly. Ivy and Money- 
wort can be otained almost everywhere; 
these will form a beginning, to which ad- 
ditions can be made from time to time as 
one may be able or have time. 



July 8, 1871] 



13 



ific 



California Industrial Fairs for 1871, 

The State Fair begins on the 18th, and ends on the 23d of 
iSeptember, at Sacramento. 

The San Francisco Mechanics' Institute Fair begins on 
the 8th of August, and continues four weeks. 

The S. F. Bay Horticultural Fair begins on the 8th of 
August and continues four weeks. 

The San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Fair begins on the 
12tli, and ends on the 15th of September, at Stockton. 

The Upper Sacramento Valley Agricultural Society's 
Fair begins on the 2(>th of September, atChico. 

The Santa Clara Valley Agricultural Society's Fair begins 
August 28th, and ends September 1st, at San Jose. 

The Sonoma and Marin District Agricultural Fair will be 
held on the 2dth of September, and continue six days, at 
Petal u ma. 

The times of the other Fairs will be inserted as received, 
and kept standing until the several Exhibitions shall take 
place. 




DOMESTIC PRODUCE AT WHOLESALE. 

[The prices given below are tiioae for entire consignments 
from tirst bands, unless otherwise specified.] 

San Francisco, Thurs., a. m., July 6th. 

FLOUR — The market still continues quiet 
■with little demand for either export or local 
use. The' millers have again marked down 
their prices 25c ^ lb for extra — no change in 
superfine. 

Transactious embrace 3,500 bbls. California 
extra, 2,000 bbls. Oregon extra. 

We quote superfine, $6.37%@6.50; extra, 
$7.12%@7.25. Standard Oregon brands may 
be quoted $7.00@7.25. Inferior grades are 
reported as low as $6.75. 

WHEAT — Is still without demand for export, 
but with offerings free. We note but little 
chaiige in prices since our last review. We 
quote $2.30@$2.35 for new, and $2.35@$2.45 
for old. Sales of 10,000 sacks have been re- 
ported, during the week, at current rates. 

The Liverpool market was telegraphed on 
Thursday at lis. 7d. a decline since our last 
of 2d. — New York rates are given at $1.65. 

BARLEY— Has been in fair demand for both 
feed and brewing, at unchanged rates. Sales 
during the week have aggregated about 7,000 
ska. The range of the market may be quoted at 
$1.85@1.95. 

OATS — Are still in limited demand, holders 
firm. Sales of 3,000 sacks are reported at 
at from $1.75@2.00 for light to good. 

CORN— The market may be quoted at $2.10 
@2.15, firm, with a fair supply. 

CORNMEAL— Is quotable at $2.50@3.50. 
according to quality. 

BUCKWHEAT— Still quotable at $3. 

RYE— Nominal at $2.50 for choice. 

FEED— We quote: Straw, $8; Bran, 
$27.50@30.00; Middlings, 40.00; Oil Cakk 
Meal $40. 

HAY — The receipts are fair with good de- 
mand. We quote ordinary to choice at $15.00 
@$21.00 -^ ton. 

HONEY — Is coming in freely. We quote 
Los Angeles comb 13@14c. Potter's in 2-lb 
cans. $4.50 per doz. 

POTATOES— We quote current rates 87y^c@ 
$1.00 for Mission, and $1.00(S>L25 for Hum- 
boldt. This decline is due to heavy receipts 
and light demand. 

HOPS — Demand light — prices nominal at 9 
@12^c. 

HIDES — We quote Dry, slaughterer's stock, 
16@18c; Salted, 8@9c. Sales during the 
week 2,168 Cal. dry, and 1,462 salted. 

WOOL — The market is qmet, but prices firm. 
Oregon receipts still continue fair, with now and 
then a few strangling lots from California. We 
quote the range of fair to choice shipping 
grades at 30@35c for California, and 37%(a;40c 
for Oregon. Sales of 100,000 pounds are re- 
ported for the week. 

TALLOW — The extremes may be quoted 
from 7%@8%c. Extra choice 9c. 

SEEDS— Flax 3@3%c., Canaiy, 7@8c., Al- 
falfa, 16c. 

PROVISIONS— California Bacon 14%@15c; 
Oregon, 13@14; Chicago 14c; California Hams 
14@15; Oregon do, 15J^@16c; California 
Sugar-cured Hams, 17@18e; Eastern do, 18(a), 
20c; Eastern do, 18@19c; California Smoked 
Beef,13@14c. 

BEANS. — Extremes of quotations — Bayo, 
$3.00@$3.25 Butter, small White and Pea, 
$2.50@$2.75; Pink, $2.00@2.50. 

NUTS— Cahfornia Almonds, 10@15c for 
hard and 20@25c for soft shell; Peanuts, 7@ 
8c; Hickory and Walnuts, 12 %c; Pecan, 23@ 
25c ^ lb. 

FRESH MEAT— We quote slaughterer's rates, 
as follows: — 

BEEF— American, 1st quality, 8@ 9c ^ fc. 
Do 2d quality 6@ 7c ^ lb. 

Do 3d do 4@ 5c ^ »>. 

VEAL— Extremes, 6@9c. 

MUTTON-^ %@5c -^ ft). 

LAMB— May be quoted at from6@6>^c '^ lb. 

pORK — Undressed is quotable at 5@(i%c. 
dressed, 8@9%. 

POULTRY, ETC.— Is in limited demand 
Hens$G.50@7.00; Roosters $6@7; Ducks, tame, 
$5@6 ^ doz; geese, tame, f2.00@2.12>i ^ 
pair; live turkeys, 18@20c "^ lb. 

WILD GAME— Hare, $1.50@$2.00; 

DAIRY PRODUCTS— Cahfornia Butter, 
fresh, in rolls, may be quoted at 27%@30c; 
California firkin butter, 25@30c. Eastern 
firkin 20@30c. 



Cheese — In fair supply, California new, 10 
@i4c.. Eastern, 16@.17c. for new. 

Eoas — Cahfornia fresh, 29@30c. 

LARD- Cahfornia Lard. 11-lb tins, 14@15c; 
Eastern do. 14c in bulk, and 14^@15c in tins 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS— Busi- 
ness in this line is becoming quiet. At the 
same time stocks of all kinds are said to be 
complete, which are sold at reasonable prices. 
BUILDING AND FENCING MATERIALS— 
In fair demand for export — local demand more 
quiet. Cargoes of Oregon sell as fol- 
lows: Rough, $14@15; Dressed, $24; Spnice, 
$16.50. The following cargo rates for Redwood 
Lumber have been established by the R. W. 
Lumber Association: 

Merchantable. Kefuee. 

Rough $15 00 $11 00 

Surfaced 28 00 18 00 

Tougued and grooved 28 00 18 00 

Tontued and grooved, beaded.... 28 00 18 00 

Rustic, worked 31 00 20 00 

Siding and battens, )<i-inch 20 00 14 00 

Surfaced, H-inch 25 00 18 00 

Picket, rough li 00 

Picket, rough, pointed. 16 00 

Picket, dressed 22 50 

DRIED FRUITS— In moderate request. We 
quote the market as follows: Cal. Dried Apples, 
10@12c; Oregon do, — ; Languedoc Almonds; 
25c; Figs, Smyrna, 15@20c; Prunes, German, 
12c 1^ lb; Raisins, layer, $3.50@4.25 per box; 
CuiTants, Zante, 10%@ll%c.; 50c. 



LTABLE OF MISCELLANEOUS. 
Hemp Seed, Ib,$ 
Castor Beans, D). 



Sugar, crsh'd, tb $ U%lg)S 15 

Hawaiian, do. 9 (gi 12 

Coffee, Cos. R, B) 1.5^ 4 16 

Rio, do 16 @ 

Tea, Japan, ^ lb. .W @ 90 

Green, do 50 ®1 00 

Rice. Haw'n,^ lb S'i@ 9 

China.do 6 di Hi 

Coal Oil, ¥gal.. 60 @ 60 

Candles, %( ft . . . . 15 @ 18 



Castor Oil, gal..l 75 (a2 00 

Linseed Oil, gall 05 ®l 10 

Broom Corn,^ tb 3 @ 5 

Beeswax, «( lb... 27 @ 30 

Peanuts,* lb 5 @ 7 

Corn Meal, cwt. .2 50 ®4 00 

Onions, cwt 1 50 ®3 50 



San Francisco Retail Market Rates. 



FniDAT, July 7, 187L 
MISCELLANEOUS. 



Butter, Cal f r . lb 35 ® 45 

Pickled, Cal. lb 35 ® 40 

do Oregon, t). . (^ 

Honey, % lb 25 ® 30 

Cheese, f, lb . . . . 20 @ 25 

EgKS, per doz... 30 <S) 35 

Lard, V tb IS ® 20 

Sugar, cr., d'i Ib.I 00 @ 

Brown, do, (4 lb 10 (a> 13 

Beet, do 1 OO @ 

Sugar, Map. ft 
Plums, dried, ft 
Peaches, dried, ^ 



m 30 

IS (a) 25 
15 (g) 

PRODUCE. ETC. 
Codfish, dry, ft. 6 00 @ 12,14 Barley, cwt 175 



■m IH 
& 16 



®1 R5 

2 50 ®3 00 

®1 00 



Flour,ex,Ti4bbl..7 .W @7 75 
Superfine, do. 5 .50 ®6 00 
Corn Meal, 100 ft.3 00 ®3 25 
Wheat, ■# 100 fts.2 35 ®2 50 
Ottts, ^ 100 fts...l 90 ®2 10 

FRUITS, VEGETABLES, ETC. 
Pine Apples, t... 5 00 @9 00 |Cabbage,Tt*doz.. 75 @1 50 
U.in.'iniis. i« ft... 3 OOitu.'i 00 Carets, %* doz.. . 10 (cp 25 
Celery, %4 doz... 75 (oil UO 



Beans, cwt 

Potatoes, cwt 

Potatoes, new.. .1 00 («..l 25 

Hay. i* ton 16 .50 fe20 75 

Live Oak Wood. 9 00 ®10 00 



BananaV, 1^ ft . . . 3 OOia^S 00 
Cal. Walnnts, ft. (9 20 

Cranberries, ^ S "iS 
Cranberries, 0,* 



(Oil 00 
(g»l 00 



Apples, Early, bx 50 tg^l 25 
Red ■ 



Astra-n,..l .50 (u;2 ,50 

Red June 2 00 (a(2 .50 

Pears, table,^,bx 75 

Plums, Cherry,*. 

June, f. ft 

Apricots, Royal* 

Moorpark, "^ ft 

White, ^ ft... 
Cherries, lb 



(Oil 25 
t) (cu 8 
10 (g) 12;^ 



2)40 



5 (g) 10 



Currants, ft 6 (a* 

dooseberries. ft. 3 (S^ 
Raspberries, ft. 



Cress, ^ doz bun 20 (g> 25 

Dried Herbs, b'h 25 (g> 50 

Egg Plant (a» 25 

Garlics 5 (0 8 

Green Peas, W ft @ 6 

Green Corn, doz. 25 @ 50 

Sugar Peas, ^ ft ^6 

Cucumbers, doz. @ 25 

Lettuce, ^ doz.. 12 (ji* 25 

Mushrooms,^ ft 25 (j^ .50 

Horseradish."^ ft @ 20 

Okra, dried, ^ ft (g> 50 

Okra, green, (( ft 25 (a) 35 



Spinage, ^ bskt. 
Salsify. ^ bunch 
Turnips,^ doz.. 
New Tomatoes,* 



„ Pumpkins. "5* I 

18 (g) 20 Parsnips, tbnchs 

Stra"wberries, ft. (gi Parsley 

Blackberries, ft.. 8 (g) Pickles,^ gal. 

Oranges, ^ cwt.30 00 (gl Rhubarb, ^ ft.. 

Lemons, ^|cwt. .5 00 (gj7 00 Radishes, t buns 

Limes, cwt. . . .25 OO ^30 00 Green Peppers, * 

Figs, dried,?, ft. @ Red, do 

Asparagus, wh.* 6 @ 10 Summer Squash 

Apricots, ft. 6 (g> 10 Marrowfat, do. 

Artichokes, doz. 50 t^ 75 Hubbard, do. 

Brussel's sprts, * (a* 15 String Beans, ft . 

Beets, i> doz 20 (g» 25 

Potatoes, %4 ft . . 2 ® 3 

Potatoes, sweet,* (g) 

Potatoes, new. . . 4 (g) 

Broccoli, ^ doz.l 50 (a/2 00 

Cauliflower, t . . 1 00 (oil 50 

POULTRY, GAME, MEATS. ETC. 

Chickens, apiece 60 @ 75 

Turkeys, %< ft... 20 la) 25 
Ducks, wild, ^ p 

Tame, do 1 50 ® 

Teal, ^ doz.... 

Geese, wild, each @ 

Tame, W pair.. 2 .50 (gj3 00 

From Chicago. to) 

Hens, each 75 (§» 85 

Snipe. ? doz ... (u> 

English, do (g) 

Venison, %^ ft . . (($ 

Quails, ^ doz ... 

Pigeons, dom. do3 00 @3 .50 

Wild, do 1 50 (gii 00 

Hares, each ... 40 (a( ,50 

Rabbits, tame.. 50 (ml 00 

Wild.do, ^dz.l 75 (gt2 00 

Squirrel, ^ pair. 25 (g) 38 

Beef, tend, *i ft. 20 (g) 25 

Sirloin ana rib 18 ® 20 

Corned, « ft . . 10 (g( 12 

Smoked, %< lb . 15 (g) 18 
Pork, rib, etc., ft 12)^® 15 



(3» 



25 lg> 50 



10 @ 



Bacon, Cal., 1* ft 18 ® 20 

Oregon, do 18 (gl 20 

Hams, Cal, ^ ft. '" ~ '" 
Hams, Cross' s c 

Choice D'ffield 

Whittaker's .. 

Johnson's Or.. 
Salmon, %^ ft 

Smoked, new,* 

Pickled, Tfl ft.. 
Rock Cod, ^ ft . . 
Kingfish, %^ lb . . 
Perch, s water, ft _ 

Fresh water,ft 12'2Cgi 15 
Lake Big. Trout* 20 @ 25 

Smelts, Ifl ft 6 ® 8 

Herring, fresh. . 

Sm'kd, perlOO ®1 00 

Tonicod, $1 ft.... 15 @ 20 
Terrapin, %« doz.3 00 ®4 00 
Mackerel, p'k, ea 

Fresh, do 

Sea Bass, ^ ft... @ 

Halibut 62 @ 75 

Sturgeon, I* ft.. 4 @ 5 
Oysters, *4 100...1 00 @1 25 

Chesp. '|4 doz.. ®1 00 

Turbot @ 62' 

Crabs ^ doz.... (g)l 00 

Soft Shell 37 @ .50 

Shrimps 10 @ 12 

Pompino, lf> ft..l £0 @ 
Per lb. t Per dozen. 1 Per gallon. 



Chops, do, "f, ft 12 @ 15 
Veal, ^ ft " -" "" 

Cutlet, do 

Mu tton chops,* 

Leg,}* ft 

Lamb, f( ft 

Tongues, beef, ea 
Tongues, pig, ea 



15 @ 20 

@ 20 

12'<C@ 15 

1'2,''2@ 

@ 12!^ 

S in 



Wool Sacks, new 40 @ 90 

Second-hnddo 67^® 70 

Wheat-sks, 'i2x3G 15 @ 16 

Potato G'y Bags. 23 ® 24 

Second-hnd do 15 ® 16 

Deer Skins,^ ft. 15 @ 22 

Sheep sks, wl on .50 @ 75 

Sheep sks, plain. 12',^® 25 

Goat skins, each. 25 ® 40 

Dry Cal. Hides.. Weak Mi'/i 

.Salted do 

Dry Mex. Hides. 
Salted do 



18 @ '20 

(S» 2i 

© 2,5 

® '25 

@ 25 

@ UH 

10 © 12 

6 (a» 8 

10 © 12 

10 (a) 15 

10 @ 12>^ 



Go to the Best.— Young and middle-aged men 
should remember that the Pacific Bcsiness College is 
the oldest and most popular and successful Business 
Training School cm this coast. Upwards of Three 
Thousand Students have attended during the past six 
years, many of whom now hold prominent positions in 
the first banking and mercantile houses of this city. 
This is the model tuaining school for business on this 
coast, having the greatest corps of Professors and 
Teachers, and the greatest number of students in at- 
tendance, of any institution of the kind. Young men 
flock to tills College from all parts of the Pacific States 
and Territories, British Columbia, Mexico, Sandwich 
Islands and South America. Wo shall bo pleased to 
send our College Circular, giving full information, to 
all who send us their address. When you write, mention 
that you saw this notice in the Pacific Rural Press. 
M. K. LAUDEN, President, San Francisco, Cal. 



Tk« VIS A Wagnek, 41 First St.-Mill Stones, Bolting Cloths 
and general Mill Furnishing, Portable Milts of ail si/,es froiv 
l6to36iQ. None superior manf'd for farmers A raachmea. 



Leather Market Report. 

[Corrected weekly by DoUiver * Bro., No. 109 Post St.] 
San Francisco, Thursday, .Inly 6. 

Sole Leathf.r.— Price still continues the same, there 
being a scarcity of light weights. 

City Tanned Leather, ^ ft 26@30 

Santa Cruz Leather, 'p* ft 26@30 

Country Leather, ^ lb 25®'28 

All French goods still liave an upward tendency, with a 
growing scarcity of leading stocks. No change in domestic 
skins. 

Jodot,8 Kil., per doz $62 00® 

Jodot, 11 to 19 KiL.perdoz 82 00(g> 96 00 

Jodot, second choice, 11 to 15 Kil. 'Ji doz 68 OOcg) 88 00 

Lemome, 16 tol9 Kil.,%* doz 96 00(g) 

Levin, 12 and 13 Kil.. per doz 68 OOigl 70 00 

Cornellian, 16 Kil.,per doz 72 00@ 

Cornellian, 12 to 14 Kil., per doz 63 00(0)70 

Ogerau Calf, f, doz 54 OOS 

MercierCalf, 16 Kil.. per doz 65 OOta) 

Common French Calf Skins, ^ doz 35 00(^ 75 00 

French Kips, %« ft 1 1 0® 130 

California Kip. ^ doz 60 00® 75 00 

Eastern Wheel Stuffed Calf , !» ft 80® 1 25 

Eastern Bench Stuffed Calf, '|i ft 110® 125 

Eastern Calf for Backs, ^ ft 1 1.5@ 1 2'i 

Sheep Roans for Topjjing, all colors, ^ doz 8 .501^ 1 3 00 

Sheep Roans for Linmgs,^ doz 5 50® 10 !*) 

Cahfornia Russett Sheep Linings 17.5® 5 50 

Best Jodot Calf Boot Legs, f* pair 5 25 

Good French Calf Boot Legs, ^ pair 4.50® 5 00 

French Calf Boot Legs,^ pair 4 00 

Harness Leather, ^ ft 30® 37!4 

Fair Bridle Leather, 11 doz 48 00® 72 00 

Skirting Leather, -iS* ft 34® 37'4 

Welt Leather, ja doz 30 00® 50 00 

Buff Leather, ft foot '20® 24 

Wax Side Leather, ^ foot 18® 20 



Oxxr rrinted aiail 3L.lst. 

Subscribers will notice that their names are printed 
on colored paper and pasted npon each copy of the 
Pbess. This is done by machinery, to expedite the is- 
sue of our paper, the regular edition of which has be- 
come too large to be convenient to send out by the old 
method of writing the names. The figures found on the 
right of the pasted slips represent the date to which the 
subscriber has paid. For instance, 21sp70 shows that 
our patron has paid his subscription up to the 21st of 
September, 1870; 4jy72,thathe has paid to the 4th of 
January, 1872; 4jl0, to the 4th of July, 1870. The in- 
verted letters occasionally used are marks of reference, 
simply for the convenience of the publishers. 

If errors in the names or accounts of subscribers oc- 
cur at any time an early notice will secure their imme- 
diate correction. 



Our >4k.8:ez>.t8. 

OtiK Friends can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence and encouraging favors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

TraveHnar Asents. 
W. H. MtniBAT— Colorado Territory. 

M. B. Starr— Pacific Coast. 

Thos. Poyzer -California. 

Wm. J. Clark — California. 

L. P. McCartt — California. 

E. P. Hicks — California and Oregon. 

A. C. Knox, City Soliciting and Collecting Agent. 



Subscribers should send former address, when ordering 
the paper sent to a new place. Returning a newspaper or 
blank slip, without the name and residence of the sub- 
scriber is a thoughtless act, and useless both to subscriber 
and publish«r. 

Four Months' Subscription fob $1. ^Subscribers to 
the Press who remit direct to this office $5 coin, in ad- 
vance, hereafter, will be credited four months over a 
year for the extra dollar received above our regular 
rates. This will render it both convenient and profit- 
able to enclose a $5 piece in a registered letter, in which 
case we will be responsible for its safety. 



Haas Bros., of Napa, Cal.. are authorized to act as 
agents lor the Pacific Rural Prf,6s in that place. 



Thursday Noon our last forms go to press. Ccnc- 
municatioiis should be received a week in advance and 
advertisements as early in the week as possible. 



Send us Communications. — They will be re 
spected. If you have not time or the experience to 
write finished articles, send vis facts brief and plain. 
We will take care of them. Remember that writers im- 
prove themselves with others by use of the pen. Offi- 
cers of societies, clubs and meetings, please report. 



A Florence Sewing Machine, but slightly used, and 
good as new, for sale at 10 per cent, less than its cost— 
$67.50. Part of the money may be paid in installments 
by a person who gives good recommendations — in the 
city, or in the country near San Francisco. To be seen 
at this office. apl-bp-tf 



Mathew Bridge, Mason and Builder, Residence S. W. 
corner Larkin and Jackson streets, San Francisco, 
would call the attention of all parties intending to erect 
buildings of any description, that he is prepared to 
build concrete buildings, where lime and clean gravel 
are convenient, cheaper than wooden buildings. Con- 
crete Buildings, properly built, are in many respects the 
most substantial, as well as cheapest, buildings that can 
be erected. For any further information, address as 
above. 19vl-3m 



Every Mechanic should read and familarize 
himself with "Brown's 507 Mechanical Move- 
ments," illustrated, published and sold by 
Dewey & Co., Scientific Press office, San Fran- 
cisco. Bound in cloth. Price, (very lo'w) post 
paid, $1, coin, or its equivalent in cun-ency. 
Inventors, Engineers, Students, and Apprentices 
will find it exceedingly useful and especially 
handy for reference. 

Aoentb Can Make jrom $1,000 to $5,000 a Ytar in 
most any section of the country, selling Dana Bick- 
ford's new and improved FAMILY KNITTER. This 
Machine is guaranteed (in its present completeness) to 
meet every want of the household for either domestic or 
fancy work. Price $25. Send stamped envelope with 
full directions for an illustrated book. Address 

DANA BICKFORD, 
Vice President and General Agent, 689 Broadway, N. T. 

23v22-Gm-bp 



Wliat our Neighbors say of the 
Rural Press. 



$5 TO S20 per Day and no Risk.— Do you want a situ- 
ation as salesman at or near home to introduce our new 
7 strand White Wire Clothes Lines, to last forever. 
Don't miss this chance. Sample Free. Address Hud- 
son River Wire Works, 75 William street, N. Y., or 16 
Dearborn street, Chicago, 111. 2avl-12mbp 



Ladies DEsiRiNa to Procure a First-Class Sewtnq 
Machine against c^sy monthly installments may apply 
to No. 294 Bowciy, 157 E. 26th, 477 9th Ave., New York 
Good work at high prices if desired. 21vl-12mbi) 



It IS a beautiful and valuable sheet.— .Sr^n .Tnit lu<L 

The first No. evinces marked editorial ability Fills up 

a vacancy that has been felt in our agricultural department. 

With its publishers there is no such word as fail.— 

Mt. Mesxeitger. 

We believe every subscriber will be satisfied with the in- 
vestment of the price of subscription, H.—[Sf.n'>ra Dem. 

It is a work which no farmer should be without. -L 10 *-/,« 
Unuin. 

An admir.ible specimen both as to execution and contents. 
. . . Contains a large amount and great vai-iety 'of attractive 
reading matter and several excellent illustrations.— LA'''«'^'- 
ton DaiJy Ind. 

A large 16-p.age weekly. The Rural Press v/ill be to the 
Pacific coast what Moore's Rural New Yorker is to theJMiJ- 
dle and Northern States. — [Encinal Alameda. 

Any intelligent farmer in the State will consider his 
money well invested by subscribing for the new paper. 
" Honest, intelligent and correct information will be faith- 
fully given in behalf of and urging an improved cultivation 
of the soil, a greater diversity of products, better breeds of 
stock, better varieties of fruits, the culture of new products, 
the creation of new home industries, the adoption of im- 
proved implements, and happier and higher aims in life."' 
—[Encinal. 

They can,|if they will, makeit a creditable work. [We wilt 
that.) It opens well. 

E,xcellent paper and type--and a first-class agricultural 
journal.. .Its merits entitle it to a large circulation, which, 
we apprehend it will speedily obtain.— [ VallejoKerorder. 

We announce with pleasure the new paper by Dewey & 
Co., proprietors of that peerless paper, the Scientific 
Press.— [^r/zOHU Miner. 

We think the rural people of the Pacific Coast will have 
an organ second to none in the country.- [/(/«Ao,S'(u/(;,v/uaH. 

Just the kind needed on this coast, and merits an extend- 
ed circulation.— [/i«(i iJ/u/ liuit-pendent. 

Pacific Rural Press, published by A. T. Dewey, W. B. 
Ewer, G. H. Strong and J. L. Boone, The paper is a suc- 
cess, and will supply a want long^needed. 

It has already attained to a large circulation. . . . 

Is running over with entertaining and instructive reading 
matter, and embellished with numerous engravings. 

The heading is beautiful and appropriate.— [/"(x/aroHm/i. 

We cordially welcome it. The publishers, believing that 
the agricultural enterprises of this coast were sufficient to 
support a publication wholly devoted to its interests, deter- 
mined to confine the Sdmtijic Pr^.M to mining and mechan- 
ical arts, and have therefore started the Pufijic Rural Prf^.ss. 

If the first number is to be taken as an earnest of whai 
will follow, each week, we can advisedly say to all interested 
in agricultural pursuits.. subscribe. — [ Valhjo Chronicle. 

Dewey A Co., publishers, have unusual facilities for pub- 
lishing a superior paper ;for , the farming community, and 
they are men of energy to do it. — [Emuai^l, S. F. 

Such a paper has been in demand on this coast for sorai 
tinte. and we judge from the amount of agricultural in- 
formation which it contains, that it fills the bill. 

We notice thjit I. N. Hoag, of "V'olo county, has been se- 
lected as one of the contributors to its pages. 

It is the duty of the farmers to sustain it, and try and 
make it a success, which we believe will be done.-il'w^' 
Mail. 

We have received this new home and farm journal, and 
like it well. 

The publishers seem determined to make a popular, first- 
claas rural home journal, well filled with interesting and 
elevating reading, with no unchasteness in either reading 
or advertising matter. 

Having the countenance and encouragement of the prom- 
inent and most active agriculturists in California, and long 
experience in the publication of the "Scientific Press"— 
which will be continued entirely independent of the " Rural 
Press"— the public have ample assurance that the new eflort 
to establish a first-class farm journal on this coast will prove 
a success. 

Dewey & Co., San F''rancisco, are the publishers, and the 
price is low— $4 a year; or to a club of 10 or more, $3. 
Sample copies sent on receipt of a postage stamp.— ["Alpine 
Miner." 

The "Rural Press" will supply a want long felt in Califor- 
nia, and we predict that it will acquire a large circulation 
among our agric Itural population. 

Uulike many so-called "agricultural" papers, it will not ba 
exclusively devoted to horse-racmg, prize-fighting, yacht- 
ing, etc., but will be a respectable family journal. —[Demo- 
crat, Downieville. 

We judge that it will meet the retiuirements of agricul- 
turists. As publishers of the "Scientific Press," the name 
of Dewey & Co. is a guarantee that this new publication will 
meet with favor. — [Alpine Chronicle. 

The farmer, horticulturist, the home circle and the house- 
wife will find in it just the articles that will be pleasing and 
profitable to them.— [Christian Advocate, S. F. 

It will represent the agricultural interests of California 
and the Pacific Slope. • * * With so much ability as to 
command a wide circulation and iniiuence.- IHolena, (M. 
T.) Goz. 

Will be found worthy the patronage of the people of this* 
State.— [Argns, Snelling. 

We heartily welcome the new publication. 

The interests of our own county are about e(iaully divided 
j between mining and farming. 

Not a farmer in it, however well informed, but may loaru 
something of value pertaining to his business, from an ably 
conducted paper, specially devoted to the consideration of 
the peculiar conditions of soil, climate and seasons of the- 
Pacific Coast. 

From the well known ability and energy of the publishers, 
we doubt not that the "Rural Press" will fulfill all these 
conditions.— I Inyo Independent. 

From a Correspondent.— I have seen your "Pacific Ru 
al,'' and I never tire of looking at and studying its "head 
and front." It is a taf.-in;/ picture, and will induce many to 
take the paper. The contents are No. 1, also. w. 11. M. 



Send in your subscriptions at once to DEWEY 
& CO., publishers, No. 414 Clay street, San 
Francisco. 



14 



[July 8, 187 1. 



Thoroughbred Cotswold Sheep. 




COTSWOLD KINO. 

IMPORTED FROM THE FLOCKS of Lane, Game & 
Fletcher, England, and J. D. Wiug. of N'lW York, with 
th«ir grades half and thiee-quartiT breeds. 

REFERKNCKS.— Seeretarj- of State ARrirultural Soci- 
ety, who says: " Your Cotswold and Merino grade rams 
(recommended by hinisclf to parties in Saeramento) 
give entire satisfaction since they have seen the result 
of the cross." 

A. Lovell, of Millerton, and Charles Peck, of SncUing, 
with others from dilfcreiit parts of the State, say. in re. 

f;ard to their cross with Merino sheep: '• Have more and 
argcr lamb", with better staple wool than ever before." 
Wm. O Brine, of Sm Francisco, purchased all of our 
quarter Cotswold lambs at $2 per head on our raucho. 

Christy & Aise sold thirty-nine bales of our grade 
wool at thirty-two cents per pound, for six months clip. 
1,3U0 Spring Lambs, shears in May, averaged 2*4 Iba. 
of wool per head. 

Below, find statement of wool scoured by me for the 
New Y'ork State Sheep Bn^eders and Wool Growers' 
Association, of wool Bbcar«d at the meeting in this 
place, in May, 1867. 

Truly, WM HAYDEN. 

Woolen Manufacturer. 



Owners* Names. 



8. ^^ ■ (Jraiidall. 
Chamberlain ... 

A H Clapp 

McMuUon 

W Cole 

W H Holmes.. 

Q Bonan ,.. 

J D. Wing 

D. H Barnes. . . . 
J. D. Wing 



P {'9 Breed. Sheared. Scoured 



1 ' Cotswold. 

21 



8.10% 
10.3'^ 
IG.3'^ 
13 "S 
IS 7 
11; 6 
18 9 
11 12 
19. 4 i^ 



t'A 
s« 

6 4M 
S2S' 

7 13!^ 
6.9 

11.37 
8.7 
10 6 



Nog. 8 and 10 are the Cotswsld rams " Gold n Fleece" 
and " Champion," imported from England by J. D. 
Wing, and now owned by us. "Golden Fleece" won 
the Randall Prize, for which the above fleeces were 
scoured. 

For pamphlet, address 

H. F. BUCKLEY k BRO., 

19vl-3m Hopeton, Merced Co., Cal. 



FULL BLOODED SHEEP! 

For Sale, at Fair Prices, 40 Rams and 20 
Ewes, of 

Full lilooaed Sllislan Stoelc, 

from the celebrated "Electoral" Flock ot William 
Chamberlain, Esq., of Red Hook, Duchess County, New 
York. These are the purest and best bred Silcsian Sheep 
iu the United States, if not in the world, and have 
carried off the 



FIRST PREMIUMS 



In Fine Wool Classes at the State and National Fairs 
since 1854. 

ALSO FOR SALE, 

Full Blooded Cotswold and Full Blooded 
Leicestershire Rams and Fwes, 

Just selected from the Best Flocks in England by one of 
the best of judges, W.m. T Wilson, Esq., and imported 
by him especially for this market. 

Also, California Bred, Full Blooded 
COTSWOLD AND SOUTHDOWNS, 

and }i and other crosses between these Breeds and be- 
tween each of these Breeds and Full Blooded 
Spanish Merinos. 

Also, Full Blooded Berkshire Figs, 

selected and imported by the same party above named. 

HIGHEST PRICES PAID FOR WOOL, 

and Wool Pressed and Shipped for Exporters, with Care 
and on Reasonable Terms, by, 

ROBERT BECK, 

At the Office of the Secretary of the Cal. State Agricul- 
tural Society, Sacbamento, Cal. 
20vl-3m 



:ElGGri^l ECiGS! EGGS! 

STEVENS BROS' 

Patent Egg Boxes, 

We would respectfully call the attention of all persons 
who ship or handle Eggs, to th*; advantage to be derived 
from u^ing Stevens' Bros. Patent Egg Cases. 

These cases hold thirty dozen Eggs each, self count- 
ing, and can be packed with ease and facility. Eggs 
shipped in the above cases sell quicker and give more 
satisfaction to buyers than any other package in use, as 
the contents are not damaged, and buyers subjected to 
no trouble as regards the count. 

NO BROKEN EGGS I NO HEATED EGGS ! 
NO PACKING REaUIRED ! 

To the Trade. 

We offer these Egg Cases at the following rates : 
SCALE OF PRICES : 

100 cagea or over, cash price $3 00 each 

50 cases or under, cash price 3 60 each 

CAUTION I 
Stetess* Patent Eoo Boxes, patented Feb. 26, 1867. 
All persons are hereby cautioned against manufactur- 
ing, selling and using any cases fur packing and trans- 
porting eggs, constructed with compartments, by 
placing a separate diaphragm horizontally bet>»ecu each 
tier, from the bo:toiu to the top of each case, and any 
and all infringements upon said patent, either for man- 
ufacturing. Belling or using without authority from the 
undersigned, will be prosecuted. Parties desiring in- 
formation will apply to the owners. 

STEVENS k GRAY, 
Union Market, Howard street, 
18-vl-3m Between Third and Fourth streets. 



871. 



SUBSCRIBE FOR THE 



187 



Oyerland Monthly 

The only Literary Magazine 

PUBLISHED ON THE PACIFIC COAST, 



The Sixth Volume of this popu- 
lar California Magazine will com< 
tnence with the January Number 
for 1871. We promise our read- 
ers rich things during the coming 
year, 







Terms : — $4 . oo per annum, 
payable in advance. 

Club Rates:— Two copies, $7.00; 
Five copies. $ 16.00 ; Ten copies, $30,00 ; 
and each additional copy, ^3.00. For 
every Club of Twenty Subscri\»cn, an 
extra copy will b« furnished GRATIS. 



J 



PUBLISHED BY 

OHN H. Carmany & Co., No. 409 Washington Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Bound Volumes. — Six Numbers — from January to June, and July to December — consti- 
tute a volume. Bound volumes will be sent, post-paid, for $3.00, paid in advance. 



Farmers and Teamsters, 

JS5-A.VE YOUR aXOIVEY"! 

Bn rsiNO the 

Patent Wood Horse Collars and Hames 

Combined, 

Which has many advantages over the Leather Stuffed 
with Straw. 

Ist. DuBABiLm, lasting at least ten times as long. 

2d. Convenience. Opening below, can be laid on and 
off the Horse, having one fastening in place of two or 
three. 

3d. Is one-third lighter than leather collar and hamc. 

4th. Can be easily fitted, as it is so constructed that 
the length and width can be changed iu a few minutes. 

5th. AS there are no stitches to break, or stuffing to 
press out, ir never loses its shape, always bearing 
upon the muscular part of the shoulder, near the neck— 
the proper place for draft. 

tjth. Its smooth, hard surface, giving eqiial pressure 
on the whole line of draft, never sweats or Bt;B8 off 
THE hair. • 

7th. It has an important advantage in the stationary 
curved arch, keeping the collar from setting tight 
AHOtniD the top of the ni-ck when heavy tongues have 
to be carr ed (as in some machines) , thus keei-ing the 
neck Cool, and free from sores in thf. hottest 
wkaTheh. Leather Collars win, tighten over the top 
of the neck, and heat and gall the animal. 

8th. Wood being a nou-condui tor of heat the soreness 
caused by Leather Collars becoming wet by perspiration 
is avoided. It has many other advantages which cannot 
be known without atrial. This Collar is W.AKUANTED 
to Cure Horses with Sore Shoulders iu Three Weeks, 
Working Every Day. Give them a trial. 

For Circulars, price of Collars, and all other particu- 
lars, apply to or address 

■WTLDMAN & MARBLE, 
No. 30 California street, San Francisco, Cal. 
Sole Manufacturers and Dealers for the Facihc Coast. 

Agents wanted. 19vl-3m 



CHOICE POULTRY. 

The undersigned, Importer and Breeder of 

liigrht and Dark Brahmas, 

Partridge and Buff Cochins, 
Houdans, 

Black Red Game Bantams, 

Black African Bantams, and 
Aylesbury Ducks. 

OFFERS FOR SALE BOTH 

IMPORTED AND CALIFORNIA BRED STOCK. 

ALSO, 

I^KSS for Hatclilng, 

No orders filled C. O. D. 
For further particulars address 

C. M. NICHOLS, 

Fruit Vale Avenue, 
Brooklyn, 

Alameda Co., 
aivl-tl Cal. 



8TETlEOSCOI»E!5», 

VIEWS, 

ALBUMS, 

CHROMOS, 



FRAMES. 



E. & H. T. ANTHONY & CO., 

591 BKOADWAY, N. Y., 

Invite the attention of the Trade to their extensive 
assortment of the above goods, of their Own Publi- 
cation, Manufacture and Diiportation. 

Also, 
PHOTO LANTERN SLIDES 
and 

GRAPH08C0PES. 
NEW ^^EWS OF YOSEMITE. 

E. & H. T. ANTHONY & CO., 
591 Broadwav. New York, 
Opposite Metropolitan Hotel, 

IMPORTERS AND MANtJFACTUBERS OF 

Pliotog'rfipliio ]yia.tei*ials. 

ma25-10t 



Crandall Patent Spring Bed, 

Received Premium for best Spring Bed at the Staff 
Fair and was on exhibition at all of the District Fairh 
n this State. 

IT EXCELS 

IN 

f.lKbtnena, riennllnea*, 

Kluotlclty und Diiriihlllt]-, 

Any other Spring Bed Ever Invented. 

Being without upholstery in can be aired at pleasure- 
while the springs being in couplets are self-supporting 
thus dispensing with cords, twine, etc., and from th( 
peculiar construction of the various parts it is impossi 
i)le for the bed to get out of order. 

Manufactory — 123 Front street, near comer of M 
Sacramento; and at 1124 Market street, San Francisco 
These beds can also be obtained of our agents in nearl; 
every town in the State. 

CU01.fe,lf <Jk OREEV, Proprietor!. 



THE 

ASPHALTUM PRESSURE PIPE 
c o ]\x r* >v IV ^" , 

HAVING EUECTRn \ MAXITFArTORY 

of Bufficient capacity to suiiply thoir Asphaltum Pipe in 
large qiiautities, 

Are now Prepared to Take Oraers 

AATU MAKE CO.VTKACTS. 

This Company will manufa<'tnre Pipe and giiarantre 
it to btanii any pressure required; itis lighter than iron 
pipe and more durable, it is not affected by chemical 
action, cannot corrode, and bein^ glazed imparts no dis- 
agreeable taste to water. To miners and farmerti it ia 
invaluable; any body can put it down; it is twenty per 
cent cheaper than iron pipe and ten times more durable. 
For further particulars, »pply at the ottice of the Com- 
pany. Room No. 2, r>45 Market street. 

VST Circulars sent on api>lication. 16v21-tf 



SACRAMENTO SEMINARY, 

I street, between Tenth and Eleventh, 
SACRAMENTO, CAL. 

The Seventeenth Semi-Anncai. Session of this Semi- 
nary for Young Ladies, owned and conducted by Mr. and 
Mrs. Hermon ferry, assisted by a full and efficient corps 
of Professors and Teachers, will commence on MON- 
DAY, AUGUST 7'JH, 1»71. 

For particulars address 

HERMON PERRY, A. M., 

24vl.2m Sacramento, Cal. 



, K. CCMMINOS. 

1858. 



. M. MAXWELL 

1871. 



HENRY K. CUMMINOS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commission 

House, 

ESTABLISHED I8.18. 

415 and 417 Davis street, cor. of Oregon, San Francisco. 

Our business being exclusively Commission, we have 
no Interests that will conflict with that of the producer. 
17vl-tf 



PURE BERKSHIRE SWINE. 

R. S. THOMPSON, 

Importer and Breeder of 

Improved Berkshire Hogs, 

NAPA, CALIFORNIA. 

Orders solicited. 

19-vl-lm R. S. THOMPSON. 

THOS. BUTTERFIELD & SON, 

Breeders and Importers of the 

Cotswold, Lincoln, Leicester, Texel and 

South Down Sheep ; 

ALSO, THE ANGORA GOAT. 

Now offer for sale the Pure Bred and High Grades. 
We have a good lot o' crosses between the Cotswold and 
South Down, between the Lincoln and Leicester. 

THOS. BUTTERFIELD it SON, 

24vl-llw HoUister, Monterey Cotuity, Cal. 




FIRST PREMIUM AWARDED at the State Fair, 1870, 
for the bett Farm Wagon; also for the best improved 
Thimble Skein. All kinds of Wagons on hand and 
made to order, of the Best Eastern Material, and War- 
ranted to give satisfaction. 

E SOULE. 



ap22.3m 



Comer Eleventh and I streets, 
SAcnAMENTO, Cal. 



BAKER & HAMILTON, 



IMFOBTEBS OF 



Hardware, Farming implements. 

MACHINES, ETC. 




THE EXCELSIOR MOWER. 

Are Solo Agents for 
EXCELSIOR MOWER AND REAPER, 

CHAMPION MOWER AND REAPER, 

BIRKES EAGLE MOWER AND REAPER, 

NEW YORK MOWER AND REAPER, 

Haines" Genuine Illinois Harvester, 

Pitts' Improved California Thresher, 

Portable Steam Engines, Etc., 

With a full stock of all kinds of implements needed in 
Farming. 

Send for List of Prices. 








THE CHAMPION SELF RAKE REAPER. 

9, 11, 13 and 15 ,1 street, SACRAMENTO. 
13, 15, 17 and 19 Front Street, SAN FRANCISCO. 
17-vl-3m 

THE PATENT 

Novelty Mill and Grain Separator 




Is one of the greatest tniprovements of the age for 
cleaning and separating Grain, while it combines all the 
essential qualities of a first-class Fanning Mill. It also 
far excels anything that has been invented for the sepa- 
ration of Grain. It lias been thoroughly tested on all 
the different kinds of mixed Grain. It takes out Mus- 
tard, Grass Seeds. Barley and Oats, and makes two dis- 
tinct <iualities of wheat if desired. 

For further informati<m apply to R. STONE, 

25vl 2m 422 Battery street. Ban Francisco. 



-S^O.^-iEMITE HOUSE, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 
ALEX McBEAN, Proprietor. 

THE LAE0E8T .AND 

Best Furnished House in this city. 

r Jantuiy 28.— 4vl-3mr 



July 8, 1871.] 



'(ste\?,JE>©> 



15 



^TT"5Z" TSaCiS aSESJTS 




UREDBYADRIANCE.PLATT&CO 
STYLES, SIZES & PRICES TO SUIT ALL FARMERS. 

Descriptive C!rciilnr3 Forwarded hy MaiL 

MARCUS C. HAWLEY&CO.,Agent3/ 

108 & 110 Front Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

OEEAT REDUCTION IN PRICES OF 

MACHINES AND EXTRAS 

FOR 1871. 

The Buckeye is the 

BEST MOWER NOW IN USE. 
As a Reaper, 

We guarantee it superior to any SELF-RAKING REAPER 
yet invented. 

Sole Agents for tlie Celebrated 

S^veepstakes Thresher. 

Also, Sole Agents for 

GENUINE HAINES' HEADER, 

HOLLINGSWORTH WHEEL-HORSE RAKES, 

BURDICK'S NATIONAL FEED-CUTTER. 

We have also WOOD'S MOWER, KIRBY MOWER and 
REAPERS. Also, Extras for the above, witli a full 
fctock of Agricultural Implements and Hardware. 

MARCUS C. HAWLEY & CO., 

108 and 110 Front street, and Nos. 10 and 12 Pine street, 
ap22-3m San Francisco. 



THE STUDEBAKER 




BOONE'S C-SPRING ROLLER SKATE. 



PATEIST Gm^TVTED. 




This SKATE surpasses [in Elasticity, Durability 'and Ease of Operation, any other Skate iu existence. Its 
superiority has been proved wherever it has come in competition with any other Roller Skate. 

FOR DESCRIPTION SEND FOR DESCRIPTIVE CIRCULAR. 

Warranted to run longer without requiring to be repaired than any other Skate. 

Owners of Rinks will find it the most profitable as well as the most satisfactory to their patrons. The 
patentees guarantee the right to run this Skate to purchasers of rights for the full lerm of the patent, and 

Warrant it to be no Infringement on any Existing Patent. 

state, County, Town and Rink Rights for sale at reasonable terms. 

Apply by letter or in person to 

UNDERBILL BOYNTON, 

105 Montgomery Street, S. F., Cal., 

General Agent for the United States. 



WIBSTKR & CO., 

No. 17 New Montgomery Street (Grand Hotel), San Francisco. 

I7A.TETVTS BOXJGrHT AISfD S^OLI> ON COI^IMISSSION. 



w Abacus. 

THE BEST FARM WAGON; 

THE BEST RANCH WAGON; 

THE -BEST TKUCK WAGON; 

THE BEST TEAM WAGON; 

THE BEST HEADEE WAGONJ 

The Best Thimble Skein and !ron Axle 

"W A O O IV S, 

Sold for $100 to $175. 

AMES & WOOLVERTON, 

General Agrents for the Pacific Coast. 
5vl-3mr 217 & 219 K St., SACRAMENTO, CAL. 

MILLER & HALEY'S MILLS, 

BERRY STItEET, 

Between Third and Fourth Streets, S. F. 

Having been burned out at the late fire on Fremont 
street, we have removed our business to the above local- 
ity, where the mnufacture of sash blinds, doors, frames, 
mouldings, etc., in connection with a general mill biisi- 
ness, will be carried on by us as formerly, and where we 
shall be pleased to see all our old friends and patrons, 
and as many new ones as may favor us with a call. 

Thankful for past favors', and especially for the sym- 
pathy extended to us for our late heavy losses, we in- 
tend, as heretofore, to deserve the patronage of the pub- 
lic by strict attention to business, fair dealfngs, and jus- 
tice to our customers. 

19vl-3m MILLER & HALEY. 

WM. M. LANDRUM, 

BREEDER AND IMPORTER OF 

liOngr-Wool Varieties and Southdown 
SHEEP AND ANGORA GOATS. 



Offers a fine lot of all grades'of RAMS for sale. 

WM. M. LANDRUM, 
93Tl-6m Wfttsonville, Santa Cruz County, Cal. 




Patent Sand-Caps lor Hubs of "Vehicles. 

The invention consists of a ring of metal which is made 
conical in form and has its smallerend attached to the axle 
near tlie collar. The edge of the larger end projects into a 
groove, which is formed in th- inner end of the hub, and 
thus effectually protects the collar and the axle-box from 
saud and dnst. In the illustration, A is the huh of the 
wheel, B the axle, which may be fitted in any of the ordi- 
nary ways, C the collar, and E& ring of wood or metal, 
which may be put on by removing (.'. In the case of axles 

already made, or iu new work, the ring may be slipped on before the axle is welded up. Town, County, Shop and 

State Rights for Sale. 

A. ]Ve-\^ Patent AtinospHerlo Attachment to Dental Plates. 

Can be applied to both New and Old Plates, so as to retain them firmly in the mouth while eating or talking: 
superior to any thing ever before invented, cost of applying it small, and the greatest improvement immediately 
felt by the wearer. 

All who have badly-fitting plates can, by the application of this Attachment, wear them with perfect comfort 
and usefulness while eating, talking, etc. State, County and Ofiice Rights for Sale. 

Hill's Grate Bai'- 

This Bar will withstand 800 degrees more heat than any other Bar now in use. It is unequalled in durability. 
It generates more steam from the same quantity of coal, making a saving of from 10 to 15 per cent, in fuel. It has 
been examined and used by some of the most scientific Engineers in the Unit d States, and pronounced the best 
Grate Bar extant for marine or land boilers. The Patent Right to the Pacific Coast is placed in o\ir hands for sale. 
A complete model can be seen at our ofHce, or a descriptive circular will be sent on application. 
A. Ne^v Potato l>igger. 

County Rights for Sale and one Digger free. 
A. IVe-w Patent Stencil Plate that Tvill Jlarlc any IVanie or iNmnher. 

A. Oomplete Self-acting IPfiit Roaster. 

Tlio Best Horse Hay Rake e-ver invented. County Rights for Sale. 

Ne^v Gas Ivight. 

This Light takes the place of the Candle, the Kerosene Lamp and Coal Gas. Each Lamp is a perfect Gas 
Factory, making its own gas as fast as it is required, It is a safe, cheap and beautiful light. Circulars and full 
particulars sent on api^lication. 

'X'lte Trlnmpli "Wasliing Blacliine. 

Ho who finds a good wife finds a " good thing "— so we have heard it sold - and he who finds a Washing Ma- 
chine such as the one invented by Mr. Hockabout, finds a thing that will do to talk about. The fact Is, this 
Machine is beginning to be talked about a great deal, and the more it is talked about tlie more fully people are 
becoming convinced that there is at least one Washing Machine that is not a humbug. It is siuiple in con- 
struction, and more simple in its operation. All that is requii'ed is to feed it with clothes and turn the crunk. It 
is provided with a heating chamber which keeps the wafer hot and stfams the clothes. While in operation there 
are three rollers which pass over the clothes very rapidly yet so gently as not to break the buttons or injure 'he 
garments. It would be diificult to enumerate in a brief advertisement all the superior merits of this novel in- 
vention. It can be built by any ordinary mechanic at a moderate cost and allow a handsome profit. State and 
County Rights for sale. A complete working model and large machine can be seen at oiu- office. 
I-.nsl\er's "Veteetahle Cutter. 

There are few inventions for which there is a more general want than a good, cheap and rapid Vegetable Cut- 
ter. We think the one recently patented by .John Lusher, of ludiima, fully meets this want. It costs but a trifle, 
never colors or rusts, will last many years and always kcei) sharp. It operates equally well on Potatoes. Cabbage, 
Turnips, Beets, Cucumbe^p, etc., cutting six slices at each mov^ ment of the hand. It can be made by any Tin- 
smith, and at a trifling cost. State, County or Shop Rights for Sale. Circulars sent on application. A sample 
can bo seen at our oihce. 



GILKS H. GRAY. 



J*ME3 M. nAVKN. 



GRAY & HAVEN, 

VTTOKNE YS AND COUIVSKLOKS AT LAW, 

fn Building of Pacific Insurance Co., N. E. corner Oall- 
fotniaano Lcldesdorit streets, 

ijvie SAN FRANCISCO. 



WM. M. LTON. 



CnA3. 0. BARNES. 



LYON & BARNES, 

Successors to Lton * Son, dealers in Produce Vegeta- 
bles. Butter, Eggs, Green and Dried Fruits, Cheese, 
Poultry, Honey, Beans, etc., etc. 
lTl-3mi No. 21 J Street Sacramento. 



NASH & CUTTS' 
FANNING MILL AND GRAIN SEPARATOR. 




FIRST PREMIUM at the laliiurijia Mate Fair of 1870 
over all other Mills in the State, after a Th"rough Prac- 
tical Trial by the Committee of Farms, with all kinds 
OF GKAIN. It is the Cheapest and Best Mill in use, and 
the only one that will completely separate Barley, Oats, 
Smut, Chess, and all kindsof Grass and Weed Seed, from 
Wheat, and at the same time sepa ate perleclly the dif- 
ferent qualities of Wheat. Also sej^arates Oats and all 
foul seed from Barley, or Barley and Wheat from Oats. 
It will clean Beans, Peas, Corn, and all kinds of grain, 
perfectly, and more rapidly than any oth^r Mill ever 
built. For sale by NASH, KING, MILLER & CO., at 
Manufactory, comer K and Tenth streets, Sacramento, 
Cal. 26vl-3m 



mm 



mmzm 




Of a far Higher Class than any other proprietary 
medicine of the day stands 

Terrant's Effervescent Seltzer Aperient, 
And for this reason: it is an exact counterpart of one of 
the most valuable natural medicines in the world. We 
refer to the great Seltzer Spring of Germany, to which 
thousands of the dyspeptic, the bilious, the rheumatic, 
and the victims of venal diseases resort annually, and 
return to their homes convalescent oy cured. The Ap- 
erient is one of the first, and by far the most successful, 
of all the efforts made to reproduce, in a portable form, 
the popular mineral waters of Europe. See that you 

I'lTRCHASE ONLY THE GENUINE ARTICLE. 

SOLD BY ALL DRUGGISTS. 




SEI2TZEP 




STEINWAY & SONS' 
r* SI t e n t A. jj r a, ITc 1? i {« n o h , 

GRAND, SQUARE AND UPRIGHT. 



Pianos to Let. 



malS tf 



A. HEYMAN, 

I street, between Sixth and Seventh, 
Opposite old Capitol, SacramilNTO. 



GEORGE H. POWERS, M. D., 



Oculist, 



Has removed to 19 Post street, San Francisco. 



■ Hours for consultation, 11 to 3. 



apl8-3m 




L O. 0. F. 
THE ]VEW .A-GtE, 

A Weekly JotniNAL of Sixteen Paoes. 

Tke "Offlclnl Org'>«" of the I. O. O. F. on 
the Pat'ific Const. 

Is devoted to Odd Fellowship, the Arts mjd Sciences 
and General Literature ; and as a famil) paper is not 
surpassed by any journal In the United Statei,. Subscrip- 
tion price per year by mail, I.?. Delivered in the city, 
per month, 50 cents. Office, Odd Fellows' Hall, 32G 
, Montgomery street, San Francisco. 19t19 



16 



tP<&Q%W^Q S>lEr^At 



tl*fiM' 



>B. 



[July g, 1871. 




Is issued weekly on Saturdays, contaitiing 
sixteen pages devoted to 

Agri-lculturo, Horticulture, Stoclc 
Xlnislns, I>oii»«stlc Economy, 
Home IVIanufactures Me- 
chanics, Industi-ios, etc. 

With an able and ample corps of editors, spe- 
cial contributors and con-espondents, we pub- 
lish a liberal variety of articles, entertaining as 
well as instructive, which not only make the 
Bdual Press an able assistant to its patrons, 
but an attractive and welcome visitor to everj' 
reader in every intelligent 

Home Circle ; 

for few there are — male or female — who will not 
find pleasure and ennoblement in the study of 
progressive farming and gardening. 

Honest, intelligent and correct infonnation 
is faithfully given, in behalf of, and urging 

An improved Cultivation of the Soil; 
A greater Diversity of Products; 
Better Breeds of Stock; 
Better Varieties of Fruits; 
The Culture of New Products; 
Creation of Now Home Industries; 
Adoption of Improved Implements; 
Higher and Hajipier Aims in Life, etc. 

Valuable and Timely Hints, 

are given weekly to lessen the labors the of 
farm, the household and the shop, and add to 
the health, the wealth and the ^sisdom of every 
patron of industry. 

How to Farm in the Pacific 
States. 

As the conditions and circumstances of soil 
HUd climate and seasons on this coast are so pe- 
culiar that many of the approved methods of 
eastern agriculture are not at all appUcable on 
our side of the Continent, — -special attention 
will be given to considering the need, extent and 
character of the modifications necessary. This 
will alone render the paper of great practical 
value to our home readers and more essential to 
them than all the distant j)ublieations obtaina- 
ble, wthout such auxilliary and modifying in- 
structions. 

The following are among the specialties upon 
which the Pacuic Ruhax, Press will treat : 

Silk, Cotton and Sugar Beet Culture; Nurseries, 
Orchanls, Tropical and small Fruits ; Steam- 
plowing, seeding and harvesting for large 
tracts; Reclamation of swamp and un- 
productive lands; Hill and mountain farm- 
ing ; Grape growing ; Fig, Easin and Fruit 
dry ing ; Irrigation ; Lessons and Lectures on 
the chemistry of growing crops and on fer- 
tilizing lands ; Practical Fanning vs. Specu- 
lation; Taxation of unimproved lands; 
Railroads and improved transporUition for 
■ crops and the better class of immigrants; 
Farmer's Clubs, lectures and associations; 
•(Jo-operation in farming, mechanism, man- 
ufacturing and other industries; Govern- 
ment lands for settlers whether sold by R. 
R. operators or the U. S.; Reliable whole- 
Kale and retail market reports; Brief notices 
of Mechanical and Scientific Progress; 
Instnittions for regular and farmer me- 
chanics; Household Reading; Health and 
domestic receipts; a sprinkling of sprightly 
reirtling; Life thoughts; Poetry, condensed 
stories, items of news, etc., will be given. 

JVo editorials or sekciions of unchaste or douht- 
ful inflai'nrc; or lolkry, (/uack or otlier dltrtputabk 
udctrlhttmeitts, wilt be adxt'Med into its columns. 

A select variety of ailvertisements only will be InBert- 
ed. Circulated widely amoDK the most thrifty of our 
population, the P. K. P. will be the cheapest and 
uiuht ellectivu medium for a large range of first claH8 
advertisements in the Pacific stiites. 

Correspondence is respectfully solicited from 
every worthy source. 

Local Canva-sseks Wanted for every town, 
city and coiinty. Special inducements offered. 

Parties desiring to get up clubs or act as 
agents, will be furnished sample copies and pros- 
pectus free. 

SUBSCRIPTION IN ADVANCE. 

One copy one year $1 60 

One tx)py six months 2.20 

One copy three months 1.25 

Single copies 10 

CLUB RATES. 

Ton copies or more, first year, each $3,00 

[A free copy or premium sent to getter up of club.J 

DKWEY &; Co., 

Publishers, Patent Agents and Engravers, No . 
-tU Clay at., Sau Frauuisco. Nov. 21, 1870. 




Everybody Should Buy It. 

IT IS HJLL or 
ILLLSTK.1T10NS, 

LIFE AND 



PROGRESS. 



^a?5, MAP OF THE WORLD 

Is wmlh more than its price. 

SENT PUKPAID DT 

DEWEY & CO., San Francisco, 

FUK 7,-. CEXT.S. 
Bol NU, Jl.i.'). 



CVLIFOKXIi CIlElilCAL PAINT COMPANY, 

MAXl !• A( TURKRS OV 

AVERILL'S CHEMICAL PAINT, ♦ OF THE 

Purest White, and 100 Different Shades, 

MIXED READV FOR APPLICATION. 

This is the ONLY PAINT OF COMMERCE manufactured, being always held in solution by its peculiar 
chemical combination, and sold by the gallon. It is warranted not to peel, crack, nor chalk off; has a greater 
body and covering property, and will last twice as long as the best of other Paints, with a fine, haid, glossy sur- 
face, impe. vious to the atmosphere, and extremely durable. 

Ofliee. 40S Oa.lifoviiia JSitreet- 

MANUFACTORV, Corner Fourth and Townsend Streets. 

G. W. OSBORN, ( «„„„»„ 
ap8-3m C. F. BROWN, ) Ag^ents. 



ACTIVE MEN ! 

WITH EXPERIENCE IN CANVASSING 

business, can now obtain lucrutivu and i)L-rQiauent em- 
ployment by DEWEY ,t CO.. Patent Agents acd Publish- 
ers oj the SCIENTIFIC PRESS and the PACIFIC KU. 
RAL PRESS, No. 414 Clay street, S. F. 



SWEET CHESTNUT TREES. 

ONE-HALF MILLION, besides a larfje general Nursery 
Stock. A Sixtten-payo Circular Frft. Also a Trade 
List for Nurserymen and Dealers. Can send safely to 
California. Small Trees by mail; large ones by freight 
or express. Address STORKS, HARRISON & CO., 

Iv2-6m Paincsville, Lake Co., Ohio. 




Holbrook's Patent Swivel Plows* 

For Level Ii.snd and Side Hill. 

WON TITE 

HIGHEST PRIZE 

at N.Y. Stale Trial, 
IKS, (br Plowing 
Send Stamp for Circular. Sod & StubblS 

They leave no dead furrows nor ridges, but an even 
surface for the Reaper, Mower, Rake, and Irrigation; 
turn deep flat furrow-slices on levsl land; clear and pu'. 
vt;rize thoroughly; are of easy draft, strong and durable. 
Have self adjusting, self-clearing hinged steel Cutters. 
Changeable Mould-boards for sod and stubble. 

They are particularly well adapted fur reclaiming 
Bog Meadows, with the Patent Steel-Edged Swivel Share 
and Side Draft Clevis. 

Manufactured and sold by 

T. F. HOLBROOK k CO., 

19vl-7)im BostOD, Massackueetti 



Important to Wool Growers. 



PURE BLOODED 



FRENCH MERINO RAMS 



FOB ?ALK BT 



ROBERT BLACOW, 



Of CenterviUe, Alameda County, Cal. 



These Rams are guaranteed to be pure blooded 
French Mi riuo, and I would respectfully call attention 
to them from tliose who desire to see or purchase the 
best and purest of stock, Iv2-8t 




HOOKER'S 

Improved 

DEEP-WELL 



Annual Election— Notice to Stockholders. 

The First Annual Election of S ockholilers of THE CAL- 
IFORNIA (■O.TUN (iUOWERS AND MANUKAC- 
r( REKS ASSOCIATION will take pl»c« at (he otHce of 
the Association, in the city ol' San Francisco, at III o'clock 
ill the forenoon, on Suiiirdny. the .Hh day of August. IKil. 

By order of the Hoard of 'I'rtistees. 

JAmES DALE JOHNSTON, Secretary. 

San Francisco. July 1st. IsTI. junS-lt 




The best and cheai>est Domestic Ptimpin the market- 

BBKKY & Pl.At K, 
Wholesale AKents. 112 Cslilomi* Bt. San Francisco* 



To Merchants, Manufacturers, 
Farmers and Nurserymen. 

Tenders will be received to the 'i.'dh of September 
next for the following supplies for the ser^'ice of the 

California Cotton Growers and Manu- 
facturers Association. 

Twenty tons Cotton Seed, 12 Farm Wagons. .10 Plows, 
15 Harrows, l.'j Cultivators, 100 Hoes, 36 Spades, 3G 
Shovels. 12 Road Scraptrs. 12 Wlieelbarrows, 12 Stoves. 
12 Axes, 12 Hatchets. 12 Hammers, 12 Picks, 12 Hand- 
saws, 4 Crosn-Cut Saws. 4 Augers, i Brace and Bits, 4 
Complete Sets Carpenters Tools, 4 Sets Light Harness, 
4 Saddles and Bridles, «0 Sets Draft Harness, 250.000 feet 
Lumber, dressed and undressed, 100 Doors, 200 Butt 
Hinges, 100 Locks and Keys, 300 Sash, glazed or uu- 
glazed, 100 Kegs Nails 1,000 pounds paint, fio gallons 
Oil. SIX) 000 Mulbi rry Trees. .500.000 Grape Vines. !>,000 
Fruit Trees in Variety. 200 Sacks Flour. 400 Bushels Po- 
tatoes, 300 Bushels Indian Com, CO Draft Horses, 30 
Cows and 20 Hogs. 

Address Tenders to 

JAMES DALE JOHNSTON, 
Sccretarj- and General Agent Cal. Cotton Growers and 

Manufacturers .Association, San Francisco. r.H'l-3m 



GEO. B. BAYLEY, 

Comer Sixteenth and Castro Streets, OAKLAND. 




Importer and Breeder of 
CHOIOK POULTKY. 

Every variety of Fancy Poultry constantly on hauO 
and for sale. 
Address, with stamp, P. O. Box 659, San Francisco. 



ARTIFICIAL LIMBS. 

A. A. M ARKS, No. 675 Broadway. N. T. City. 




the inventnr and author- 
ized Fuitcd States Govern- 
ment manufacturer of th 
cclebi-ated first premium 
Artilicial Limbs with Rub- 
ber Hands and Feet, has 
published a new and enlarged edition of his Illustrated 
Pamphlet, of importance to all who have suffered am- 
putations, especially to officers and soldiers who lost 
their limtis In service. Copies sent free to applicants^ 
21vM3t»-12tr 



X 



Designing 



and 



Engraving 




By the Best of Artists, 
At this Office. 

DEWEY & CO., 

American and Foreign Patent 

Agents, Publishers of 

the Scientific Press, 

San Francisco. 



P.\TEXTS obtained promptly; Ciiveats filed 
expeditiously; Patent reissues taken out; 
Assignments made and recorded in legal 
form; Copies of Patents and Assignments 
procured; Examinations of Patents made 
here and at Washington; Examinations made 
of .^.ssignments recorded in Washington; 
Examinations ordered and reported by Tele- 
graph; Rejected cases taken up and Patents 
obtained; Interferences Prosecuted; Opinions 
rendered regarding the validity of Patents 
and Assignments; every legitimate branch of 
Patent Agency Business promptly and 
thoroughly conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the various in- 
ventions of this coast, and long practice in 
patent business, enable us to abundantly 
satisfy our patrons; and our sticcess and 
business are constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most experienced Inventors 
are found among our most stiadfast friends 
and patrons, who fully appreciate our advan- 
tages in bringing valuable inventions to the 
notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, tirst-class journals — 
thereby facilitating their introduction, sale 

ind popularity. 

Foreign Patents. 

In addition to American Patents, we sectire, 
with the assistance of co-operative agents, 
claims in all foreign countries which grant 
Patents, inclutling Great Britain, France, 
Belgium, Prussia, Austria, Victoria, Peru, 
Ilussia, Spain, British India, Saxony, British 
Columl)ia, Canada, Norwaj', Sweden, Mexico, 
Victoria, Brazil, Bavaria, Holland, Den- 
mark, Italy, Portugal, Cuba, Roman States, 
Wiirtemberg, New Zealand, N«'W South 
Wales, Queenshind, Tasmania, Brazil, New 
Grenada, Chile, Argentine Republic, AND 
EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD 
where Patents are obtainable. 

I models are required in European coun- 
tries, but the drawings and specitications 
should be prepared with thoroughness, by 
able persons who are familiar with the re- 
quirements and changes of foreign patent 
laws — agents who are reliable and perma- 
nently established. 

Our schedule prices for obtaining foreign pat- 
ents, in all cases, ^\ill always be as low, and 
in some instances lower, tlian those oif any 
other responsible agency. 

We ctii and do get foi'eign patents for inventors 
in the Pacific States from two to six months 
(according to the location of the country) 
SOONER than any other agents. 

Home Counsel. 

Our long experience in obtaining patents for 
Inventors on this Coast has familiarized us 
with the character of most of the inventions 
already patented; hence we are frccpiently 
able to save our patrons the cost of a fruitless 
application by pointing them to the same 
thing already covered by a patent. We are 
always free to advise applicants of any 
knowledge we have of previous api)lications 
which will interfere with their obtaining a 
patent. 

We invite the acquaintance of all parties con- 
nected with inventions and patent right busi- 
ness, believing that the mutual conference of 
legitimate business and professional men is 
mutual gain. Parties in doubt in regard to 
their rights as assignees of patents, or pur- 
chasers of patented articles, can often receive 
advice of importance to them from a short 
call at our office. 

Remittances of money, made by individual in- 
ventors to the Government, sometimes mis- 
carry, and it has frequently happened that 
applicants have not only lost their money, 
but their inventions also, from this cause ami 
consequent delay. We hold ovirselvea re- 
sponsible for all fees entrusted to our agency. 

The principal portion of the patent business of 
tliis coast has been done, and is still being 
done, through our agency. We are familiar 
with, and have full records, of all former 
cases, and can more directly judge of the 
value and patentability of inventions dicov- 
cred here than any other agents. 

DEWEY & CO., 
SciKNTiFic Pbess and Pacific Rckai, Press 
Office, 414 Clay street, San Francisco. 




Volume II.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 15, 1871. 



[Number 2. 



Summer. 

Summer, with a royal splendor 
Robing now the joyous earth, 

Lures in vain the royal spirit 
Musing of its higher birth ; 

More it sighs for bliss eternal 
In this hour of brightest mirth. 

The artist, wliose skilled hand, with un- 
meaniDg pigments, brings out marvelous 
pictures of Nature upon prosy canvas, gen- 
ei'ally chooses summer scenes for his ideals. 
Winter landscapes, however, skillfully ex- 
ecuted, are dull and tame compared with 
summer views. All the most charming 
poems too, for which Nature has furnished 
the inspiration, tell us of babbling brooks 
and leafy woodlands. 

"The old oaken bucket that hnngs in the well " 

Is peculiarly the offspring of a sum- 
mer day's comfort. As we read this 
electrifying summer idyl, the old- 
fashioned well, with its mossy bucket 
of oak^ raised by its sweeping bal- 
ance pole, seems right before us; 
while the thirsty farmer, with up- 
rolled sleeves and heated brow, can al- 
most be seen to present his parched 
lips to the delicious, cooling dro ught. 
What a beautiful summer picture 
we have here ! Coolness and beauty 
appears in its every trace. It is re- 
dolent with the breath of roses, and 
the refreshing breezes of the morn- 
ing seem to gently stir the leaflets as 
the early sun comes peeping over the 
distant hills. With staff in hand to 
steady his steps over the slippery 
stones, we see the early traveler 
wending his way across the rippling 
brook, perhaps to his daily labor or 
perchance on an errand of mercy or 
of friendship. Near by, the traveled 
road is seen winding adown the bank 
with the dew still moistening its 
dusty bed or glistening in pearly 
drops upon wild flowers which raise 
their tiny heads along its grassy 
sides. The picture seems the very 
ideal of Nature's beauty and loveli- 
ness, and is eminently suggestive of 
pic-nics, of cool retreats from the 
heat of a summer's day, of evening 
parties on the grass, or of lover's 
moonlight walks amid leafy colonades, 
and shady jjaths by the side of murmuring 
brooks. 



The Highest Farm in the World. — 
There is a farm about four miles distant 
from Sherman Station on the Union Pa- 
cific Railroad which is said to be the high- 
est in the world — an elevation of 8,000 feet. 
A correspondent of the Omaha Herald re- 
cently visited this farm, where he found 
quite au extent of ground sown with oats, 
which were looking well. Potatoes, peas, 
beans and other garden vegetables were 
also looking well. Two hundred apple 
trees set out two months previously were 
nearly all living and doing well. Currant 
bushes were also thriving, while gooseber- 
ries and raspberries were growing wild. 
The pasturage was excellent with promise 



Sheep Raising in Australia. — The 
sheep pastures of Australia are on govern- 
ment lands. The government leases these 
lands to individuals in large tracts for 
grazing purposes. Many renters hold as 
high as 50,000 acres and own as many as 
300,000 anl 400,000 sheep. 

The sheep are sheared but once a year 
instead of semi-annually as in California. 
To prevent scab and other diseases among 
the sheep a small annual tax is levied and 
collected from ths owners of sheep. This 
money is placed at the disposal of a Board 
of Sheep Commissioners who are authoriz- 
ed to kill all sheep in the least affected 
with the scab, to assessthe value of such 




A SUMMER SCENE. 



Mammoth Gourd. — There is a mammoth 
variety of the gourd which grows in Africa 
six feet long, and of which, when green, 
cattle and sheep are said to be very fond. 
When dry, this gourd is said to present the 
appearance of a small anaconda. Some of 
the seeds of this vegetable were recently 
distributed among the members of the 
New York Farmers' Club. 

Half Moon Bay Growth. —Messrs. 
Bryant & Cook, of Davis street, have 
brought us a sample of Norway oats from 
the ranch of Butler & Wilbur, at Half 
Moon Bay, which measures 7% feet, and 
contains 100 straws in a stool from one 
seed. It is said the grain stands at a geu' 
eral bight of 7 feet in the. field. Only 25 
pounds of seed was sowed to the acre. 



of a fine hay crop. The growing of fruit 
trees is considered an experiment. Vege- 
tables and grain, however, are considered 
certain crops. There is a sheltering wall 
of mountains on the north and west, which 
do much to break off the cold winds. 



Grapes. — It is estimated that there are 
over 300 different varieties of the grape 
cultivated in California. The number of 
vines, as set down in the Report of the 
Surveyor General, is 22,500,000. This is 
probably much below the actual number — 
possibly by five millions. The amount of 
wine produced in 1869, according to offi- 
cial report was 2,700,000 gallons— 1,130,000 
of which was from Los Angeles county. 
In 1870 it was not far from 4,500,000, and 
the yield of 1871 will probably reach about 
7,000,000. The export demand is con- 
stantly increa.sing. 



sheep and to refund their value to the 
owner out of the tax so raised. In this 
way the sheep are kept in a healthy state and 
the olij) is allowed to get the growth of 12 
instead of six months before shearing. 



California Trees in Colorado. — From 
a conversation with Rev. Mr. Blakeslee, of 
the Pacific, we learn that 3,000 fruit trees 
were sent from Yallecito, a mountain town 
in Calaveras county, to Colorado, last 
spring, where they were purchased at $5 
a piece in preference to eastern trees at 
75 cents each. Are our trees so highly 
appreciated elsewhere ? 

PREmuM ON Forests. — The Santa Clara 
County Agricultural Society proposes 
offering- a premium on forests this year, 
and continuing so to do each successive 
year. 



Improvements in Silk Manufacture. 

We have been favored with the perusal 
of a letter recently received by James Dale 
Johnston, Secretary of the California Silk 
Manufacturing Company, from F. H. Rice, 
Esq., of Boston, a gentleman largely en- 
gaged in silk manufacture in the United 
States, wherein he calls the attention of 
Mr. Johnston to some improvements re- 
cently introduced into silk manufacture, 
and to which he desires to call the atten- 
tion of those about to enter upon that 
manufacture in this State. Wfe extract as 
follows:— 

"M. Lewando is the inventor of a very 
valuable process for saving and 
utilizing the entire waste which is 
usually lost in the manufacture of 
silk by any other process, and thus 
is able to save 50 per cent, in the 
cost of manufacture and production 
of the goods from the raw material. 
I herewith enclose to you samples 
of the different kinds of waste and 
the thread made from the same, by 
M. Lewando's process, with explana- 
tions, etc., attached. 

Heretofore nothing but a poor 
quality of black silks has been manu- 
factured in the U. S.; but under the 
direction of M. Lewando, our factory 
will manufacture all grade.-j, colors 
and styles of ladies' dress and other 
goods, equal to anything of the kind 
produced in France or elsewhere. 

One of the greatest difficulties in 
the manufacture of silk in New Eng- 
land is the obtaining of the raw 
material made into thread ready for 
weaving, as there are as yet very few 
silk cocoon jiroducers in this section 
of the U. S. I think the difficulty 
might be remedied in a great meas- 
ure, if a factory could be started in 
your State, which would take the silk 
from the cocoon, and make it into 
thread ready for weaving, and thus 
a home market would be furnished 
for your production." 

Accompanying the letter were a 
number of samples showing the 
waste referred to in its various 
stages of manufacture up to the 
woven goods. This exhibition of sam- 
ples is very interesting from the fact of 
the demonstration which it makes of the 
possibility of utilizing almost the last pound 
of waste, the mass of which has heretofore 
formed so large a percentage of the weight 
of the cocoon, and consequent loss to the 
manufacturer. Our manufacturers here 
will of course avail themselves of all the 
latest improvements in this interesting 
branch of industry, which promises to 
form, at an early day, one of the most im- 
portant ^features in the domestic products 

of California^^ 

Ripe Grapes.— The Tulare Thnes re- 
ceived several bunches of ripe grapes on 
the 6th inst. grown in the garden of Mr. J. 
H. Thomas, of Visalia. They were of a 
foreign vai-iety, the name of which was not 
given, 



18 



mwm 



[July 15, 1871. 



ECHANICAL ^KROGRESS. 



Steam on Canals. — The liberal reward 
of if 100,000 offered by New York State for 
the beat system of caual propulsion, is at- 
tracting great attention at the East. "We 
collate a few facts as to what has been done 
in late years in steam canal pr« (pulsion 
from the New York Tribune. In 1845, H. 
11. Worthington ran on the Erie canal for 
two seasons boats which, although unsuc- 
cessful financially, traveled at a high rate 
of speed without injuring the banks. The 
system of towing with wire rope, laid along 
the canal and passing over clip drums 
driven by engines on the boat, was intro- 
duced in Belgium in 1866, and is now suc- 
cessfully used in several places. The total 
cost is not one mill per ton per mile. The 
cost of paddle tugs on the Thames is 9% 
mills, in France as high as 1.6 cents per 
ton per mile; of screw tugs on English 
canals, 5% mills. There are various 
American patents. Among them are the 
following, which, however, have never 
been used practically. Mr. C. J. Harvey 
proposes to move small carriages, con- 
nected together by an endless rope work- 
ing on a cable stretched on posts placed 20 
feet apart on the tow path, the carriages 
having each a towing horn to which the 
tow-line from the boat can be attached, 
Messrs. Palmer, of Auburn, projiose a 
chain on each side of the canal, lying along 
its bottom, into which fit cog-wheels on a 
shaft carried on the boat. Messrs. Emery 
& Leverich, of New York, propose a small 
steel rail suspended over the canal and 
grasped by two hoi-izontal revolving pul- 
leys placed on the boat. J. Read, of Cats- 
kill, substitutes for this a chain and cog- 
wheel working vertically. J. Eoy, of New 
Orleans, designs using a moving cable on 
the tow-path, which pulleys, fixed to the 
side of the boat, will traver.se. Narrow 
gauge locomotives and traction engines are 
proposed to replace animal power. 

Worthington's boat was long and sharp 
in the bow. There was a wheel on each 
side of the boat (near the bow) with pad- 
dles inclined to the axis. M. J. Main, of 
Haverstraw, has a peculiar propeller in 
the bow, for which the present boats can 
be altered at a cost of $650. Mr. Hunter 
has a similar device which can be attached 
at a less price. . Both these have been in 
practical use. Mr. C. J. Smith, of Nyack, 
has a paddle made to open and close by 
iron rods connecting with the engine. The 
paddles are placed on each side of the keel 
at the stern, and near the bottom of the 
boat. At each forward motion the paddles 
close together, and at each backward mo- 
tion they open, act upon the water, and 
propel the boat. Mr. E. Backus, of Roch- 
ester, proposes a wheel near the center of 
the boat, to roll on the bottom of the canal, 
and drive the boat as the driving wheels 
propel a locomotive. The wheel is placed 
at the end of a lever frame, which can be 
raised or lowered as required by the vary- 
ing depth of the water. These are the 
most prominent of tbe various plans pro- 



PuTTiNG vp Fences by Machinekt. — A 
correspondent of the Toi-onto Globe writes, 
"I was lately much amused at a novel way 
of putting up fence posts. The implement 
employed was a 'pile-driver,' made as ordi- 
narily used, with about twelve feet drop 
for the ram, but constructed of much 
lighter materials. The scantling was only 
2x6 and 3x3 inches, with the exception of 
the sills, which were stronger, and made 
of hard wood, to facilitate moving about — 
an operation which was performed by the 
same oxen that raised the ram. The ram 
itself was composed of the butt of an oak 
log, six feet long, banded with iron at its 
lower end, and about sixteen inches in 
diameter. Grooves were plowed in it on 
each side, so as to admit of its moving 
readily in the guides. It was hoisted vip 
by a yoke of cattle attached to a rope. 
Aboiit three blows di-ove the post nearly 
four feet into the earth, and almost all 
■went quite straight. A few — one here and 
there — were crooked; but these, I was told, 
would be pulled straight with the cattle, 
or dug out at the foot, so as to allow of 
their being pressed over, until they all 
came in direct line. I was informed that 
this course was a great saving of labor, and 
when quickly handled, the time that each 
post required to be driven was only a few 
minutes." 



Ikon Bridges. — The Missouri will soon 
be spanned by six great bridges. Of these, 
two are completed, at Kansas City and St. 
Charles; two are approaching completion 
at Leavenworth and Omaha; two moro 
will soon bo commenced at Glasgow and at 
Atchison; and it is not improbable that 
still another will be built |at St. Joseph. 
Over the Mississiijpi there are ten: the 
Rock Island, Clinton, Dubuque, Burling- 
ton, Quincy and St. Paul bridges being 
already comi^leted, while the St. Louis, 
Keokuk, Hastings and Winona bridges are 
in various stages of construction. The 
Ohio river is spanned by five fine bridges, 
located respectively at Cincinnati, Louis- 
ville, Parkersburg, Bellair and Steubon- 
ville, and another will soon be finished at 
Cincinnati. Across the Niagara river there 
are now two splendid susjjension bridges, 
while the third, the great International 
Bridge, near Buffalo, is pushing forward 
as rapidly as the combined forces of capi- 
tal and energy can make it. Over the 
Hudson there is already a fine bridge at 
Albany, and another is soon to stretch 
across from Fort Clinton to Anthony's 
Nose, opening a most important connec- 
tion between the railroad systems of the 
Eastern and Middle States; while across 
the East river will soon be swung the great 
New Yorkajid Brooklyn suspension bridge. 
It is probable that the average cost of 
these mentioned has considerably exceeded 
$1,000,000 each. The East river bridge 
will probably cost fifteen, and possibly six 
teen millions before it is fairly completed; 
that at St. Charles cost about §1, 800,000; 
the St. Louis bridge is estimated at §8,000,- 
000; that at Kansas City cost $1,200,000, 
and that at Leavenworth about $775,000. 
A fair average would probably be some- 
where about a million and a half for each 
of the great structures. 

Ameeican Telescopes. — In the manufac- 
ture of ojitical instruments, we are at 
this time leading all the nations of the 
earth. American microscopes, spectro- 
scopes and telescojjes are certainly supe- 
rior to any made in Europe, and this is ac- 
knowledged by some of the best scientific 
observers of England and Germany. Tolles' 
and Wales' objectives are of the highest 
excellence, and none better have ever been 
produced. The telescopes of the Messrs. 
Clark, at Cambridge, stand at the head of 
all instruments of this class which are now 
made, and their orders, from parties at 
home and abroad, are much greater than 
they can promptly meet. These cele- 
brated makers have recently received or- 
ders for two telescopes, of 2b-inch aperture, 
which, when comijleted, will be the larg- 
est instruments 'in the world. The larg- 
est hitherto made has an aperture of 24 
inches. — Ex 



Nairn's Steam Omnibus lately msule a 
trial trip from Edinburgh to Portobello, 
(Scotland) and back. The trip was con- 
sidered satisfactory, and it is stated that 
the owner of the omnibus intends running 
it daily. 



Cost op Pig and Bab Ibon. — W. E. S. 
Baker sends to the L-on Age a tabulated 
statement of the cost of manufacturing 
iron in Central Pennsylvania for each year 
from 1850 to 1871. According to this the 
cost per ton of pig iron was $14.25 in 1850, 
rose gradually to $18.87 in 1855, declined 
to $16.11 in 1862, reached its highest point 
of $32.21 in 1866, and is now $29.65. Bar 
iron commenced at $46.57 in 1852, rose to 
$70.40 in 1855, fell to $50.30 in 1859, 
reached its highest point of $127.11 in 
1865, and is now $73.62. 

Improved Cement. — An exchange recom- 
mends the following as calculated to resist 
the effects of all solvents in use, and mak- 
ing a tight joint in machinery: "Ordinary 
commercial glycerine and well washed and 
dry litharge are to be thoroughly mixed, 
so as to form a stiff paste, which, however, 
must be used immediately, as it stiffens 
into a hard uniform mass in a brief space 
of time. For taking tine casts this sub- 
stance is highly valuable, as it preserves 
the minutest detail and can be readily 
prepared for either receiving the galvanic 
deposit or used to cast from." 

Strength of Iron. — The discussion as 
to whether the strength of iron is dimin- 
ished by cold has led the Iron World to 
compare the reports published by the 
railway directors on the breaking of axles 
on German railroads from 1803 to 1869. 
The percentage is as follows: Dec. to Feb., 
30.1; March to May, 22.6; June to Aug., 
22.7; Sept. to Nov., 24.6. According to 
this, it appears that the breakage is more 
frequent in winter than in summer. 

Paper. — The latest application of paper 
is as lining for refrigerators. 



.CIENTIFIC ^©ROGRESS. 



Professor Tyndallon "Sound." — Pro- 
fessor Tyndall, in delivering his sixth lec- 
ture, at the Royal Institution, on "Sound," 
began by stating that if the velocity of 
sound in wood were equal to its velocity in 
air, a rod of air in a tube, and a rod of 
wood of the same length, would both emit 
a note of the same pitch when they were 
made to vibrate longitudinally. Bui the 
velocity of sound in wood is much greater 
than its velocity in air. The lecturer then 
caused a column of air in a tube closed at 
its lower end, to vibrate longitudinally by 
blowing across the open end of the tube 
with his mouth, and thus the air gave a 
musical note. He then rubbed a rod of 
wood, 46 inches long, with a piece of leather 
covered with resin, and the wooden rod 
emitted a musical note of exactly the same 
pitch as that given by the shorter column 
of air. This proved that the velocity of 
sound through the particular kind of wood 
selected for the experiment was about six- 
teen times more rapid than through air. 
An oi^eu glass tube, twice the length of the 
other, was then sounded, and it gave the same 
note as the shorter one closed at the end; 
the speaker explained that this was owing 
to the fact that the air in the open tube di- 
vided itself into two vibrating segments, 
with a nodal point of no motion at the 
center of the tube, so that in fact the tube 
was virtually two closed tubes, placed base 
to base. A rod of brass, 72 inches long, 
was next sounded by the aid of the resined 
leather, and it gave a note of the same 
pitch as a column of air six inches long, 
contained in a glass tube closed at one end; 
hence the velocity of sound in brass is 
twelve times quicker than in air. The ve- 
locity of sound in iron may be determined 
in the same way; in brass the velocity of 
sound is 11,000 feet per second, and in 
iron 17,000 feet per second. — Mechanics' 
Magazine. 

Utilization of Cotton-Seed. — Various 
movements have been made of late years 
looking toward the utilization of cotton- 
seed, usually considered a burden to the 
cotton-planter, and in getting rid of which 
great ingenuity has been expended. 
Among the more recent propositions of the 
kind, that of the employment of the ad- 
hering cotton, and, j^erhaps, of the woody 
material, in the manufacture of paper, has 
been brought forward. Lately, large es- 
tablishments have been started in the 
South for the purpose of obtaining the oil 
from the seed, the refuse being converted 
into oil-cake for fattening cattle. The 
crude oil brings in New York from thirty- 
five to forty cents a gallon, and the oil-cake 
commands nearly the price of corn, being 
said to equal it in its fattening qualities. 
Shipments of the seeds have been made 
recently in great quantity to Liverpool 
from New Orleans, one vessel taking over 
10,000 sacks of the seeds, and about 1,000 
sacks of oil-cake; and it is expected that 
these shipments will be followed up on a 
large scale. As over 2,000,000 tons of 
cotton-seed are every year produced in the 
South, we may well imagine how import- 
ant it will be to our country should the 
whole of this now nearly waste substance 
bo utilized in some form. The comparative 
value of winter refined cotton-seed oil and 
of olive oil may be gathered from the fact 
that at the latest dates the former is quoted 
in the New York prices current at 72 cents 
per gallon, while the latter with duty off 
brings only $1 in gold. — Agricultural Re- 
port, 

A Gas Tree. — Dr. J. H. Salisbury, of 
Cleveland, Ohio, sends to the Boston Jinir. 
nf Ckem. the following: — "In Januai-y 
last, Messrs. W. and N. Salisbury, of 
Cortland Co., N. Y., went on to Mt. Topin 
to procure white oak lumber. Having 
selected a tree that would answer their 
purpo8e,they commenced chopping it down. 
The tree was two feet in diameter. When 
they had cut in about four inches on the 
east side, their attention was called to a 
peculiar sound issuing from the tree. 
Their first impression was that it contained 
a swarm of bees. On striking a couple 
more blows, the small chips and dirt com- 
menced flying from the stump. On put- 
ting the hand down they discovered a 
strong current of gas issuing from a fresh 
crack in the stump. The odor was like 
that of confined I'ir. This blowing con- 
tinued for full five minutes, when for curi- 
osity they applied a lighted match; to their 
astonishment the gas ignited instantly, 
and burned at least five minutes, with 
great heat, and a blue flame like that of 
alcohol. After the gas had all escaped 



they finished chopping down the tree. 
They found a hollow in the stump about six 
inches in diameter. Their conclusion was, 
thatthegas light wascarburetted hydrogen, 
and had formed from the gradual decay of 
the wood. You can rely upon this state- 
ment, as being correct in every particular." 

The Great Tklkgbaph Novbltt of the 
day, says London Engineering in its report 
of the Royal Institution Conversazione of 
June 6th, is Sir William Thomson's Syphon 
Recorder. It is a most marvelous com- 
bination of strength and weakness; and the 
strength and the weakness are so remark- 
ably combined that it produces effects 
which, until its apiiearance in public, a 
few months ago, were totally undreamed of 
by the most sanguine of telegraph en- 
gineers. This instrument consists of a 
very powerful electro-magnet, between the 
poles of which (therefore in a magnetic 
field of great intensity) is suspended a core 
wound with fine silk -covered copper wire. 
This wire is put in the circuit of the tele- 
graph line, through which the signals are 
received. The reading of the signals is 
effected by means of a syphon of capillary 
glass tube, about two inches long, the 
shorter end of which dips into a dish of 
ink, while the larger hangs down, in front 
of a paper strip moved forward by clock- 
work. The miniature glass syphon is con- 
nected by a very fine aluminum wire with 
the coil suspended between the poles of 
the electro-magnet, and is moved backwards 
and forwards as it is deflected to the right 
or the left. To persuade a camel to get 
through the eye of a needle would, under 
ordinary circumstances, not be a more 
difficult feat than to get ink through the 
capillary tube under ordinary pressure. 
But the way in which it is got through it, 
and not only got through it, but actually 
ejected in a tiny stream from the lower end 
of the syphon, is by the simple and inge- 
nious expedient of keeping the ink electri- 
fied to a high tension. It is a well-kuown 
fact that, when any liquid is electrified, its 
particles repelling each other, it is enabled 
to flow through the finest orifice; and this 
fact, judiciously taken advantage of by Sir 
William Thomson, has enabled him to pro- 
duce a frictionless pen-point. The electri- 
fication of the ink in the reservoir is done 
by a rotating electrophorus or replenisher, 
kept in movement by an electro-magnetic 
machine. 



Herschel's Character. — The death of 
Sir John Herschel has called forth many 
tributes to his memory. One writer hav- 
ing, however, declared that his great fault 
was a habit of flattery, R^hich even affected 
his honesty as a critic and reviewer, and 
his manners as a gentleman. Prof. Tyndall 
thus vindicates his friend's memory: — " I 
think it was in 1854, and in presence of a 
Friday evening audience at the Royal In- 
stitution, that Faraday introduced me to 
Sir John Herschel. From that hour to 
this, through the advancing years, his 
character has grown in beauty to me. As 
I knew him better, respect ripened into 
reverence, and until I read the words of 
your correspondent, this feeling never en- 
countered from the expressed opinion of 
others the slightest shock. During the 
past week I have sought to check and ex- 
tend my data by reference to older men. 
I hate conversed with many whose inti- 
macy with Sir John Herschel extended far 
beyond the range of mine, and if their 
unanimous and indignant testimony be 
worth anything, I should hesitate to write 
the term that would most fitly describe 
your correspondent's quoted words. He 
may, perhaps, be able to make good his 
position, and he may even have the cour- 
age to give his name; but, as it now stands, 
I must regard his article, notwithstanding 
its apparent warmth of appreciation, as em- 
bodying the most conspicuous personal 
wrong to which anonymous writing has of 
late years given birth." 

The Spheroidal State of Liquids. — 
From Leidenfrost's experiments, it seemed 
probable that a drop of water assumes the 
spheroidal state when the tension of the 
steam formed at its under surface is suffi- 
cient to support the pressure of the atmos- 
phere plus the weight of the drop itself, 
and that, therefore, if the pressure be re- 
moved, a lower temperature must suffice to 
cause the phenomenon. E. Budde has 
proved this experimentally by means of 
the following apparatus: a glass bell jar 
was cemented on a copper dish standing in 
a water-bath; the bell was connected with 
an air-pump and exhausted, and by means 
of a simple arrangement a drop of water 
was brought on to the plate. It was found 
that when the pressure was reduced two- 
thirds more, the drop assumed the spheroid- 
al state at a temperature of 83° C. — Ex. 



July 15, 1871.J 




kORRESPONDENCE. 



AgeiDg Wine. 

Eds. Press: — Your second article on the 
ageing of wine was read with much interest, 
as that has been to me a subject of consid- 
erable thought and study. Is it claimed 
as a new invention that wine can be im- 
proved or aged by motion and heat ? I re- 
member having read, over twenty-five 
years ago, of wine being sent in casks, to 
the West Indies, and the cask being slung 
to a frame made for the purpose, and then 
swung back and forth for a time or until by 
exposure to the heat of the sun, with the agi- 
tation, a certain condition or improvement 
was produced. 

I have now before me a work on wines, 
published in London in 1860. In the 
article on Madeira wine I find the fol- 
lowing : 

" Some seem to consider that heat and 
motion alone are sufficient to give the de- 
sired age, and I have heard of a cotton 
lord who need to sling his wines to the 
beams of his factory engines for a few 
months, and then pass off his wines as 
East India particular." 

Heat and motion have been tried and no 
doubt thoroughly, and I think pressure 
has been recommended before, so that it 
is evident that we have something yet to 
learn in wine making or rather ageing 
wine. I must confess that I am skeptical 
of any process being found that will ac- 
complish the desired object — except in a 
limited degree. 

Grape juice is a very complicated liquid, 
and the changes that occur in it are but im- 
perfectly understood. The chemist, Miller, 
says that, the ageing of wine depends 
partly on the gradual fermentation of su- 
gar, and partly on the slow separation of 
saline matters, principally in the form of 
bitartate of potassa, and the change of mi- 
nute quantities of fragrant and aromatic 
ethers, supposed to be produced by the re- 
action of vegetable acids on the alcoholic 
part of wine. 

Now we know that, the formation of a 
ceriain quantity of alcohol checks the fer- 
mentation; and we also know that a further 
change does gradually take place, result- 
ing in improvement in the quality of the 
wine; and that change is ascribed to a slow 
continued fermentation, for want of a bet- 
ter or more accurately defining term. 

The formation of the boquet of wine, we 
can better understand from the method 
pursued in the manufacture of artificial 
fruit essences. That there are changes oc- 
curring in wine, other than those produced 
by fermentation, I can readily believe. The 
druggist has two methods of making tinct- 
ures, viz. , percolation and maceration. By 
the first method the ingredients of which 
the tincture is to be made, are packed in 
the displacement funnel, and the liquid 
poured on gradually, and as it percolates 
downward, each fresh portion of the liquid 
displaces the preceding, all-ready satu- 
rated portion; now by this method the ma- 
terials may be entirely exhausted, and yet 
the slower process of maceration (which is 
by allowing the mixed liquid and solid ma- 
terials of which the tincture is to be made, 
to stand for some time before filtering ofi') , 
makes, where aromatics are among the in- 
gredients used, possibly not so strong, but 
a decidedly more aromatic and fragrant 
tincture. Apparently the difierent aromas 
are more perfectly blended together; and 
in making perfumes we notice the same 
blending, by time, of the various odors 
used, showing that some change is continu- 
ally going on. 

Now some similar action, no doubt, oc- 
curs in wine that produces the condition 
we call "age," after the rapid fermentation 
is checked. But can that condition be the 
result of fermentation ? Can that chemical 
action, the result of which is the deposit of 
its contained salts, bitartrate of potassa and 
tartrate of lime, be called fermentation ? 

It seems evident that the condition of 
permanence may be obtained by the de- 
struction or rather oxidation of the germs 
which are the active agents of any change 
or fermentation occuring in wine, and 
which germs are not all oxidised during 
the first or primary fermentation of the 
grape juice. 

I would suggest, as an experiment that, 
on the occurrence of the succeeding fer- 
mentation thorough, systematic and 



prolonged agitation be made by any suita- 
ble method so as to expose the wine to the 
action of the oxygen of the air, as rapidly 
as possible. No doubt the heat induced in 
the wine by the process of fermentation 
would be increased by the consequent 
rapid oxidation caused by the thorough 
and constant admixture of the air during 
the process, and the result of such action, 
at the higher temperature, would be the 
perfect oxidation of all matter susceptible 
of such change, and a permanent wine 
would be produced; provided, however, 
that the wine subjected to such action con- 
tained sufficient sugar to furnish the nec- 
essary quantity of alcohols; for unless the 
sugar is in sufficient amoiint, no process 
will make a wine of keeping quality — the 
acetous fermentation following rapidly the 
vinous in such cases. But I confess I am 
skeptical as to the possible amount of im- 
provement by any quick process. A year 
or two of apparent age may be gained; but 
I doubt if the delicate and gradual pro- 
cesses of nature can be thus imitated. 

Vino, 
Sacramento, July 5th, 1871. 

Water Pipes for Domestic Service. 

Editors Press: — There is a question in 
my mind which seems to be of sufficient 
general interest to warrant an answer 
through the columns of your paper. 

What kind of pipe for conducting water 
for use in a family is the best, especially 
in the very important matter of health? 
All through the mountains lead pipe is 
almost universally used. In this vicinity 
the water is constantly flowing through 
the pipe into a reservoir. In such cases 
can the water be appreciably poisoned? 
Common gas pipe (iron) is also used, but 
if the water remains still, it often is color- 
ed with rust when drawn off. Will the 
pipe rust to hurt if the water is constantly 
flowing? When you inform us as to the 
best kind of pipe, if neither the common 
lead or iron pipe, please say if it can be 
got in San Francisco. 

As health is the greatest physical bless- 
ing, it seems to me if lead pipe is injuri- 
ous that the best substitute should be 
generally known. I have been told that 
the common galvanized iron pipe is worse 
for use than lead pipe; also galvanized 
sheet iron when used for tanks. Is lead 
pipe lined with tin any better? As our 
water all through the foot-hills is brought 
from springs in metallic pipe, the question 
is, what is best, as wooden logs arc gener- 
ally out of the question. w. 0. 
Smartsville, June 10th, 1871. 
The use of galvanized iron pipe is dan- 
gerous, and cases of poisoning are now well 
proved to have arisen from this article. 
Galvanized iron pipe is iron pipe coated 
with zinc. The zinc is changed by the 
action of most kinds of water to an oxide, 
carbonate or chloride, which are poisonous 
salts. We therefore warn our correspond- 
ent against the article either for conduct- 
ing pipes or for tanks. 

Lead pipe is the cheapest and most 
easily manufactured, and has often been 
used with impunity for long periods of 
time. But pure water has been shown to 
act quite energetically on it. Most waters, 
especially spring water, however, contain 
carbonic acid. The action is this : At 
first the lead is oxidized to a poisonous 
oxide of lead. If the water contains 
enough carbonic acid, this is changed 
further to the insoluble carbonate of lead, 
which coats the interior of the pipe, and 
thus protects it against further action. 
But organic or alkaline matter acts as a 
solvent on this carbonate. The gist of the 
subject is that lead pipe is not necessarily 
dangerous. But in order to be on the safe 
side, a chemical analysis of the water used 
is to be recommended. This will show 
whether it is safe or not. 

Tin-lined lead pipe has no advantage 
over lead pipe, but the reverse is rather 
the case, as the combination of the two 
metals hastens the chemical action of the 
water. 

Tin pipe, i. e., of block tin, is safe. It 
is readily acted upon by some waters, but 
the salts are not poisonous. The pipe is. 
however, very expensive. 

Iron pipe is perfectly safe. The only 
objection to it is that it rusts, is therefore 
not very durable, fills up, and, as our cor- 
respondent has remarked, often stains the 
water. But coating the pipe with as- 
phaltum is said to protect against rust. 
Sections of iron pipe laid by the Spring 
Valley Company for conveying water to 
this city, which had been thus coated (by 
dipping in boiling asphaltum) , have been 
found in excellent condition after lying 
ten years. Other material can doubtless 
be used with advantage. 



Ocean Travel. 



On board the steamship John L. Steph- 
ens, in the harbor of San Francisco, bound 
for Portland, Oregon. Weather clear with 
strong wind from N. W. 

There comes the Colorado steaming up 
along side, she is bound for Panama, with 
more or less passengers for New York. 
Why don't the Constantine come out? She 
is an opposition steamer, and has done ex- 
cellent service for the general travel re- 
ducing the fare from $36 to $20 to Port- 
land. 

Well, there is a grandeur and pride in 
looking upon these proud ships as they 
bear the commerce of nations and the peo- 
ple from one country to another. 

Now the heart softens while we notice the 
glistening tears as they are shed, and the 
parting salutations of friends; we turn our 
eyes from these sights of grief and our 
mind as far as we can from its sad reminis- 
cences, and rest the vision along four or 
five miles of wharfage lined with vessels, 
and as we swing around far enough outside 
the shipping to overlook the dense net- 
work of ropes, canvas, and masting, our 
eyes rest upon the city. It forms a dark 
looking back-ground destitute of comli- 
ness, or beauty; its tall spires seem but a 
poor relief; the one on Mission street, 
(some 14:0 feet high, I believe) looks like a 
stack of corn blades, while the streets on the 
hillside look like furrows laid off for corn, 
and washed by heavy rains; the blocks oi 
buildings like stumps and stones. You 
may call this a western farmer's view, in- 
stead of a birds-eye view, of the metroiso- 
lis of the Pacific coast. 

As we run out through the Golden Gate, 
our flag bows adieu to the magic city. The 
Colorado turns south, while we turn north, 
and soon begin to realize that we are in 
mid ocean — God's trackless highway. 
As we strike the bold white-crested waves, 
a shock is created almost equal to running 
into a sand bank. 

Our noble ship now becomes, in our esti- 
mation, a tiny craft, and cuts up as meai? 
and ridiculous tricks, as a Mexican mus- 
tang. She rears and plunges and tries 
hard to roll over. You won't be surprised 
at my comparison to the horse when I toll 
you, that as I stand with legs braced, 
hands holding to the stairway railing, and 
eyes dimly, dizzily observing inner objects 
they cover two doors at the aft endj of the 
upper saloon on each of wiiich the word 
" Bridal" is engraved on a silver plate. 
Well, as dizzy as I am I quei-y, and as I 
cast my receding sight upon the woe-begone 
countenances around me. I wonder if the 
word " Halter " would not have been more 
appropriate; then come to the conclusion 
that there may be an occasional young 
colt bridled there, but no old boss could 
be got into them little stalls. 

Poor, frail mortality, one after another 
relaxes his hold upon railing, or post, and 
lurches from one side to the other, clutch- 
ing at nothing, but making unsteady head- 
way to their state rooms, where they lay 
themselves away in their births, — Oh I so 
sick. 

Dinner is now being served up; the 
savory dishes make our noses turn up at 
the end like an elephant's proboscis. Oh ! 
almighty steward, though you may not 
hold the keys of life and death, yet you do 
hold a plate of onions I 

For the sake of prostrate humanity do 
let that dish pass overboard. But no, they 
must remain. Likely its for the best, as 
they will accelerate the settlement of our 
earthly accounts. 

Oh I mortality, boasting a /ree agency ; 
ain't you sorry you didn't go over the top 
of Shasta and Scott's mountains to the land 
of the webfeet? 

Our proud ship, so recently and so 
quietly, now a floating hospital, filled 
with a living death, plunging and wishing 
in despair. Days drag out their tormented 
lengths before many of the " pale faces" 
begin to totter forth at the summons of the 
gong. 

A whale is said to bo in view; but few 
are able to get on deck to see the monster. 
As he shows some hundred feet of his back, 
it looks as though he had screwed his hose 
to the western end of the Chicago artesian ! 
Some people try to imitate Jonah's captor, 
and set him on a cold piece of marble with 
a pipe run up through his mouth to pump 
for small fish in a fountain. The compari- 
son is like a cradle roll to Mt, Hood. 



Well, here we are, in an inland, fre&ii 
water, sea port — the thrifty little city of 
Portland, with its front pretty well sub- 
merged, and Ben Holladay's railroad, on 
the East side covered by the snow water of 
the Cascades. 

We now bid adieu to the John L. Steph- 
ens which may be as good as the most of 
ships, but our dreary recollection of her 
will save my ever having to buy another 
tartar emetic; and if a horse and cart can 
be procured, will save me from seeing any 
more whales, e. p. h. 

Portland, Oregon, June 9th, 1871. 

Crops, Etc., in Tulare County. 

Editors Press: — Having just finished 
up my weather report for June I have 
barely time to add a few lines. I have 
been too busy to write for some weeks or 
I should have made some remarks about 
blackberries from my own experience in 
California and Pennsylvania. I may yet 
send you something before planting time 
comes; but the absorbing question at this 
time is 

Grasshoppers, 

though they are not as plentiful just now, 
since they have eaten up about all our 
crops. They came flying, this time, and 
went over our fences destroying old and 
young vines to the number of twenty thou- 
sand at least, including quite a number of 
choice varieties, besides peach trees, &-p- 
ples, etc., in nursery, also vegetables; in 
fact almost every green thing, except large 
fig trees, and small oranges which are cov- 
ered with bags, and a bunch of Impha 
which now stands green in the center of 
the garden, where it was planted two years 
ago, and without irrigation has flourished 
in spite of drouth, frost or hoppers; — giv- 
ing the hint that making sugar and syrup 
tnay be a good and safe business here. 
Barley, 

We had not rain enough for barley the 
past winter. The grain has done best on 
land that had been plowed the year before 
and not cropped, even when not sowed un- 
til February. It is best when drilled in, 
lYi feet apart and 30 lbs. per acre. Our 
deep plowed land was not rolled, so lay up 
too loose and dried up too much to do 
any good. To save expense in harvesting 
we let it get ripe, broke it down by drag- 
ging over it a 16-foot board, both ways, 
then raked up clean with fine tooth rake, 
thus at little expense saving it all. 
The Grape Crop, Etc, 

Two successive dry years have been hard 
on cattle men and grain farmers; but the 
^rape stands it well and will be both very 
early, as well as fine in quality, here. All 
we need is enough settlers to cultivate 
most of the land between Tulare river and 
Deer Creek, a tract about 4 by 8 miles in 
extent. Then we shall be clear of the pest, 
and this place will become noted for its 
extra early and fine grapes, raisins, etc. 
We have a rich, dry soil that can be plowed 
it any time during the summer; a healthy 
climate that needs no coal oil or wool to 
purify it; though if that is good it might 
be well for the people on the river bottom 
to have some to keep off the chills which 
they have there; but that is not necessary, 
as nature has provided a superior soda 
spring, beautifully situated in the moun- 
tains near by where they go, during the 
warm weather to recruit and have a good 
time drinking the sparkling water. I used 
to say, when living in Alameda county, that 
California would be a fine state if it was 
Qot for the mosquitos and fleas; but it is 
very seldom we see one of the former, and 
never any of the latter here. 

Isaac B. Kumford. 

Orange Grove, Tulare Co., July 2. 



Weight of Wood. — In the Carpenters' 
Hand-Book, we find the following given as 
the weights per cubic foot, respectively, of 
the woods named: — Beech, 40 pounds; 
Birch, 45 pounds; Cedar, 28 pounds; Hick- 
ory, 52 pounds; Ebony, 83 pounds; Yellow 
Pine, 38 pounds; Coik 15 pounds; White 
Pine, 25 pounds; Lignum-Vitse, 83 pounds. 

When to Sell Hay. — It has been ascer- 
tained that well-cured hay weighed in the 
field July 20, and then stored in the barn 
until February 20, had lost 11% per cent, 
of its weight. It is, therefore, better to 
sell hay in the field at $15 a ton than from 
the barn at $20 in mid-winter. 

Meerschaum is said to have been found 
,in Patagonia. 



20 



[July 15, t&7i. 



A Lesson for the Season. 

Deep Tillage a Partial Remedy for Drouth. 

The Australasian, of Melbourne, has pub- 
lished a series of essays upou the " Dis- 
eases of Plants," most of -which the writer 
attributes to too high or too low a culture 
of the soil. He suggests a inedium course — 
less manure, with deei)er tillage — as a 
remedy, which, if judiciously followed, 
will result in a more even and better yield 
of both grain and root crops. If his theory 
bo correct and ajjplicable in Australia, it 
must certainly be so, to a certain extent, in 
California, where drouth is an exception, 
although the uplands frequently sulTer from 
a short sujiply of rain. We offer an 
abridgement of the 3d essay to the consid- 
eration of California farmers, many of 
whom will no doubt put the theory to the 
test. 

Good Farming 

Consists in keeping in full health and 
vigor every plant it is desirable to grow. 
Instead of looking for a heavy return from 
one crop, after a large outlay for manure, 
it seeks to obtain a full and steady yield 
from all, year after year, with a minimum 
of risk. And this is only to bo effected by 
deep tillage; with this, less manure is 
necessary to insure a full croj); and let the 
season be wet or dry, provided the tillage 
be only deep enough, and the soil bo suit- 
able for this, the returns are almost alike. 
Crops usually sutler from too much or too 
little moisture to their roots, and it is only 
by deepening the soil that a medium sup- 
ply can be maintained, and steady growth 
and perfect health secured. 

Of course, Avhere the surface soil lies on 
sand or gravel, nothing is to be gained by 
breaking through into either; but when 
the subsoil is clay, the more will the soil 
above it yield, and the more independent 
will the owner be of the seasons. If we 
cannot alter the climate, causing the heat 
and rain to be more equally divided, and 
better distributed through the winter and 
spring, wo can at least modify the effects 
of too much heat on the soil, and so pre- 
vent the- diseases from which our crops 
suffer the most. 

On a deeply tilled soil rust will do little 
harm in the wettest or muggiest spring — 
probably the greatest loss here [in Aus- 
tralia I to the grain crops over a number of 
years is from the blighting effect of the 
great heat when such crops are approach- 
ing maturity. Three j-ears out of four we 
hear of the grain being inferior to the pros- 
pect, or deficient in proportion to the 
head. This is in consequence of the roots 
not having a sufficient supply of moisture 
available when the grain has to be filled; 
hence blight, to a greater or less extent, 
whenever the summer sets in hot and dry 
at the same time. Wheat, and indeed other 
sorts of grain too, can bear very much heat 
without injury, jirovided the plant has in 
it sap enough to support rapid evapora- 
tion; but when the roots have only four or 
five inches of soil to draw this from, the 
sap must soon fail, and as the grain is the 
last part to be brought to perfection, that 
suffers the most. It would be difficult to 
estimate our exact loss from this cause; 
but as our summers are mostly hot and 
dry, and the plowing shallow; this partial 
blighting of our grain crops must greatly 
reduce the yield over a number of years. 

With the one remedy for so many dis- 
eases^this last, although not so named, 
is in reality amongst the worst— deep tillage 
must be good farming here more than in 
the old country. There is no security in 
growing grain on four or five inches of 
soil, and it is still more risky to attempt 
to grow roots. The best land has natur- 
ally a far greater depth ; but the ordinary 
mode of practice tends to form a barrier 
impassable to delicate roots between the 
deeper soil and what is every year turned 
over with the plow, and to limit their 
range in search of nutriment to this last. 
The plow so compresses the former, in 
sliding over it, as to make it in time al- 
most impervious to water, and the longer 
a piece of even the best land is tilled, the 
more clearly defined does this artificial de- 
markation become; whereas, the farmer's 
object should be to increase the depth of 
his surface soil, if only half an inch at a 
time. 

Subsoiling 

Is looked upon as terribly expensive work; 
but it need not be so. If it is determined 
to break up a stiff clay subsoil to a depth 
of six or eight inches, this can only be 
done with a strong implement, and at a 
proportionate expense; but a farmer may. 



without adding to the strength of his ordi- 
nary teams deepen his soil by one or two 
inches at a time. If the subsoil contains 
nothing injurious to vegetation, this may 
be done by turning up a somewhat nar- 
rower and deeper furrow slice; but if 
the subsoil is a cold or raw clay, the extra 
depth had better be gained by running a 
second plow with a mold-board, through 
the furrow. This should be done even 
though only half the surface can be got 
over in the day. The depth stirred will 
bo more by one or two inches than can be 
opened by the plow at one operation, and 
an inch of increased depth is worth more 
than the time lost in securing it. This 
inch will contain moisture enough, in 
summer, to fill the grain of a corn (wheat) 
crop, after the upper four or five inches is 
parched and dry; although these last, with 
the additional open soil beneath, will 
never become so parched as they are now 
when lying between the sun and the 
stratum imiiervious to moisture. 

Taking any view of the subject we may, 
we come to the conclusion that deep tillage 
[on suitable soil] is the great panacea for 
all the ills to which the farmer is subject. 
That alone will prevent the disease and 
blight of all sorts which now reduces his 
grain crops by a fourth, sometimes even 
one-half, and enables him, besides, to grow 
more roots and fodder for his stock; the 



The Auburn Horse. 

This horse, whoso death was so greatly 
lamented, was a chestnut, with four white 
legs and a blaze in the face. He was six- 
teen hands high, with great bone and mus- 
cular power, and a magnificent stride and 
action. He was got by Champion, Jr., and 
was bred at Lodi, New York. After Mr. 
Bonner purchased him, his first trials was 
to road "wagons against the famous gray 
mare Peerless, b^' American Star. She was 
then thought to bo the fastest trotter in 
America, and no doubt she was, as well as 
one of admirable stoutness, equal to' two 
miles to wagon inside of five minutes. Yet 
the young horse held his own with her, 
and the trial was practically a dead heat, 
while the Auburn Horse pulled the most 
weight. The late Hiram Woodruff de- 
clared that the fastest rate he had ever rid- 
den behind a trotter was when he drove the 
Auburn Horse at his work on the Union 
Course. He was a very steady, staunch 
horse, as well as one of wonderful speed. 

A Novel Bee Hi\t:. — Mr. J. Beatty re- 
cently found a swarm of bees in the dried 




THE AUBURN HORSE. 



farmer now must be 
manure moderately." 



maxim of a good 
" till deeply, and 

This moderation in the use of manure will 
allow of its more frequent application, so 
that all crops will benefit alike from its 
appliance, and none be forced into a 
state of disease; and thus will farming be- 
come more satisfactory and more profit- 
able. 

Numerous isolated instances of the above 
practice in this State, the past season, to 
which we have from time to time called at- 
tention, fully sustains the position taken 
by the writer in the Australian. 

Much objection has been made in cer- 
tain quarters to deep plowing; but we have 
yet to hear of the first instance where it has 
failed to prove beneficial, when practiced 
upon a close subsoil, unless the gi-ound 
was plowed either too wet or too dry, so 
that it could not be thoroughly pulverized. 
When a shallow soil overlies loose sand or 
gravel, it, of course, should not be broken 
through by deep plowing; but under all 
other conditions, and esi)ecially in time of 
a severe drouth, deep plowing will increase 
a crop from 15 to 50 per cent. Tho latter 
has been realized in this State in a great 
number of instances the past season; and 
in some few cases we have heard of total 
failures under shallow plowing and poor 
tillage, wh le deep i^lowing and good till- 
age on adjoining land no more favorably 
situated, have resulted in fair crops. 
Rolling will sometimes be found very ser- 
viceable on loose soil, or that which is not 
thoroughly pulverized by tho i)low, with 
either deep or shallow plowing. 

"CBYSTAii Palace." — The ram shown in 
our advertising columns, was tho grand 
sire of tho French Merino ram of Robert 
Blacon, of Centervillo, mentioned in our 
last issue. 



carcass of an ox, on tho San Joaquin valley 
plains, from which he took 40 pounds of 
honey. The bees in that section of the 
country, when they cannot find such a 
hive, make their honey-comb in the open 
reeds and tules. 



Cinchona. 

The Agricultural Bureau at Washing- 
ton, aro cultivating with apxiarent success, 
from importations from the British Gover- 
nor of Jamaica, a quantity of these (Peru- 
vian bark) trees, and will have some 2,000 
to transplant and distribute in January. 
They will not bear over two degrees of 
frost. Elevated ground free from frost 
is preferred. We think that California 
offers a very desirable field for their cul- 
ture, and hope our State will share liberal- 
ly in the contemplated distribution, al- 
though its quota be necessarily delivered 
at a more favorable season for transit over 
the mountains. Seed for this tree could 
doubtless be Secured by application to 
His Excellency, W. A. G. Young, Colonial 
Sec'y, Kingston, Jamaica, W. I., or to U. 
S. Consul Runsey, Quito, Ecuador, South 
America. Instructions for cultivating 
would doubtless be given freely by those 
gentlemen. It certainly would by the de- 
partment at Washington. 

Obchilla. — It is said that the specula- 
tion in orchilla, which so far as is known , 
is the only marketable article produced in 
Southern California in tho vicinity of 
Magdalena bay, has already been over- 
done, and the price is likely to fall bo low 
as to preclude shipments even when labor 
is obtained for nothing. 



The Santa Clara Fanners' Club. 

The Secretary of the Santa Clara Farm- 
ers' Club has sent us a copy of the Con- 
.stitution and By-Laws of that Association, 
together with a full account of the steps 
taken in its organization. We have kept 
our readers quite well apprised of the lat- 
ter, and as tho former has already had a 
wide circulation in the local papers, it 
would hardly be expected that we should 
republish it at this late day. We give tho 
following report of some of the remarks 
made at the meeting held for the purpose 
of a final organization: 

At this meeting there was much interest 
manifested, and some common sense. 
Speaking after the hearty style of thinking 
and working men, and with direct appli- 
cation to our wants and needs. "It was 
thought that this Association of Farmers 
would be not only a great advantage to our 
own section of country; but its influence 
would also be felt throughout the 
State. We meet, not as idlers, but as work- 
ing men who have something to do, and 
have mutual interests, and a heart in our 
work. 

Our field is a grand one, and our oppor- 
tunities for success almost without limit. 
With our past year of experience in agri- 
culture in this State, we have, through 
some adversities and mtich success, learned 
to practice the ways of wisdom a little bet- 
ter than heretofore. We sow wheat to 
harvest mustard, and feed squirrels, and 
take chances on raising a crop, when we 
might and should bo sure of success 
through a better management, etc. 

We need protection .juite as much as in- 
telligence and enterprise. What are we 
working for? What doing? The profits 
of our labor, instead of improving and 
beautifying our homes, and making our 
families independent, contented and happy, 
are largely consumed in the useless ex- 
travagance of towns. We build up the 
cities, and enrich men who labor little, and 
live in palaces. 

These men undertake to do our think- 
ing, sell our produce, and make our laws. 
Let us act for ourselves, as we surely can 
do. 

We all need a little elevating, as well as 
protection; and one of the best features 
about such an organization, as we have 
just completed, is the extra amount of 
thinking that we must do. Those who 
labor the best, should be the happiest, the 
most indei)endent, and the most respected 
men in the land." 

The above are only a few of the senti- 
ments that were uttered by the speakers. 
By paying one dollar, any one can become 
a member of the Association, and it is ex- 
pected that this institution will become a 
great and worthy one. The farmers are 
urged to bring their families to the rooms, 
which will always be open, and where the 
papers can be read, the market reports ex- 
amined, the bulletin board scanned, where- 
on farmers will advertise their stock for 
sale, etc., and where samples of grain can 
be seen, and a general Farmers' Exchange 
will be established. 

Meetings for discussion will be held 
every week, and it is expected that an oc- 
casional lecture will also bo given. The 
Association met at the room in the rear of 
the Western Union Telegraph Company, on 
Saturday, when a very interesting discus- 
sion, was held upon " The Best Method of 
Cultivating the Soil for Cereals." The de- 
bate was sust4iined with much warmth and 
vigor, and great interest manifested by the 
large number of auditors. Arrangements 
were made to rent the rooms permanently. 
Meetings will be held every Saturday at 1 
p. M. One of the rooms will be fitted up 
and supplied with reading matter for the 
benefit of tho farmers. The question for 
discussion to-day is " The Diversified Cul- 
ture of Crops." 



Preparation for Dkyino Fruit. — Gen, 
Bidwell is constructing, upon his farm in 
Chico, a new building, to be named the 
vinegar and dried fruit house. It is of 
large capacity, being 44x48 feet, and 22 
feet high. The foundation is concrete, 
and the superstructure will be of the most 
solid architectural construction, being sup- 
ported by heavy columns all over the 
building. It is to be hoped the General's 
example will be followed in other parts of 
the State, so that a larger proportion than 
usual of our surplus fruit crop may be 
saved this year by drying. 

Scarcity of Farm Labor. — The Vallejo 
Recorder of the 8th inst. says there is a 
dearth of laborers for the harvest fields in 
that quarter. Sherman Island farmers 
have offered 81.50 per day without secur- 
ing the number required. 



July 15, 1871.I 



•^ 



icJlt^I^^l fI©7ES 



CALIFORNIA. 
Notwithstanding the unfavorable con- 
dition of the crops in most of the great 
grain producing localities of the State, the 
farmers, even there, are by no means dis- 
heartened. The partial failure in such lo- 
calities -will not be altogether lacking in 
beneficial results. Improved system! of 
farming, and extensive and systematic 
plans of irrigation, it is now known will 
render those valleys independent of the 
vicissitudes of seasons, and under those 
circumstances the most uniform and pro- 
ductive of any lands in the State. Hence 
the most active exertions are now being 
made to effect the desired improvements 
in season for next year's exigencies. Our 
weekly summary presents many items of 
si^ecial interest to farmers and others. 

Ibrioation. — Notwithstanding the fail- 
ure this year, says the Colusa Sun, we are 
glad to know that the people, instead of 
wearing an aspect of despondency, are re- 
markably cheerful, active and buoyant, 
with a determination that renewed efforts 
may not only result in success in the en- 
suing year, but from past experience lead 
them to construct a canal or ditches to 
communicate with the Sacramento river, 
by which they may be enabled to irrigate 
their lands when desired, and thus be in- 
dependent of rains hereafter. It is a no- 
ticeable fact that wherever the Sacramento 
river has inundated the soil the crops are 
excellent, and such has been the result of 
irrigation this year everywhere throughout 
the State. 

Good Price. — Grain in Pitt River and 
other neighboring valleys is now worth 
four cents per pound, and there is little 
prospect of its falling below three cents 
in those localities until after harvest. 

Irrigation on the San Joaquin. ^ — The 
¥resuo Expositor of July 5th says: The San 
Joaquin and King's River Canal Company 
is employing every man and team that can 
be obtained and setting them at work on 
their canal; upwards of 100 teams are now 
engaged. The company is buying up all 
the hay and barley it can obtain in the 
county to feed its stock with. About one 
mile of the canal has been completed. Its 
dimensions are 40 feet in width at the bot- 
tom and at the commencement ten feet in 
depth, but as the work progresses the 
depth grows lighter, and it is thought that 
after the first mile the depth of the cutting 
will not exceed three feet. 

Innumerable small and private enter- 
prises of this kind are being started all 
over the State, wherever water can be run 
upon land liable to drouth. 

Chico. — The farmers in the vicinity of 
Pacheco are busy harvesting about three- 
fourtlis of an average crop. Some fields in 
the vicinity of Walnut Creek are said to be 
unexcelled, while in many localities the 
crops are an entire failure. 

Klamath Items — Crickets.— The Jack- 
sonville Times has the following: — "On the 
25th ult. a heavy frost killed all the pota- 
toes and other garden vegetables, in Klam- 
ath Basin. 

Black crickets are appearing in immense 
numbers, and are proving very destructive 
to the grain and all small vegetables ex- 
cepting peas. They are so numerous that 
small creeks have become dammed with 
their dead bodies, and the stench is said to 
be awful. George Nurse's gardens have 
been destroyed to the extent of $1,000 by 
them. They have not injured the grass yet, 
and stock looks well. 

Crops in Siskiyou. — The Yreka Journal 
says: Many of the farnjers on Little Shasta 
and Willow Creek, have been losers of 
crops this year by crickets. Some of the 
fields of grain have been cut for hay, and 
hogs have been turned on others to be fat- 
tened. This cricket raid and the shipping 
of grain to Hed Bluff is designed to make 
grain command a higher price this fall. 
The crops in Scott Valley were never bet- 
ter than they are this year, which is a good 
thing for consumers, as the demand incur- 
red by crickets in Shasta Valley and the 
demand from below, would otherwise have 
made grain. exceedingly scarce and high. 

The Wool Clip of Humboldt. — The 
Eureka Signal says the amount of wool 
^hipped from the southern portion of the 
county, to San Francisco by way of Hook- 
ton and Eureka, will probably not fall 
much short of 120,000 pounds — an in- 
crease of perhaps 40,000 pounds over the 
^lip of last year. The Signal thinks this 



fact should encourage the establishment of 
a woolen mill in that vicinity. Our wool 
production, everywhere, should be manu- 
factured, so far as possible, at the locality of 
its production. 

Napa County, according to the Register, 
will make a fine showing this season. The 
farmers are now very busily engaged in the 
harvest field, and have little time to visit 
town, except in case of absolute necessity. 
The prospect of a heavy crop of fruit and 
grapes in this valley was never more fa- 
vorable. Many new vineyards will this 
year come into bearing, while the older 
vines will 2>roduce more abundantly than 
ever. There are no less than thirty-three 
vineyards in St. Helena, besides many in 
Yount township and Napa; and all, so far 
as we can hear, are thus far free from 
blight or disease. The (juantity of wine 
produced will probably be double that of 
last year. 

The Marysville Appeal says the har- 
vest is progressing finely at the North 
Buttes. The yield of that section will aver- 
age ten bushels of wheat and fifteen of bar- 
ley to the acre. The wheat, notwithstand- 
ing it is a light crop, is of very superior 
quality, being remarkably free from im- 
purities. 

Calistoga Items. — The Tribune says that 
a gentleman ia now on his way from Paris 
to Calistoga for the purpofse of establishing 
a cocoonery, bringing with him a supply 
of worms. He is expected to arrive here 
in about two weeks. There are abundant 
facilities here for carying on an extensive 
business in silk culture. 

The GrapeCurein Calistoga. — The Tri- 
bune says: A short distance from Calistoga 
Springs is one of the largest and finest 
vinevards in the State, covering many acres, 
and filled with the choicest European and 
American varieties. This a favorite resort 
for the "grape cure," in the season, as 
practiced with remarkably successful re- 
sults in Germany. Numerous complaints 
are known to j'ield readily tothepresistent 
eating of ripe grapes. The guests wander 
at leasure through the immense vineyard, 
plucking the luscious fruit, and carrying 
with them to the hotel baskets loaded with 
white, crimson and purple clusters. The 
" Grape Cure " is decidedly popular in Cal- 
istoga, and finds very willing converts, be- 
ing a remedy which, unlike many in the 
pharmacopoiia, is not worse than the dis- 
ease. 

Mb. John N. Bailhache has the largest 
cornfield near Healdsburg, ever seen in 
that part of the State. The corn is large 
and thrifty. He also has the best fifty-acre 
field of wheat that we have ever j)ut our 
eyes upon. The grain is of the red club 
variety, and stands very close and tall, be- 
ing on the average, over five feet and a half 
high ! 

The Oechards and Vineyards of Sac- 
r.\mento. — The Folsom Telegraph of the 
8th inst., says: J. Routlier, who owns a 
model orchard situated on the American 
bottom, about half way between Sacra- 
mento and Folsom, on the line of the S. V. 
Railroad, has sent to market during the 
present season, so far, five thousand pounds 
of rhubarb, ten thousands pounds of aspar- 
agus, and has for a number of days past, 
sent about two tons of apricots per day, to 
the Sacramento market. He estimates his 
crop of apricots at twenty-five tons, and 
this is but a small proportion of the fruit 
that will be produced. During the season 
he will have quantities of plums, nectarines, 
peaches, pears almonds, and in fact a 
choice variety of none but the best fruits 
grown in the temperate and torrid zones. 

Bugbey's Natomy and Duroc vineyards 
promise an enormous crop this season, and 
in fact the same remark will apply to all 
the vineyards in the vicinity. 

Crops IN EljDoeado County. — The num- 
ber of acres sown in this county, according 
to the Democrat, is small, but from pres- 
ent appearances will yield handsomely. 
Mr. Poteet, four miles from this city has in 25 
acres of wheat and will harvest at least 30 
bushels per acre. In the vicinity of Pilot 
Hill the grain, wheat and barley 
look splendid, barley particularly, there 
will be quite a large yield per acre. Be- 
tween Pilot Hill and Greenwood all of the 
grain sown early looks fine. In Pleasant 
Valley the hay crop will be heavy and 
grain above the average. Above Smith's 
Flat, three miles east, the hay and grain 
look well; the same can be said of the 
fields between this place and Clarksville. 
The experience of farmers in this county 
proves that land, summer fallowed, 
ploughed deep and the grain sown early 
will in five yeai's out of six bring good 
crops; and there are thousands of acres of 
excellent land now idle that will pro- 
duce large crops if properly cultivated. — 
Democrat. 



The grain and fruit crop in the vicinity 
of Placerville is turning out good. Grain 
growing upon land which has been sum- 
mer fallowed could scarcely look better or 
promise a larger yield, and there are thous- 
ands of acres in that county that would do 
the eyes of some of the grain-growers down 
on the plains good to look upon. 

Calaveras Valley. — The farmers in 
Calaveras are just commenceingto cut their 
grain. Good crojjs of wheat and oats will 
be raised in the valley and on the hills. 
The jsrospects throughout the valley are 
not half so bad as have been represented. 
Independent. 

Meeced. — The crops now being pro- 
duced in the Merced river bottom, where 
farmers are provided witli irrigating 
ditches, we think, ought to be satisfactory 
proof to every one of the incomparable 
Ijenefits of irrigation upon the parched 
plains of the San Joaquin Valley. In Mer- 
ced bottom a large number of men are en- 
gaged in the cultivation of corn, beans, po- 
tatoes, pumpkins, onions, and fruit and 
vegetables in endless variety, many patches 
of which are upon fields from which have 
been taken excellent crops of grain or hay 
this season; all of which are owing to the 
facilities afforded by a few small ditches 
for irrigation. — Argus. 

Tulare County. — The Visalia Delta says 
that the result of the harvest in that sec- 
tion is such as to encourage those farmers 
who carefully till the soil, while it is di- 
rectly opposite with others. Mr. Myers, 
on Lewis creek, raised a crop of wheat and 
barley without irrigation, after great dili- 
gence in herding, the result being (303 
bushels of barley and 110 of wheat. 

Worms and Grasshoppers. — The Tulare 
Times of June 20th is informed that on the 
ranch of Mr*Joshua Bailey, a few miles 
east, the young cut-worms have destroyed 
seventeen acres of young corn. They at- 
tacked it on Wednesday, at which time it 
was growing thrifty and promising well, 
and on Saturday there was hardly a good 
hill left in the field, the whole seventeen 
acres having been destroyed in three days. 
We learn also tliat a single [singular?] 
worm has attacked a crop of potatoes, a 
few miles northeast of town, and were on- 
ly ijrevented from committing similar rav- 
ages by digging a deep ditch around the 
patch in which they would crawl and be 
unable to get out. 'These worms seem on- 
ly to move in the night, burrowing them- 
selves beneath the ground during tlie day. 
A sharp lookout should be kept on these 
destroying angels, when they have made 
their appearance the ditching process sliould 
be adopted. 

Grain in Tulare. — The Visalia Delta of 
July 9th says: A gentleman who is engaged 
in cleaning grain with a thresher and has 
seen most of the wheat and barley fields of 
the county, says that the crop will average 
better, both in quantity and quality, than 
last year. He informs us th.at much grain 
is wasting for the want of machinery to 
gather and clean it; and for the same cause 
farmers have cut many promising fields for 
hay, resting safe on the high price of that 
commodity. There are only five threshing 
machines in the county that we know of, 
and these are run to their full capacity. 
Three of them are now within five miles of 
town. 

Anxious foe the Raileoad. — The own- 
ers of land along the line of the proposed 
railroad are very anxious that it should be 
built, and offer free right of way and all 
necessary lands for stations, depots, etc. 
The farmers along the line are willing to 
turn out and put in their work toward the 
grading for mere cost of expenses. 

Keen County. — The crops of Kern coun- 
ty look well, and nearly a month ago the 
grain promised a fine yield. At the Barnes 
settlement they are particularly fine. 

The Geatn Yield in Monteeey.— The 
Castroville Argus of July 8th, says: As 
threshing proceeds we begin to get returns 
of the yield of the crops. From De La 
Torre's ranch we hear that one large field 
has yielded a ton of barley, within a few 
pounds of forty-two bushels to the acre. 
This land is near New Republic. Thirty- 
five acres of volunteer barley on the Cooper 
ranch, just across the Tembleder from this 
town and owned by F. D. Hall, gives .sixty- 
four bushels to the acre. From about 
twenty-three acres of barley on the Castro 
ranch, which was iilowed to a greater 
depth than ordinary, Charles E. Williams 
gets over fifty bushels to the acre. Will- 
iam Baxter, we hear, gets something over 
sixty bushels of barley to the acre on his 
place adjoining the town. These are the 
reports already made to us, but we 
hear of crops that will, it is estimated, 
run over these figures, and we are sorry to 
say that on the Cooper ranch, in this vicin- 
ity, and in many places above it, there are 



many crops not worth threshing, and some 
not worth cutting at all. 

Grasshoppers.— The Monterey Republi- 
can is informed that these destructive pests 
abound in countless numbers on the Cor- 
ral de Tierra and neighboring ranches, and 
are literally laying bare of vegetation the 
whole surface of the county in that sec- 
tion. They are also reported to be caus- 
ing great devastation in the San Antonio 
county. Monterey and suburbs have so 
far been protected from these insect-pi- 
rates by our cold fogs and strong breezes. 

San Bernardino. — The San Bernardino 
Guardian says that the farmers on Mill 
Creek Zanja boast of fine apple crops this 
year; in many cases they have been com- 
pelled to thresh them off the overburdened 
trees, to save them from breaking down 
with their weight. The errasshoppers 
have destroyed about one-third of the 
grape crop at the famous Cucamonga vine- 
yard, in this county. 

OREGON. 
A Valuable Horse. — The Jacksonville 
Times says that a Vermont colt, raised by 
Mr. McDonough, of that valley, was sold 
by him to Alex. Martin, for §400; and by 
him to Mr. Swain, of Yreka, California, 
for .U600. Mr. S. has since sold him to a 
gentleman of this city, (San Francisco) 
for $1,500. The 2'imes claims that they 
have many such horses in that region. 

Big Trees. — The Olympia Transcript has 
an account of some big trees, one of which 
not three miles from the block house on the 
Chehalis river has fallen, and measures 
three feet in diameter at the butt, and 290 
feet in length, and sixteen inches at 200 
feet from the ground. A monster fir lying 
prostrate on the ground, which has just 
been measured in Pierce county by the 
surveying party, is eleven feet in diameter, 
and 310 feet in length; and in the field 
notes in the Surveyor General's office, is 
a section corner in township nineteen 
north, range eleven west, with two bear- 
ing trees, fourteen feet each in diameter. 

High Water Near Puget Sound. — The 
streams flowing into Puget Sound from 
the Cascade mountains have been unusually 
high from melting snows, and some of the 
farmers have lost their crops. 

The Caterpillar Plague. — The gar- 
dens, fruit trees and shrubbery in many 
places in Portland are infested with my- 
riads of caterpillars, that are destroying 
the foliage and injuring the fruit. Among 
the several means recommended for their 
destruction, we are requested to mention 
that a cigar-box, perforated with small 
holes, filled with slaked lime, attached to a 
long pole and shaken over the tops of the 
trees infested with caterpillars, is a sure 
way of getting rid of them. Mr. James B. 
Stevens uses this method, and his trees are 
free from these and all other pestiferous 
insects. — Era. 

Mr. Greeley Declines. — Mr. Greeley, 
having received an invitation, by telegraph, 
to deliver the annual address before the 
Oregon State Agricultural Society in Oc- 
tober next, has replied that he will not be 
able to visit the Pacific Coast this year. 
Mr. Greeley will probably visit this coast 
next summer. 

State Lands. — Within a few days, says 
the Walla Walla Union, there have been 
large quantities of Oregon State Lands 
purchased in tliis valley, just across the 
Oregon line. That portion of Umatilla 
county lying in this valley will soon sup- 
port a dense population and will be a very 
superior farming countiy. 

Land transactions in Linn county for 
the two weeks ending June 22d, amounted 
to a total of $20,605. The largest sale was 
from John Nickles to E. R. Geary, of 
$9,850. 

There are now 200 claims located in 
Ochoco valley and the population numbers 
500. 

Wool is coming into Salem in large 
quantities, and is quickly bought up. 
The woolen mills of that city will soon 
start up, when a large amount will be re- 
quired to keep the factory at work. 

Wheat is quoted at $1.25 per bushel in 
Douglass county. A grainary to hold 
60,000 bushels has been erected at the 
Eugene City mills. There is a better pros- 
pect for wheat on the Long Tom than at 
any time before for ten years. 

The Guard, of June 24th says wool is 
coming in freely and selling at 35% cts. 
\wv pound. 

The Hay Harvest in the Walla Walla 
Valley has commenced; but the crop does 
not promise a very large yield. Old Timo- 
thy meadows are short and thin; a large 
amount of grain is being cut for hay. In 
some localities the crops have been greatly 
damaged and beaten down by a late hail 
storm. 



22 



mwm um 



MBB. 



[July 15, 1871. 



Farm Hints from Tuolumne. 

A few of the ranchers here are beginning 
to try raising the "Morus Multicaulis;" 
but as yet I have not heard of any experi- 
menting in the raising of silkworms and 
silk culture. 

The supply of vegetables is not so 
plenty as I have seen in by-gone seasons, 
yet it is sufficient for the home market and 
is of good quality. This branch of agri- 
culture, in this neighborhood, is mostly 
carried on by Italians, and consists of the 
more common kinds of soup vegetables. 
The rarer kinds, such as asparagus, oyster- 
plants, egg plants, endive, etc., come from 
French Bar, situated on the Stanislaus and 
•ome miles south of this locality. I send 
you a plan for increasing the size of 

"Rhubarb or Pie Plant," 
that may be novel to you ; at any rate it 
was to me. After preparing some rich 
compost, plant your roots in it, covering 
to the usual depth, then toke a flour barrel 
and having taken the two heads out set it 
over the plant, covering it carefully in the 
heat of the day, and after sundown with a 
piece of canvas or muslin. As soon as 
the plant appears above ground give it a 
handful of plaster of paris, leached ashes, 
guano, and bone dust equally mixed. In 
watering, let your water have the chill 
taken off, and water outside the barrel. 
The result will be to enlarge and enrich 
the stalk of the plant, and make it more 
juicy and richer than when raised in the 
common way. 

A Curious Way to Raise Cabbage. 

Take a large head of cabbage, strip off 
the outer leaf, and slip off tbe bud found 
at the root of the leaf. Take this bud 
and simply set it in rich dirt, like any 
other plant. The result will be a fine 
growth of early caljbage plants with heads, 
larger and sounder than can be raised in 
the ordinary way. I don't know whether 
this plan is new to you or not, but to me it 
was when I first saw it. This plan of rais- 
ing cabbage is much practised in Iowa. 
Let some of your readers try it. 

Can anyone give a specific against the 
mange, or lice in cabbage, et idomneyenus ? 
Kerosene will do if care is taken to apply 
it to every leaf, but it is too slow a proc- 
ess, and won't do except in a small garden 
patch. 

Winter Clierries. 

This very useful plant "Phymli.i Alke- 
kengi," or common winter cherry, is not 
much known, but deserves to be more 
largely cultivated for not only its medici- 
nal virtues, but as an excellent fruit for 
preserves. In all rheumatic, neuralgic, or 
gouty diseases it is extremely useful ia 
relieving the pains, either in the form of 
pills, or in decoction. It is almost harm- 
less, and an overdose is not likely to be 
taken in the form of pills. 

In the form of a conserve it is excellent 
in all fevers. It is hardy enough to stand 
our winters easily. Can any of your read- 
ers tell where the seed can be obtained ? 

The "Phusalis Alkekengi" is, like the 
tomato, of the family of the ''deadly hujlit- 
shade:" but, unlike the latter, instead of 
being the /oe to mankind, it is a true 
friend. It is a good ese\ilent for pies, 
preserves, jellies, and as table fruit. It is 
not much known in America, and has the 
same stigma attached to it that the To- 
mato had formerly, of being poisonous, 
and with the same truth. 

Thomas K. Stoddart. 



Salt as a Manure. 

The use of salt as a manure is attracting 
considerable attention at the present time, 
and is provoking much discussion and ex- 
periment. H. L. Iteade, recently said in 
the Farmers' Club at New York: — " Salt is 
destined to act no inconsiderable part in 
furnishing either directly or indirectly 
plant food within the next ten years. I 
have experimented somewhat with it, and 
am prepared to say that on light soils, es- 
pecially if they are both sandy and dry, it 
is worth far more in comparison to its cost 
than any fertilizer I have ever used." 

How and Where to Apply It. 

Mix with what other material, and in 
■what proportions must be determined by 
careful testing. Some of these experiments 
are now being tried, and I hope to be able 
later in the year to make a report. I would 
advise farmers everywhere to try salt both 
on potatoes and corn, and carefully note its 
effects. They will learn something valua- 



ble themselves, and their knowledge may 
benefit others. 

Mr. Whitney, the chemist of the club re- 
marked that there can be no doubt that on 
all soils of a sandy character the use of salt 
-will be found of great benefit, applied at 
the rate of from two to five hundred pounds 
per acre. It acts mainly as a chemical 
agent to dissolve silica, which is needed to 
give stifi'ness to the straw, and which 
forms an essential part of the hull of the 
kernel. Equal parts of nitrate and salt are 
found to be much better than the same 
weight of either alone. 

Sown as a top-dressing on rank pastures 
it reduces the quantity of herbage, but im- 
proves its quality, making the grass sweeter 
and more tender, so that cattle graze upon 
it with more avidity. It is a specific ma- 
nure for mangel- wurtzel, but while it 
greatly increases the crop, it is thought by 
many "that the nutritive properties of the 
root are lessened. 

On the right kinds of soil there is proba- 
bly no mamirial substance that will pay a 
greater profit on the outlay; but on stiff 
clays and soggy lands little or no benefit 
can be expected from its use. 
Its Effect on Soils. 

If the soil contains an excess of organic 
matter I would treat it with lime before 
applying salt. The advantages of the use 
of salt are almost wholly apparent on sand, 
for the reason mentioned a moment ago, 
and I should say that on a peat soil the 
benefit would be slight. There is no doubt 
that salt dissolves many other matters be- 
sides silica, and helps to carry them into 
the circulation of plants with more readi- 
ness than the organic solutions commonly 
present in the soil. Salt differs from am- 
monia, potash, and other constituents of 
plant-nutrition in this that whereas ammo- 
nia, potash, etc., are assimilated and com- 
bined to form new vegetable matter, the 
salt in solution often circulates thi-oughthe 
plant without being assimilated at all, and 
can be obtained by proper analysis as pure 
as when it was applied to the ground, hav- 
ing undergone no change whatever. 

When Used for Cereals, 

Such as wheat and rye, unless mixed 
with nitrate of soda it does not show any 
especial advantage. Nitrate of soda is now 
imported in such quantities and may be 
sold so cheaply that its use may be made 
quite general. 

Experiments Needed. 

A series of original experiments with 
salt, used by itself and in combination with 
other manures, would bo of gi-eat value if 
their results were accurately observed and 
recorded and made public through the 
Farmers' Club. Let a dozen farmers in 
different parts of the country each select 
three or four pieces of land a few rods 
square and having a light loamy or sandy 
soil. Manure one with a given weight of 
salt alone, another with salt and ashes, an- 
other with salt, lime, and plaster, another 
with salt and barn-yard manure, and an- 
other with salt and nitrate of soda. Note 
down the general appearance and growth 
of the crop. Weigh the straw and chaff, 
and the same with the grain, and send the 
results to the chairman of the club. This 
will give facts which are always needed to 
confirm the scientific principles of agricul- 
ture. 



The Barrel Culture for Melons. 

The plan recommended is to take a tight 
barrel or cask, remove one head, and par- 
tially fill the barrel or cask with large 
pebbles or stones, say half full; upon these 
stones place a mixture of compost with rich 
alluvial soil, or fine fresh vegetable mold, 
until the barrel or cask is filled within 
three or four inches of the top; in which 
plant the seed and cover to the requisite 
depth. This barrel or cask may be placed 
in any convenient situation where sufficient 
room or space can be obtained, and around 
which arrange lattice work or brush to sus- 
tain the out-spreading plants in whatever 
manner may be found most convenient for 
affording success at all times to both the 
barrel and the plants. 

Upon the outer side of the cask insert a 
pipe of convenient size, through which 
water may be introduceed to the lower or 
under halt of the cask daily, or as often as 
occasion may require; this portion of the 
cask should be kej)t constantly filled with 
water. Midway of the cask the staves 
should be perforated with several half-inch 
holes, for the free escape of any surplus 
water and at the same time to permit the 
admission of an equal distribution of air; 
this purpose would be better accomplished 
if the holes were bored upon a line at 
equal distances apart around the cask. 

The effect of this arrangement, as will be 



readily seen, is that through the capillary 
attraction of the soil sufficient moisture is 
absorbed at all times to nourish the plants, 
while the admission of air can be controll- 
ed at pleasure by opening or closing the 
apertures upon the sides of the cask. 

As to the production of cucumbers 
alone, under this plan, it has been found to 
greatly exceed any other; the yield, under 
proper management, from one "generating 
tub," has been found amply sufficient to 
fill a closely packed barrel with salted 
pickles. — Moore's Rural. 

Santa Cruz Farmers' Club. 

[Reported fur the Press by Roueb Cosant.J 

The club met at the court house in Santa 
Cruz, on Saturday afternoon, July 1st. 

The report of the committee on grasses 
was called for. 

Mr. Morgan. — I have no doubt but that 
the alfalfa will thrive in low lands, where 
there is sufficient moisture, but not here 
among our hills. 

Mr. Ca/ioon. — My experiments in grow- 
ing the alfalfa have not been successful. 
My great difficulty is with the gophers, 
which have cut many of the stalks close 
down to the ground. 

Mr. Mattiwn .—Ahont the time that Mr. 
Nichols lived with you, did the alfalfa 
sown on the hills amount to anything. 

Mr. Cahoon. — No, nothing. 

The committee were discharged from a 
further consideration of the subject, and a 
motion was also adopted that the club hold 
its meetings hereafter at the office of the 
librarian, Mr. Conant. 

The committee on books then made their 
report, presenting a large list. The re- 
mainder of the session was taken up with a 
discussion of their merits, after which the 
club adjourned to the second Saturday of 
July. 

There was a greatdeal said in the meeting 
which has been omitted, as of no interest 
to the readers of the Press. 



Growing Alfalfa. 

Eds. Press: — In your paper of July 1st, 
you allude to " Irrigation in Yolo;" also 
to the growth of alfalfa. Having had some 
experience in raising alfalfa, and believing 
that there is a little error mixed with the 
general truth contained in your article, 
headed " Irrigation in Yolo," I presume 
you will excuse me for trying to correct 
this error. 

You say that the clover is just coming 
into blossom, and will yield from four to 
five tons and a half to the acre, with a 
growth of only three months. The amount 
of hay that will grow in three months, as 
stated by you, I believe to be correct; but 
the ground should certainly be mowed 
twice within that time. I have a twenty 
acre piece of clover ground that I am using 
for hay. It was pastured till the fore part 
of April, then irrigated. I commenced 
cutting the first crop on the 16th of May. 
The clover was heavy and considerably 
lodged before we finished cutting. The 
yield was estimated at fully three tons to 
the acre. On taking off the hay the ground 
was again irrigated, and on the 2Gth of 
June I commenced cutting the second 
crop. The hay is finer and better, but the 
yield less— say from two to two and one 
quarter tons to the acre. 

Without further irrigation, I expect to 
cut the third crop of hay about the middle 
of August next, which will yield about the 
same as the second crop, after which there 
will be a plenty of time for a crop of seed 
to mature, and plenty of moisture in the 
ground to mature it. My former experi- 
ence warrants this conclusion. 

E. GroDiNQS. 



A Patent Fly Trap. 

The simple device herewith illustrated 
is the invention of Mrs. Farnan, of Indi- 
ana, and is known as the " Hoosier Fly 
Trap." It was patented January 31st, 1871, 
and is one of the list of useful devices of 
which it may be truly said, that "necessity 
is the mother of invention," for we are 
quite sure that the lady patentee was vexed 
by both the troublesome flies and the un- 
satisfactory appliances for destroying them 
patented by male inventors by the thou- 
sand, all of which had failed of entire 
success. 

The device is very simple, as our cut 
shows. Its base is merely a tin dish with 
several corrugations formed in the rim, so 
that when the round wire screen is set into 
it, openings are left for the flies to enter, 
as shown near the arrow point. The bait 
is placed on the bottom in the center, and 
the flies attracted in, after eating, naturally 
fly upward towards the light, and pass 
through the small opening at the apex of 
the inner cone into the outer cylinder and 
are trapped effectually, and may be " mer- 
cifully destroyed" by boiling water, or 



Dried Pears. — We recently observed in 
the New York markets, large quantities of 
pears, dried whole, with the exception of 
the cores which had been taken out, by 
machinery. They were prepared in Ger- 
many and are sold at a low price in the 
Eastern markets. It is said they are much 
liked by the consumers. They are dried 
in a short time in a moderately heated 
oven. We hope our California orchardists 
will take the hint and not allow their lus- 
cious pears to rot on the trees in the future 
without experimenting with the process, so 
successfully carried on upon the old con- 
tinent. 




THE HOOSIER FLY TRAP. 

they may be mashed or starved to death at 
the pleasure of their captor. Over one 
quart at a time have been caught by the 
patentee for.this State, T. B. Hopkins, No. 
244 Sixth street, in this city. Several 
thousand of the little pests may thus be 
hived in a batch. 

For bait, bread soaked with sugar and 
milk will answer, but it is more attractive 
when lager beer is used with sugar or mo- 
las.ses. The best bait, however, is consid- 
ered to be sawdust mixed with molasses 
and lager beer, and we would advise all 
humanitarians to give the flies their choice 
for their last meal. The trap is retailed at 
the reasonable price of SI. 25, or four for 
$5, and at favorable rates to dealers. It may 
be had at the number above stated, where 
rights for territory in California are also 
for sale. In Sacramento the traps may be 
had of T. J. Alley, agent. 



Health or Farmers. — There are seven 
reasons why farmers are healthier than 
professional men, viz: 

1. They work more and develop all the 
muscles of the body. 

2. They take excercise in the open air and 
bi'eathe a greater amount of oxygen. 

3. Their food and dilnks are commonly 
less adulterated and far more simple. 

4. They do not overwork the brain as 
much as professional men. 

5. They take their sleep during the hours 
of darkness, and do not try to turn night 
into day. 

6. They are not ambitious and do not 
wear themselves out so rapidly in the 
fierce contest of rivalry. 

7. Their pleasures are simple audless ex- 
hausting. 

A Curious Fact. — Curious are the 
means of self-defence with which animals 
and insects are pr^ovided. A butterfly never, 
when apprehending danger, lights on a 
green tree or shrub, but flies into a clump 
of dead leaves, and so atljusts its wings on 
a twig as to look exactly like a shriveled 
leaf, and defies discovery by its foe. 



July 15, 1871.] 



23 



New Publications. 
HoKSE Tbaining Made Easy. — A New and 

Practical System of Teaching and Educating the 
Horsp. Beautifully illuutra ed with 4t engravings. 
Whip Training. By Robert Jennings. To which is 
appended an Essay on Shoeing; also the Symptoms 
and Treatment of the Diseases ol the Horse. Phila- 
delphia: John E. Potter & Lo. 

The art of training horses has, until the 
last few years, been attended with much 
cruelty and bad management. The Earey 
system gave a new impulse to the minds of 
horsenien, but this is here objected to as a 
system of subjugation and exhaustion, 
often resulting in breaking the spirit of the 
animal. But the method here proposed is 
one of education, teaching the horse what 
is required of him, but not trying to force 
him to do that which he does not compre- 
hend. 

The system of training a horse to drive 
without bridle, bit or rains, guided simply 
by motions of the whip, is original, and 
has been highly endorsed by several socie- 
ties. 

The important matter of shoeing horses, 
so open to error, is carefully treated in a 
most intelligent manner; and the directions 
concerning diseases, and the full history 
of Crtotc/ers, will be found most instructive. 
The Horse and His Diseases. — By Eobert 

Jennings, V. S. To which are added Rarcy's Method 
of Taming Horses, and the Law of Warranty as ap- 
plicable to the purchase and sale of the animal 
Illustrated by nearly 100 engravings. Philadelx'hla: 
John E. Potter k Co. 

Diseases op the American Horse, and 

Cattle and Sheep, Their Treatment, with a list and 
full description of the medicines employed. By 
Eobert McClure, M. D., V. S. With numerous illus- 
tratiouB. Philadelphia: John E. Potter It Co. 

The subjects of which these two volumes 
treat, have been discussed in many a pub- 
lication. But old methods are continually 
going into disuse and a new era of more 
humane and judicious medical treatment 
is dawning upon us. New light is being 
thrown upon the diseases of the horse, and 
consequently much i^rogress is being made 
in the treatment thereof. 

The first of these two works is the more 
general in its scope, embracing the history 
of the horse, breeding and management, 
method of training, vices and diseases. 
The second confines itself closely to the 
diseases, treatment, and description of the 
medicines; so that they supplement one 
another. The authors are eminent author- 
ities, and their works are calculated to oc- 
cupy an important place in the libraries of 
those who own the noble animal. The 
latter volume treats also of diseases of 
cattle and sheep, and therefore comes home 
to a very large number of residents on our 
coast. 

Patent Laws and Practice of Obtaining 

Letters Patent for Inventions in the U. S. and Foreign 
couutries; including Copy-right and Trade-Mark 
Laws. By Ohiirles Sydney Whitman. Washington: 
W. H. & O. H. Morrison. 1871. 

This work is the result of an endeavor to 
compile from various sources, some of 
which are not easily accessible, reliable 
and practical information. Although in- 
tended to convey such information to in- 
ventors, patentees, manufacturers, and 
others who have occasion to inform them- 
selves particularly concerning patent mat- 
ters, it will be found useful also to lawyers 
generally, as it sets forth the state of the 
law resulting from the latest decisions, and 
contains the exact text of the late Act of 
Congress, by which the entire legislation 
in respect to patents and copy-rights was 
repealed, and a more complete and care- 
fully-drawn law substituted. 

The American Railway Officials' Man- 
ual, containing valuable information for Railway 
Superintendents, Master Mechanics, and Engineers, 
Coyne & Kelyea, Chicago. 1871. 

This work contains many valuable tables, 
extracts from technical journals and other 
matter of interest for the profession, such 
as is needed for frequent reference. 



Mechanic Arts College Lectures. — 
The lecture, last week, was a repetition of 
Prof. Swinton's most interesting remarks 
on "War Correspondents. Having given 
one report of the lecture, we give none to- 
day, although the subject is most inviting. 
Next week there will occur the concluding 
exercises of the course, when, it is to be 
hoped and expected, a large number will 
be present. 

The Colorado Miner asserts that smelt- 
ing works will be erected at an early day 
at or near Golden. 



Lieut. Wheeler's Expedition. — The 
Eureka Sentinel, of June 15th, says : Some 
days past Lieut. Wheeler's i>arty has been 
camped above here. The Lieut, came into 
town on Saturday last, and has moved the 
whole command south, on the road to Bel- 
mont, where he will be met by Dr. Coch- 
ran and the party that has been staying a 
few days at Austin. At Belmont they will 
be joined by Lieut. Lockwood, of Arizona, 
and Lieut. Lyle, of Alaska, when they will 
again divide, and Lieut. Wheeler's party 
will go through Death Valley, and another 
party, under command of Lieut. Lockwood, 
will take another route and meet again at 
Independence, California. When united 
they will start for the Colorado. At that 
stream they will take boats and go up, 
while Major Powell is going down, and 
they will probably meet at some point. 
When his explorations of the Colorado 
have ceased, he will go through Arizona, 
and return by water to San Francisco. 

The Value of Safety Cages. — Last 
Monday afternoon, the Crown Point cable 
broke while a carload of ore was being 
hoisted, and just as it had reached the 
1,000-foot level. The cage, being provided 
with McMartin's new safety gear, did not 
fall over three-fourths of an inch, though 
besides the weight of the car and ore, the 
weight of one thousand feet of cable had 
to be sustained, as when the break oc- 
curred this number of feet fell down the 
shaft and lodged upon the cage. Not long 
since a miner was ascending the Yellow 
Jacket shaft, suppoiting on the cage along 
and heavy stick of timber. When half 
way up, the top of the stick on the cage 
caught in the cross timbers of the shaft, 
when the cable pulled out from the eye in 
which it was fastened to the top of the 
cage. Hid the cage been one of the old- 
fashioned kind, it would have dropped 
hundreds of feet to the bottom; but being 
one of the safety pattern, it did not fall a 
single inch, but remained suspended mid- 
way between the top and bottom of the 
shaft, like the coffin of Mahomet, with the 
miner perched upon it in a situation more 
comical than dangerous. — Territorial En- 
terprise, Jane 1'dth. 

Platinum. — ^The Los Angeks 5tar is to 
be held resi^onsible for the following: A 
party of three persons started out in 1860, 
prospecting in the region of the Bitter 
Springs. They met with little success, 
but when on the point of returning, dis- 
covered what was supposed to be a silver 
mine. A load of the rock was sliipped to 
Los Angeles, and was, on being assayed, 
proved to be platinum, worth more than 
gold. Many inquired whence came such 
riches, none would answer the question; 
150,000 was offered for an interest, and re- 
fused. Two of the party, after proving 
their first load of rock, and while en route 
for their location, through some unac- 
countable means, took ill and died. The 
bird dropped the matter, went to St. 
Louis, died there, but left his secret to a 
merchant, who has recently started out 
from Los Angeles in search of the mines. 
He values the discovery at a million of 
dollars, but platina mines, such as this re- 
ports to be, have never been discovered. 

Rocky Mountain Coal fob Gas. — The 
experiments made by the Gas Company in 
this city with the Rocky Mountain coal 
show that it is not yet sufficiently solid to 
be profitably used here in the manufacture 
of gas. The last lot tried, however, ex- 
hibited such a marked improvement over 
the first, that there can be no doubt but 
that when a greater dejith has been at- 
tained U2)on the vein, the coal will be al- 
most if not quite equal to the Scotch can- 
nel coal. The first lot of Rocky Mountain 
coal tried yielded 3,300 feet of gas per ton, 
and the last 4,600— a wonderful improve- 
ment. The yield of the Scotch coal is 
7,500 feet per ton. The Gas Company are 
now using at their works the Scotch coal, 
mixed with pitch pine wood. When the 
Rocky Mountain coal has acquired such a 
degree of solidity as not to slake or crack 
open upon long exposure to the air, it is 
thought that it may then take the place of 
the Scotch coal, as, if not quite so good, it 
will cost less delivered in this city. — Ter- 
ritorial Enterprise, June 30. 

The bamboo fibre, it is said, can be pre- 
pared so as to produce a good imitation of 
wool. The manufacture of Canada thistle 
into ropes and textile fabrics is reported to 
be soon attempted on a scale which will 
settle the practicability of the process. 




Poisonous Vegetables. 

There are many beautiful and innocent- 
looking forms of vegetable life to be met 
with in our gardens and hedges, which are 
yet full of deadly poison, while others, 
from their close resemblance to nutritious 
articles of food, are often partaken of by 
mistake, and fatal accidents are conse- 
quently of too frequent occurrence. Warn- 
ings and information upon this subject 
ought to form part of the instruction of 
every school-mistress, in order that chil- 
dren may learn to avoid them. 

Monk's-Hood, 
Or aconite, is a tall plant with dark green 
leaves and a curious hood-shaped flower, 
which ought never to be allowed entrance 
to a garden. So many deaths have occurred 
from the use of aconite as a medicine that 
it has fallen into disrepute, one drop of the 
tincture causing death; but it is still exten- 
sively used in homceopathic practice; the 
minutest doses of it have, it is said, an in- 
stanstaneous effect in lowering the pulse 
and reducing fever. The young leaves 
and old roots have a very close resemblance 
to horse-radish, for which it is often mis- 
taken. 

Parsley. 

A species of hemlock, called fool's-pars- 
ley, is exceedingly poisonous, and when 
this weed springs up among plain-leaved 
parsley it requires close observation to dis- 
tinguish the difference. 

Buttercups 
Ai-e poisonous: they are so caustic that 
children's hands are sometimes inflamed by 
them. The poison disappears in drying, 
and they are harialess when mixed up with 
hay, and even nutritious, as their stems 
contain a good deal of mucilage. 

Laburnum 

Seeds are highly poisonous. Three little 
girls in Hertfordshire gathered and ate 
some of these seeds: two died that night, 
the third only recovered after a lingering 
illness. 

Night Shade. 
Half a berry of the dark purple fruit of the 
deadly night-shade has proved fatal. 

Belladonna 
Is also highly poisonous; strangely enough 
these two plants belong to the same species 
as the potato, and it is in the fruit, answer- 
ing to thej)otato-ap2)le, that the poison lies. 

Henbane. 
The roots of henbane have frequently been 
used in soup for parsnips. Their poison 
produces delirium and stupor. 

Fox-Glove, 

Though, like many other poisons, a valua- 
ble medicine in the doctor's hands, is fear- 
fully dangerous when ignorantly used, and 
had better not be meddled with. 

Daffodils. 

Even the odor of daffodils and lilies is apt 
to cause headaches, and infants have been 
made very ill by swallowing little bits of 
the flowers, and also those of the jonquil 
and snow-drop. 

Laurel. 
The leaves of the common laurel are highly 
poisonous, and produce death in a short 
space of time. The taste and smell are 
very similar to bitter almonds, and in fact 
it is the same principle in each, that of 
prussic acid. Although a small quantity is 
harmless to some constitutions, others are 
powerfully afi"ected. 

Yew Berries. 

The beautiful waxy berries of the yew, 
with their sweetish taste, are very attractive 
to children, and many fatal accidents have 
thus occurred. 

Arum. 
The wild arum, that strange-looking plant 
with its dark, coarse looking leaves, and its 
long, large greenish flower, contains a very 
irritating poison, which resides principally 
in the leaves. 

Mushrooms. 

Many accidents occur from mistakes as to 
the right kind of mushrooms to be gathered 
for use. The bright-colored ones are gen- 
erally suspicious. The mushrooms proper 
to be used in cookery grow in the open 
pasture land, for those that grow near or 
under trees are poisonous. The eatable 
mushrooms first appear very small, and of 
a round form, on a little stalk. They grow 
very rapidly, and the uper part and stalk 
are white. As' they increase in size, the 
under part gradually opens, and shows a 
fringed fur of a very fine salmon color, 
which continues more or less till the mush- 
room has gained some size, and then turns 



to a dark brown. These marks should be 
attended to, and likewise whether the skin 
can be easily parted from the edge and 
middle, and whether they have a pleasant 
smell. Those which are poisonous have a 
yellow skin, and the under part has not the 
clear flesh-color of the real mushroom; be- 
sides which, they smell rank and disagree- 
able, and the fur is white or yellow. 

A French physician maintains that all 
mushrooms may be used as food, provided 
those that are reckoned poisonous are cut 
in pieces and washed in nitric acid and 
water, or, when this cannot be had, in 
strong brine. When thus prepared, he al- 
lowed his family to eat all varieties of 
mushrooms. 

It is a useful lesson to iijipress upon all 
children and young people never to eat of 
any unknown plant or fruit unless they re- 
ceive express permission to do so from 
those who are competent judges. 

Poisonous Cards. — A letter from Ba- 
varia to the American Journal of Pharmacy 
mentions the introduction into the German 
states of a visiting card, which, because of 
its resemblance to " mother of pearl" has 
been greatly admired. After being tested 
by a medical professor, it has been found 
a soluble salt of lead, a very poisonous sub- 
stance. The public not being acquainted 
with the poisonous properties of these 
cards, will not be on their guard in pre- 
venting their being chewed or eaten by 
small children, to whom the sweet taste (of 
the lead salt) and the crystallized appear- 
ance will form an attraction, thereby pro- 
ducing obscure cases of illness and pois- 
oning. The inventors of such deleterious 
articles deserve, if not punishment, public 
censure for thus placing the health of human 
beings in jeopardy. 

Cure for a Cold in the Head. — Dr. 
Paillon, of France, announces what he con- 
siders a new method of curing a cold in 
the head. It consists in inhaling through 
the nose the emanations of ammonia con- 
tained in a smelling-bottle. If the sense 
of smell is completely obliterated, the bot- 
tle should be kept under the nose until 
the pungency of the volatile alkali is felt. 
The bottle is then removed, but only to 
be reapplied after a minute; the second ap- 
plication, however, should be long, that 
the patient may bear it. This easy opera- 
tion being repeated seven or eight times in 
the course of five minutes, but always very 
rapidly, except the first time, the nostrils 
become free, the sense of smell is restored, 
and the secretion of the irritating mucus is 
stopped. This remedy is said to be pecu- 
liarly advantageous to singers. 

A Healthful Substitute fob Tea. — As 
a healthful di-ink, in place of tea, Dr. 
Thompson, in a late work of his, recom- 
mends the use of the dried leaves of the 
red raspberry. They cleanse the system 
of canker, and thus act beneficially to the 
health. The leaves should be gathered on 
a warm day, and may be spread in a good 
airy chamber, on clean boards or papers, 
to dry. When sufficiently dry, they may 
be kept in sacks. A small handful is suf- 
ficient for several persons. This tea does 
not require the addition of milk or sugar, 
and is quite as pleasant as other tea, and 
much cheaper and healthier. 

A Useful Remedy. — A correspondent of 
the Country Oentleman says that tincture 
of arnica will cure oak poisoning, rapidly 
and completely, and that there is nothing 
better for healing wounds, bruises and 
sprains in man or beast. It will instantly 
stop the pain from the sting of a bee or 
wasp. For wounds it should be diluted 
with water. To make it, get two ounces 
of arnica flowers from a druggist, and put 
in a bottle with one quart of alcohol. 

Tomatoes and Health — A correspon- 
dent calls our attention to the attack re- 
cently made by a well-known writer on the 
use of tomatoes as an article of food, and 
asks our opinion. We answer: The writ- 
er gives no facts in support of his opinion. 
On the contrary, the experience of the 
public has thoroughly tested and proved 
their value. Don't eschew tomatoes. — 
Home and Health. 



Why Ladies are Seldom Bald-Headed. 
The ladies notwithstanding they wear long 
hair, (which is more likely to fall out,) sel- 
dom are bald-headed. Their heads are not 
kept closely covered. In sleeping, do not 
cover the head with a night-cap. Keep the 
head well ventilated; if the hat is close, raise 
it often and let in the fresh air; never wear 
the hat indoors. 



Hall's Journal of Health says a sixpenny 
sandwich, eaten leisurely in the cars, is 
better for you than a^dollar dinner bolted 
at a station. 



24 



»jfe^«0*WJi4E JLW ik\i> m mh^/^'^ ^Jc\,JgaoD. 



[July 15, 1871. 




DELVTSZ-ST <^ CO. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWEB. O. H. 6TB0NG. J. L. BOONE. 

Pbincipai, Edit«b W. B. EWER, A. M. 

AB80CUTE Ediiob I. N. UOAU, (Sucrauiento.) 

Opfice, No. 414 Clay street, where friend.s aud patrone 
are invited to our Scientific Pbess Patent Ageucy, En- 
graving aud Printing establishment. 

NEW YOKK OFFICE: Uoom 25, Park Row. W. E. 
Pabtbidge, Editorial and Business Correspondent. 

8CBSCBIPTIOS8 payable in advance — For one year, $4: 
■ii months, $2.SU; three mouths, $1.25. Clubs of ten 
names or more, $3 each per annum. 

ADVERTISING RATES. 

1 week. 1 month. 3 months. 1 year. 

Per line 25 .8U $2.0U $5.00 

One-halt inch $1.00 $300 G.IIO 20.00 

Ooe inch 2.00 6.00 10.00 3S.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
in extraordinary type or in particular parte of the paper, 
Inserted at special rates. 

SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 15, 1871. 



Our Weekly Crop. 

The appearance of our chief agricultural 
editor, as he walks out to greet our friends on a 
Summer Eve, on his pleasant mission of con- 
ducting them around the ranch, is well depicted 
in our first page illustration this week. With 
his love for Nature, he has taken a path which 
leads through pleasantly wild scenes, and has 
avoided the bridge over the stream, which can 
be traversed by those who are not able to skip 
from stone to stone, as is necessary in the par- 
ticular spot shown. 

Our editor conducts you, kind reader, first to 
the silk factory, to show the Improvements in 
Silk Manufacture. Then he passes to the Li- 
brary of Mechanical and Scientific Progress, to 
point out the novelties and discoveries of the 
day. He .shows you letters concerning Ageing 
Wine, Water Pipes for Domestic Service, Ocean 
Travel, Crops in Tulare County, which express 
views and give information on these topics. He 
reads to you a Lesson for the Season, which will 
be profitable, it is to be hoped; puts the Auburn 
Horse through his paces for your edification; 
gives a report of the Santa Clara Farmers' Club; 
and then jots down for you ,the Agricultural 
Notes of the week. 

Farm Hints from Tuolumne are brought to 
your attention, and explanatory remarks are 
given on the Use of Salt as a Manure and on 
the Barrel Culture for Melons. A short report 
of the Santa Cruz Farmer's Club is presented, 
and an article on Growing Alfalfa. The work- 
ing of a New Fly Trap is shown practically. A 
criticism of several New Publications and a few 
notes of the day are written out for your use. 
With a tender regard for your Good Health, a 
number of Poisonous Vegetables are pointed 
out, and various hints dropped here and there. 

Our editor notices the Resignation of the 
Commissioner of Agriculture, timing his re- 
marks so as to pass a potato field at the right 
season for showing some New Varieties of 
Potatoes, and crossing the stream so as to ask 
you to Beware of Pickerel. 

He gives you a List of Patents and a few 
Notices of Recent Inventions for future perusal. 
He reads notes from his brother-in-law about 
Scenes on a Trip Eastward. He culls a des- 
cription of a Wonderful Cavern, asks his Ne- 
yada acquaintances to see if they cannot im- 
prove the Wild Peach of their State, and fills 
up gaps in the conversation with interesting 
little items. 

With a feeling of pride, he introduces you to 
his sisters of the Home Circle, and shows you 
a Column of Little Folks. In the well-ordered 
kitchen, you are given lessons in Domestic 
Economy. 

From the Kitchen you are led to the Orchard, 
and are given the views of one who was the 
Chief Magistrate of our nation, on Thorough 
Farming. You hear a song. Out of the Old 
House into the New, as you bid your guide 
farewell. We hope that you are satisfied, at 
least, with your conductor, and that he has 
managed to "lingle the instructive and the 
pleasing in rightful measure; for if he has not 
succeeded we shall have to discharge him, 
which, however, we should be sorry to do. 



Resignation of the Commissioner of 
Agriculture. 

Hon. Horace Capron, Commissioner of 
Agriculture, has tendered his resignation, 
to take effect August 1st. Gen. Capron, 
some two months ago, entered into a con- 
tract with the Japanese Government, 
through the Commission sent to this coun- 
try for the purpose of introducing into 
Japan the industrial ideas of American 
civilization. 

In carrj'ing out this contract the Gen- 
eral will proceed early this fall to Japan 
via San Francisco. He is already busily 
engaged in collecting models of agricul- 
tural, manufacturing and railroad machin- 
ery, and all sorts of domestic furniture and 
equipment, with which to illustrate to our 
Japanese neighbors all the phases of 
American life — business, social, and domes- 
tic. 

He will also take with him a geologist, 
civil engineer, and other members of a 
corps of scientific and industrial investi- 
gators. 

Prof. Anderson, of the District of Col- 
umbia, chemist of the Agricultural Bureau, 
will accompany Mr. Capron as geologist of 
the expedition. 

Prof.^ Pool, of Pennsylvania, also joins 
the party as geologist and acting special 
engineer. 

Gen. Capron will receive a salary of 
$20,000 per annum. His mission is not 
only one of high dignity, but also of incal- 
culable influence in the present crisis of 
the world's civilization. His mission is 
strongly endorsed by President Grant and 
Cabinet, as one of the utmost importance, 
not only to .Tiipan, but to the United States 
as well. His task is nothing short of a re- 
construction of Japanese productive indus- 
try. 

The selection of an American citizen to 
take charge of such a commission, is highly 
significant; and when considered in con- 
nection with the recent Burlingame Com- 
mission from China, shows most conclu- 
sively that the Oriental rations fully rec- 
ognize our peojile as standing at the head 
of progressive civilization and industry. 
Hence it is that they naturally look to the 
United States for the brains which are 
necessary to enable them to take the for- 
ward steps for joining themselves to the 
march of progress, rather than stand still 
like other heretofore non-progressive na- 
tions, until they shall be completely trod- 
den out by the onward progress of superior 
races. 

The Washington Chronicle, in alluding 
to the matter, comments as follows: — 
" One of the first results of this movement 
will be a great enlargement of our trade 
with Japan, and a groat increase in our 
manufacturiag operations, especially agri- 
cultural implements and machinery. 

The ultimate consequences who can tell? 
Civilization in its westward progress has 
now belted our Northern hemisphere. 
What will become of the stereotyped Ori- 
ental nations when once it leaps the Pacific 
and sets foot upon tha soil of Asia ? Will 
they waste away before it like our own 
aborigines ? The history of China and 
India, during the last 300 years, might 
seem to warrant this supposition. The 
Japanese nation has apparently learned 
this lesson, and is fortifying against it; 
instead of allowing itself to bo crushed by 
the march of progress, it proposes to keep 
step with it. Humanity will wish it 
abundant success." 



Japanese Persimmons. 

The Department of Agriculture at Wash- 
ington, is cultivating 75 persimmon trees 
brought from Japan by Capt. Ammen. 
They were taken overland from San Fran- 
cisco, and although they met with a delay 
of three days in our custom house, every 
tree lived and appeared to bo thriving 
when we saw them recently. Xhis fruit in 
Japan is said to be equal in size to apples 
and superior to our American persimmons. 



New Varieties of Potatoes. 

We last week made brief reference to 
several new varieties of potatoes which 
have been submitted to our inspection by 
Mr. A. D. Pryall, of Oakland. Mr. P. has 
been engaged in his experiments about six 
years, and out of quite a number of new 
varieties obtained he finds only two which 
show any decided characteristics of value 
and permanence. Both are white, with 
skin of beautiful and delicate texture. The 
chief characteristic of one of the varieties 
is found in the fact that its " eyes" or 
germs ' ' stand out" from the level of the 
tuber, occupying a protuberance rather 
than a depression. This tendency is con- 
sidered an important desideratum in any 
potato, and it is without doubt one of the 
permanent features of this new variety. 

He who improves on any of the great 
necessaries of life is said to be a public 
benefactor and deserving of a rich reward. 
To all appearances Mr. Pryall has earned 
the reward, and we are mistaken if he does 
not obtain it when he puts his new Califor- 
nia tubers in the market. 

Mr. P. has set an example in the appli- 
cation of science to Nature in the way of 
utilizing her laws for the benefit of man 
which we trust may find many imitators 
on the Pacific Coast, where, according to 
every received opinion, the climate and 
soil affords unequalled opportunities for 
such experiments, and where both honor 
an profit await all who diligently engage 
therein. 

AVe may here remark that Mr. Pryall is 
also engaged in producing now and im- 
proved varieties of the rose; and that he 
already exhibits several new hybrids of 
this queen of flowers. 

It is held by some that all varieties of 
fruit and vegetables eventually die out, by 
natural decadence, and that the only way 
to keep up good varieties is to produce 
new ones; the life of the potato, according 
to this theory, is about 14 years. This, we 
believe, is the opinion of such eminent 
agricultural writers as Prof. Johnston, and 
the late Prof. Knight, late Superintendent 
of the Kew Gardens, London. 

This, however, is a mooted question, for 
there are many who point to well known 
varieties of fruit and tubers which have 
maintained their permanence for very great 
lengths of time, manifesting no symptoms 
whatever of deterioration. Be this as it 
may, no one pretends that we have reached 
anything like the utmost limit in the im- 
provement of any of Nature's productions. 

It is a matter of regret that none of our 
Agricultural Societies on this Coast have 
ever encouraged experiment in this direc- 
tion by the oflfer of premiums for new and 
valuable varieties of fruit, etc. Such an 
offer would doubtless turn the.attention of 
many in that direction, and could scarcely 
fail to be productive of much good. 

To show what is being done in this di- 
rection in other States, and counties even, 
we notice that the Worcester (Mass.) Ag- 
ricultural Society, in their premium list 
for this year, offer no less than S200 in 
cash for the best new seedling potato. 

A Good Move. 

Messrs. Vale k Warner of the S. F. Em- 
ployment Office, 230 Sutter street, are se- 
riously at work getting immigrants who 
will go to work on farms. It is difficult to 
find persons in the city who are willing to 
accept such situations. Messrs. V. & W. 
have a branch office in Scotland and pro- 
pose establishing one in England, and 
their efi'orts are directed mainly to getting 
farm laborers, a class which we need most 
of all out here. They can draw from a 
healthy and industrious population, and 
we wish them success. Mr. Vale informs 
us that he will have here, before next 
Christmas, one hundred good farm hands. 
Such an institution as his is capable of do- 
ing our coast a very great benefit. 



Beware of Pickerel. 

It having been stated that the California 
Acclimatization Society was about to in- 
troduce pickerel raising on the Pacific 
coast, a writer in the Germantown Tele- 
graph warns our folks against taking such a 
mis-step and cities some very good reasoiiS 
why we should be thankful that this sharp 
and voracious thief has not introduced him- 
self to our waters. He says : 

" Like other noxious animals, it is apt to 
obtain a preponderance in localities for- 
eign to its habitat as established by nature, 
that will be extremely disastrous to all its 
associates. 

In one species or another the pickerel 
has numerous representatives in the United 
States; and in the waters of the west coast 
is met with plentifully in the Youkon 
river. As far as is now known they are 
entirely wanting in all other tributaries of 
the Pacific Ocean, as well as the waters of 
the great basin. Elsewhere in North 
America they occur abundaiitly — in the 
British possessions aud throughout most of 
the United States, although they are not 
recorded as found in the Mexican gulf 
rivers west of the Mississippi. They are, 
however, everywhere, small isolated sys- 
tems of water to which they are not native, 
but where trout are frequently found in- 
stead. Where they occur, as among the 
earliest aboriginal inhabitants, so to speak, 
a certain balance of power has been estab- 
lished between them and the other fish, 
by which an average ratio of number is 
maintained without much change year by 
year, the efforts of sportsmen to take them 
being entirely to the advantage of the 
other species. The case, however, is dif- 
ferent when they are transported to waters 
previously uninhabited by them. Hero 
they come in as a disturbing element of 
great moment, and it is not long before 
their presence is felt in the rapid diminu- 
tion of nearly all the other inhabittints of 
the water. Probably, after a long inter- 
val, by the process of natural selection, an 
equation will be established by which they 
will be prevented from undue multiplica- 
tion: but this will require many years, the 
duration of which is probably to be counted 
by centuries, or perhaps even thousands of 
years, and we therefore earnestly advise 
our California friends to bo extremely cau- 
tious as to what they do in regard to the 
introduction of pickerel. The tendency of 
legislation in the East is to encourage as 
much as possible the extirpation of pickerel 
from the fresh waters where they are 
found, in order that the proper room may 
be left for the increase of the better 
species." 

■ The fish commissioners of the several 
New England States heartily condemn the 
pickerel and recommend various means of 
getting rid of them — considering them the 
most ruthless destroyers among all fresh 
water fishes, and in most waters their ad- 
Tent is a misfortune. Legislation against 
their introduction is advised. The intro- 
duction of mascallonge, pike, sun fish, 
bream and yellow perch into waters where 
they do not exist is also decidedly discour- 
aged. 

Dr. E. L. Sturtevant tried the gorman- 
dizing capacity of two young pickerel by 
placing them in a 5-foot trough with a lot 
of minnows one inch long. They ate 128 
minnows the first day, 132 the 2d, and 150 
the 3d; lengthening themselves one inch in 
48 hours. " Mere machines for assimila- 
tion of other organisms." 

Among others in the East who depre- 
cated one of the first steps announced to be 
taken by our Acclimatization Society, we 
met with Mr. Benj. F. Bowles, of the 
Springfield, (Mass) Republican, a gentle- 
man who is bestowing considerable per- 
sonal attention to fish breeding, and who 
expressed much interest for the success of 
all new enterprises of the sort for the Pa-, 
ciflc coast. He is down on pickerel, too ! 
We did not ride after neighbor Bowles' fast 
horse, when invited, but followed his, 
(Ben's) advice to visit Col. Thompson's 
trout farm in west Springfield, and will 
report it another week. 

To Correspondents. — We have quite a 
number of communications and queries on 
hand, which we will endeavor to attend to 
next week — among them some notes (rota 
Mr. Hoag, at Salt Lake City. 



July 15, 1871.1 



25 



Patents & inventions. 



Full List of U, S. Patents Issued to 
Pacific Coast Inventors. 

(From Offioul Reports to DEWEY & CO., U. S. ahb 

FoKEiON Patent Agents, and Publishebb of 

THE Scientific Pbebs.] 

Fob the Week Endinq June 27th. 

Ikoning and Steetching Boabd. — Jacob 

W. Davis, Reno, Nev. 
VEHiciiE. — Clark Elliott, Woodland, Cal., 

assignor to himself and Nathan Elliott, 

same place. 
Punching-Machine. — Daniel Anderson 

Faulkner, Centreville, Cal. 
Pdknace fob Roasting Oees. — Frank 

Kesseler, San Francisco, Cal. 
Chuen.— Thomas Bee Parke, near Downie- 

ville, Cal. 

Poetable Poweb-Pbess. — Thomas B. Wait, 
Zena, Oregon. 

Note.— CoplPS of IT. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest time possible (by tel- 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
business for Pacific coast inventors transacted with 
greater security and in much less time than by any other 
agency. 

Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained 
through Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press 
American and Foreign Patent Agency, the 
following are worthy of mention: 

Lamp. — M. Samuels, S. F. This is one 
of the class of lamps known as fountain 
lamps, in which the oil is contained in a 
vessel surrounding the burner tube so as 
to provide a fountain from which the oil is 
fed by connecting tubes to the burner. 
This invention consists in so connecting 
the fountain with the central vertical oil 
tube that a free and open space will be left 
between the two at all points. It also con- 
sists in surrounding the vertical oil tube 
with an outer tube, so as to leave an air 
space between the two. The burner is se- 
cured upon the outer tube, 
while the oil is contained in 
the inner one, and the latter, 
by this construction, cannot 
become heated and therefore 
all danger of explosion is 
avoided. 

Mop Head.— J. Brizee, Al- 
varado, Cal. This invention 
consists in employing strong 
wires or rods which are secured 
to the mop handle and bent so 
as to lock over one another 
and bind the mop cloth be- 
tween them. Another wire is 
arranged to slide upon these so 
as to hold them tightly or to 
release them. The device is 
very simple, cheap and dura- 
ble. 

Roasting Fuexace.— J. S. 
Akin, Rye Patch, Nevada. 
This is a furnace designed to 
effect the oxidizing or chlori- 
dizing roasting of ores in a 
quick and comi^aratively inex- 
pensive manner. The inven- 
tor has spent considerable time and money 
in perfecting .the construction and claims 
to have arrived at satisfactory results. 



Editorial Notes Eastward.— 10. 

Echo Canon.— U. P. R.R. 

Journeying on, we come to Echo City, a 
quiet little settlement, prettily situated. 
Then, leaving the Weber, we run off to 
the left, up among the bold red sandstone 
bluffs of Echo Canon, where many a fan- 
tastic shape attracts our attention. 

One of the first of these is Pulpit Rock, 
30 called, partly from its appearance, and 
partly from the fact that from its summit 
Brigham Young preached (or is said to 
have preached) his first sermon in Utah. 
Then there is Monument Rock, the ' ' Great 
Eastern," Dead Man's Rock, and numer- 
ous others. The massive walls of stone 
grow higher and higher and tower far 
above us, rising as mighty castles, huge 
cathedrals and rugged battlements. ; 



A Wonderful Cavern. 

There is, within eighteen miles of Hele- 
na, one of the most wonderful caves in the 
world. 

The Vermillion Buttes, a beautiful and 
picturesque range of hills, lie a little 
north of east from Helena, on the Missouri 
river, terminating abruptly at the Spokane 
Pass and Beaver creek on the south, and 
bounded on the north by the Prickly Pear 
caiion. They are dotted here and there 
with isolated pines and little groves, are 
covered from base to summit with a dense 
and luxurious growth of bunch grass, are 
traversed with regularly defined rocky 
ledges, forming beautiful avenues, and on 
top of the highest mountain there is a 
beautiful transj)arent spring, affording 
abundance of water. Beneath these buttes, 
mountains or hills, is an extensive subter- 
ranean cavity, whose boundaries and form 
have never been discovered by white men. 
This vast cavern is a perfect mystery at 




PULPIT ROCK, ECHO CANON. 

The canon presents many an imposing | present, and, of course, no adequate de- 
view, mostly on the north side, however, 1 scription can be given of it. But it has 
and the travelers all congregate on the left 
side of the cars to see them. We can 
catch but brief glimpses as we hurry by. 



been visited by some of the curious in the 
neighborhood, and penetrated to the dis- 
tance of half a mile or more. The enti-ance 
to it is from the east, just above the mar 



but these glimjises give us grand ideas of ; gin of the western shore of the Missouri 



the bowels of the hill, and has been foil 
ed by the footsteps of men for several hun- 
dred feet. It is believed that this is an 
entrance to the cave, and if so, it is at 
least three miles from that on the Missouri 
first mentioned. — Helena Gazette. 




The Wild Peach of Nevada. 

There grows in Nevada a species of wild 
peach which is exceedingly hardy and will 
live nearly everywhere that the sage brush 
can exist. It is found especially frequent 
in Carson Valley, Humboldt Valley and 
on the hills around Reese River, perhaps 
also elsewhere. 

This tree grows to about the bight of a 
man's shoulder in the most favorable local- 
ities, but is frequently found not over a 
foot high. The leaf is small and thick, 
more like that of the plum. In the spring 
of the year the plains are covered with the 
beautiful pink blossoms. The fruit has 
the perfect form of the peach, is greenish 
with a crimson tinge, of small size, not 
over fi to 1 inch in length, and is very 
bitter to the taste. 

Dr. A. Blatchly, who furnishes us with 
the above information, says that he has 
long urged the grafting of this tree with 
good buds, as probably good fruit could 
thus be obtained. If on this hardy stock, 
which is very long-lived (it is said to livs 
for 40 or 50, perhaps 70 years) , a good 
peach could be grafted, it would be a great 
gain for Nevada. The experiment is cer- 
tainly worth trying. 

The Mechanics' Fair. 

The Pavilion is being altered and en- 
larged for the coming Industrial Fair, and 
already the body of the building has been 
enlarged to Geary street on one side and 
Post street on the other. 

More space has been applied for than 
was occupied at the last Fair, and applica- 
tions are still coming in. Any 
delayed till after the 15th inst. 
will not be allowed in compe- 
tition. People in New York, 
Philadelphia, Chicago, and in 
Sacramento, San Jose, Stock- 
ton and other cities, have made 
application and will have goods 
on exhibition. The next steam- 
ers from Japan and Australia 
will also bring articles for the 
Fair. It will open on the 12th 
of August, and promises to ex- 
cel all other exhibitions of the 
kind which have preceded it in 
California. 



HANGING ROCK, ECHO CANON. 



Be.vnching Coen.— Mr. Call (of the 
well known tool-manufacturing firm of 
Bemis & Call, Springfield, Mass.,) recently 
called our attention to a stalk of branch- 
ing joint pop-corn, presented to him by 
the original propagator of the species, Mr. 
Judson, of Cuba, N. Y. The stalk, 41 
inches long, contained 9 matured ears of 
an aggregate length of 44 inches. The 
epecinicn is a curiosity, which has required 
years in its production. The seed is now 
for sale in New York. We have a sample 
for planting next season. 

Denvee Agent.— Mr. M. W. Levy, 
whose i)lace of business is at the corner of 
Larimer and G streets, Denver, Colorado, 
will act as our agent and receive subscrip- 
tions and advertisements for the Pbess, 
and forward items of ncwsancj correspond- 



nature's agencies in these remarkable re- 
gions. 

The Mormon fortifications are pointed 
out, and the old Emigrant Road with its 
most dramatic of histories. Soon we come 
to tho Hangiug Rock, [illustrated from 
Crofutt's Transcontinental Tourist Guide], 
jutting out from the face of a cliff 
like half the arch of a bridge, 
and threatening, as it has threatened for 
years, to fall in ruin from its position. So 
we ride swiftly on through the mighty 
places, turn into North Echo Canon, with 
its Castle Rocks from 500 to 2,000 feet 
high, finally plunge through the longest 
tunnel on the Union Pacific, 800 feet long, 
and come to Wahsatch. d. 

April 13th. 

Impoeted Stock. — Among the blooded 
stock brought into California this season, 
were five Ayrshire yearlings, for James 
Quinn and others of Yreka, and a Clydes- 
dale stallion and mare, for James Vance, 
of the same neighborhood. They were 
sent out by F. D. Curtis, from Now York, 
at a cost for freight of <f600 for a car-load. 



river, in a wild, bold, romantic region. 
The walls, suj)porting pillars, and concave 
roof of this immepse cave are composed of 
cinnabar, and from evidence on the spot 
has for countless ages been the resort of 
numerous tribes and bands of Indians for 
the purpose of procuring stores of paint, 
manufacturing medicine and holding coun- 
cils. The Indians now inhabiting the 
various valleys of Montana, are well jjosted 
about the Vermillion Buttes, and the sub- 
terranean caverns in its bosom, and have 
some very curious ti-aditions relative to 
them. 

There cannot be a doubt that this extra- 
ordinary cave is a subject which challenges 
the early and earnest investigation of the 
archffiologist and pleasure seeker of the 
day, and a thorough examination of it will 
certainly be made soon. It is very prob- 
able that it is divided into great numbers 
of departments and chambers of different 
shapes and sizes, and that it has several 
outlets. Near" Carpenter's station (Spok- 
ane) is a deep, narrow, and rugged canon, 
or gulch, penetrating the butte at about 
the same level as the cave, which enters 



Fossil Remains Disco veeed. 
While prospecting in one of the 
deep ravines formed by streams 
flowing from Stockton Canon, 
Dr. L. G. Yates and Dr. 
Charles Allen, of Centerville, 
discovered the fossil remains 
of a mastodon. Its measure- 
ment is as follows: From front 
of jaw to the back of last mo- 
lar teeth, twenty- four inches; 
width of jaw at angles, 18 
inches; width of jaw midway between 
front and rear, 15 inches; depth of jaw 
from the crown of mclar teeth, 9 inches; 
thickness of jaw, 6 inches. This speci- 
men exhibits, in a marked degree, the pe- 
culiar process of shedding and replacement 
of the molar teeth. In the mastodon, all 
the grinders succeed like true molars, hor- 
izontally, from behind forward. In the 
jaw here mentioned, a part of one set of 
teeth have just been shed, another set are 
in place, antl another set developed in the 
jaw, ready to replace others when shed. 
The jaw is one of the finest ever discovered 
in California. — Bidlelin. 



Remaekable Flood.— Papers from the 
Cai)e of Good Hope give accounts of a 
remarkable and sudden flood which has 
occured at Victoria West. It is supposed 
to have been caused by the bursting of a 
water spout. In the space of two hours 
thirty houses were washed away and one 
hundred lives lost. 

A Royal Pbinteb. — The Emperor of 
Germany spent three years at the case. 



L 



26 



[July 15, 1871. 



i.J>^' 




BY OUB LADY EDITORS. 



Althea's Birthday— A Home Story for 
the Children. 

"Let me see;" said Althea Day, " there 
are Mary Simpson and Arthur, her brother, 
Ellen Horton, the three King girls and //ieiV 
brothers, Tommio Strang, Julia Lacy, 
Maria Hubbard, and Allen Barton; tney 
make twelve, and that will be about as 
many as can enjoy themselves I think. I 
don't want my birthday party to be a mob." 

" You have forgotten Josephine Mills," 
suggested her mother quietly. 

"I have no intention of inviting her. 
Besides, I presume she couldn't come, for 
it is Saturday, and on that day she keeps 
up stairs while her mother washes out all 
the dress she has in the world so she can 
go to Sunday-school. Nobody makes any- 
thing of Josey, though she's good enough 
in her way." So AUie Day put her bonnet 
over her brown curls and went to school, 
thinking all the way about her party of 
twelve and the grand dinner her mother 
■would prepare. " We will have games, I 
suppose," she thought; "though I think 
conversation is more dignitied , and I'll 
practice all my music to-night. Perhaps 
Marsh King will bring his clarionet." 

Just then Allie raised her eyes and saw 
Josephine Mills leading her little deformed 
brother toward the school-house. 

"How good she is to him," thought Al- 
lie. "If he was my brother I should be so 
mortified ! They say his father struck him 
in a drunken fit with a great stick of wood, 
and nearly broke his back. I'm sure I'm 
sorry for hiui, but he is as fretful as he can 
bo. All the same, Josey takes care of 
bim by night and day. What a dull 
life she must lead. I wonder if she ever 
went to a party in all her life. I am sure 
she never did, and very likely never will." 

A little thought crept into Allio's mind 
that Josey might receive an invitation to 
viie party at least, but she tried to excuse 
herself by thinking that the only dress 
could not possibly be washed and ironed 
in time for that birth-day feast. 

Miss Morton opened the Bible as the last 
scholar settled himself in his place, and 
read the fourteenth chapter of Luke! 

" When thou makest a dinner or supper 
call not thy friends, nor thy brethren, nor 
thy kinsmen, nor thy rich neighbors. Lest 
they also bid thee again and a recompense 
bo made. 

"But when thou makest a feast call the 
poor, tbe maimed, the lame, and the blind." 

The color fiew over Allie's face. "It is 
true," thought she, "that I selected the 
very girls to help me eat my birth-day din- 
ner who will be sure to invite me to see 
them when theyhaveaparty. "The poor, 
the maimed, the blind." How Ellen Hor- 
ton and Julia Lacy would laugh if I should 
ask Josey and her deformed brother, and 
Peter Henry, the one-legged Scotch boy, 
and Mark Livermore, who saws wood for a 
living ! Pshaw ! what a birth-day jiarty 
that would be !" 

Allie took up her reader and went into 
the class. Josey stood next to her, and she 
could not help but notice how pale and 
tired the poor girl looked. ''I know," 
thought Allie, "her father staggered home 
last night just as we were leaving school, 
and all the boys laughed to see him. I re- 
member now that Josy burst out crying, 
and ran home across the field, rather than 
Lear them ridicule him. The King girls 
laughed too — hateful things ! I presume 
if I should really invite Josey, all the rest 
•would snub her just as they do in school; 
that would be agreeable !" 

Why it was I cannot say, but the more 
Allie looked at Josey that day the better 
she liked her; and when school was out at 
night she astonished the drunkard's daugh- 
ter by walking along with her and actually 
taking the other hand of Willie, tbe little 
deformed boy. 

"It is too pleasant to go right home," 
said Allie; "let's go to the bank of the 
creek and get some raspberries." 

"I am afraid mother will need me," said 
Josey ; "but Willie was so jileascd with 
the iilea that she yielded, and the three 
climbed a fence and struck otf through the 
woods, pleasantly chatting, as school-girls 
will. It surprised Allio to find bow lady 
like and agreeable Josey was. All her 
shyness and timidity vanished, and she had 



so many interesting things to say that Allie 
nearly forgot what they had come for. 

There was a charming waterfall, thirty 
feet down from where they were standing, 
and Allie had just stepped to the edge of 
the bank, where two or three raspberry 
bushes grew out of a cleft in the rocks; she 
leaned a little farther to see them more 
clearly, slipped on the dry moss, caught at 
the thorny boughs, swung clear off the bank, 
and fell half way down to the foot of the 
fall, dragging the bush with her. She just 
heard Josey's great cry of fright, and then 
knew nothing more till she came to her 
senses, when Josey was carying her up the 
bank a little way down the creek. 

A very hard struggle had Josey then. 
Her small, round arms were strained with 
their burden, and her breath came in short 
quick gasps, as if a feather's weight more 
had been too much. 

"Put me down," said Allie; "lean walk;" 
and then fainted again. Step by step, rod 
by rod did Josey toil along with her bur- 
den. It was a w-eary half mile to Mr. 
Day's, but she reached there just as the 
last red ray flashed through the tojj of the 
great elm at the gate. 

Mrs. Day ran into the yard to meet her, 
and took Allie in her arms; but she turned 
back, as she saw her daughter open her 
eyes and smile, to kiss Josey, with all a 
mother's gratitude shining in her sweet 
eyes. That kiss would have paid for even 
a greater service, Josey thought, and went 
home not altogether heavy of heart, though 
she knew that her young friend had a bro- 
ken arm, and must suffer for weeks. 

You think Allie had no birth-day party 
after all? Well, yes! When Saturday 
morning came she called her mother and 
had a long talk with her. There were tears 
in Mrs. Day's eyes when she went away 
from the bedside, but her face shone with 
as sweet a smile as ever brightened a moth- 
er's countenance. 

"Allie must have her party," she said to 
her husband; "and here is a list of the guests 
— there will be only five or six." 

' ' Do you not think that company will ex- 
cite her too much?" asked Mr. Day. 

" I believe not," said the mother; " and 
her heart is especially set upon having 
Josephine Mills here. Now that poor girl 
has but one dress, and Allie asks if she 
may not send her the new blue muslin I 
made last week. I think if you take it 
Josey will understand that it is not a char- 
ity, but a little gift of friendship." 

So Mr. Day walked away with the dress, 
but lost his road strangely, and onlj' found 
it again after he had visited Harris' shoe 
store, Mrs. Wilder's milliner shoj-), and 
Holmes' shawl-room. 

But who were invited to Althea Day's 
birthday dinner ? Not by any means Julia 
Lacy, the King girls, Tommie Strang, and 
the rest, but Peter Henry, who had had a 
limb amputated the year before; Mark 
Livermore, who sawed wood faithfully 
from morning till night, to give his old 
grandmother an easy life and plenty to eat; 
Sallie Lorey, the little dwarf, and of 
course, Willie Mills and Josey. 

Prof. Zimmerman, who played the piano, 
and flute, and violin, etc., came in and made 
the house vibrate with his melodies. Miss 
Morton, who just dropped in to see how 
Allie was, Ihrew off her bonnet and made 
herself charming, telling all manner of fairy 
stories and singing songs that made the 
children laugh and cry all at once. 

The dinner ? Ah, yes ! I had nearly 
forgotten that. It was such a feast as Josey, 
Willie, Jane, Sallie, Mark, and Peter haij 
never had before. The chicken pie was 
large and nice, and the puddings, raspber- 
ries, sugar cakes, ice cream, and Charlotte 
Russe were all as delicious as mortal hands 
could make them. 

Strange ? Before night every one of the 
twelve whom Allie had thought of asking, 
came in to enquire about her broken arm, 
and once in they stayed, and staying, were 
as merry and kind and altogether friendly 
to the wood-sawyer, the hunch-backed or- 
phan, the drunkard's children, and the 
dwarf, as they were among themselves. 

" I shall have a party myself," said El- 
len Horton, " as soon as Allie's arm is well; 
and every one here must come." 

" When thou makest a feast call the 
poor, the maimed, the blind." — Home and 
Health. 



A BABY is not pretty — your pardon, but 
it certainly is not, as I shall put you in the 
way of proving. Magnify your naked in- 
nocent as many diameters as necessary to 
bring her up to the stature of a woman — 
whom of course, we will suppose to be 
chiseled in marble — or say the Yenus de 
-Medici; now look at them both together ! 
By 4he aid of a certain ingenious appara- 
tus, I have made this, or at least a practi- 
cally similar experiment and nothing could 



induce me to repeat it. The effect is ap- 
X^alling 1 The baby appears a frightful 
monster; a great, lubberly, hideous de- 
formity, with the look of an idiot ! From 
this I judge that a baby is tolerable only 
by reason of its minuteness— like a spider. 

Truthfulness at Home. 

Of all happy households, that is the hap- 
piest where falshood is never thought of. 
All peace is broken up when once it ap- 
pears there is a liar ilti the house. All com- 
fort has gone when suspicion has once en- 
tered—when their must be reserve in talk 
and reservation in belief. Anxious parents, 
who are aware of the pains of stlsplcion, 
will place general confidence in their chil- 
dren, and receive what they say freely, un- 
less there is strong reason to distrust the 
truth of any one. If such an occasion 
should arise, they must keep the suspicion 
from sjsreading as long as possible, and 
avoid disgracing their poor child while 
there is a chance of its cure by their confi- 
dential assistance. He should have their 
pity and assiduous help, as if he were snf 
fering under some bodily disorder. If he 
can be cured he will become duly grateful 
for the treatment. If the endeavor fails, 
means must of course be taken to prevent 
his example from doing harm; and then, 
as I said, the family peace is broken up, 
because the family confidence is gone. I 
fear that, from some cause or another, there 
are but few large families where every 
member is altogether truthful. But where 
all are so organized and so trained as to be 
wholly reliable in act and word, they are a 
light to all eyes and a joy to all hearts. 
They are public benefits, for they are a 
point of general reliance, and they are pri- 
v|>tely blessed within and .without. With- 
out, their life is made easy by universal 
trust; and within their home and hearts 
they have the security of rectitude and 
gladness of innocence. — Hari-iet Martineau, 

Presence of Mind. 

A little child of one of our prominent citi- 
zens, living near the Mission, in this city, re- 
cently swallowed some poison— strychnine 
prepared for gophers. The father was ab- 
sent, but the mother with admirable pres- 
ence of mind instantly atlministered warm 
water and salt in repeated doses until the 
child had thrown up considerably, and ap- 
plied other remedies, and then sent for a 
physician, who congratulated her that she 
had saved the life of her child by instanta- 
neously doing what she did. 

If a person swallows a poison, instead of 
breaking out into multitudinous and inco- 
herent exclamations, dispatch some one for 
a doctor; meanwhile run to the kitchen, 
get half a glass of water in anything that 
is handy, put into it a teaspoonful of salt 
and as much ground mustard, stir it an in- 
stant , catch a firm hold of the person's 
nose, the mouth will soon fly open, then 
down with the mixture, and in a second or 
two up will come the poison. This will 
answer in a larger number of cases than 
any other. If by this time the physician 
has not arrived, make the patient swallow 
the white of an egg, followed by a cup of 
strong coffee, (Viecause these nullify a 
larger number of poisons than any other 
accessible article) , as antidotes for any 
poison remaining in the stomach. 

The Arab Woman's Second Marriage. 
When the Arab woman intends marrying 
again after the death of her husband, she 
goes the night before the ceremony to pay 
a visit to the grave. There she kneels and 
prays him not to be offended— not to be 
jealous. As, however, she thinks ho will 
be offended or jealous, the widow brings 
with her a donkej- laden with two goats' 
skins of water. The prayer ended, she 
proceeds to pour the water upon the grave 
to keep the first husband cool under the 
irritating circumstances about to take 
place, and, having well saturated him, she 
then departs. 

Womanhood. — This is Celia Burleigh's 
idea of the womanhood demanded by the 
present age: "All the best attributes of 
humanity — tenderness without weakness; 
tfl-ust without credulity; modesty without 
prudery; dignity without haughtiness; 
self-respect without conceit; confidence 
without boldness; courage without coarse- 
ness; goodness without pietism; and rev- 
erent worship without superstition " 

To Remove Moth from the Face.- The 
principal cause of these moth spots are 
billiousness, and the liver is torjnd. The 
writer can testify that ?iard cider, drank 
freely, doing away with tea and coffee, is a 
sure cure. Let it be the only beverage 
used until the spots are removed. — Rural 
New Yorker, 



Yo^t^q pOLKs' CoLjffll*. 

Little Boy Blue. 

BY ABBY SAGE BICBAttDSOM. 

Under the hay-stack, Little Boy Blue 
Sleeps with his head on his arm, 

While voiceB of men and voices of maids 
Are calling him over the farm. 

Sheep in the meadows are running wild) 
Where poiaonous herbage growsi 

Leaving white tusks of downy fleece 
On the thorns of the sweet wild roBe. 

Out iu the fields where the silken com 
Its plumed head nods and bows. 

Where golden pumpkins ripen below. 
Trample the white-faced cows. 

But no loud blast on the shining horn 

Calls back the straying sheep, 
And the cows may wander in hay or com 

While their keeper lies asleep. 

His roguish eyes are tightly shut. 

His dimples are all at rest; 
The chubby hand, tucked under his head. 

By one rosy cheek is pressed. 

Wake him? No. Let down the bars 

And gather the truant sheep, 
OiJen the barnyard and drive iu the cows. 

But let the little boy sleep. 

For year after year we can shear the fleece. 

And corn can always be sown; 
But the sleep that visits little Boy Blue 

^S'ill not come w^hen the years have flown. 



Be Kind in Little Things. 

The sunshine of life is made up of very 
little beams that are bright all the time. 
In the nursery, on the play-ground, and in 
the school-room, there is room all the time 
for little acts of kindness, among the young 
.folks that cost nothing, but are worth more 
than gold or silver. To give up some- 
thing, where giving up will prevent un- 
bappiness — to yield, when persisting will 
chafe and fret others — to go a little around 
rather than come against one another; to 
take an ill word or a cross look, rather 
than resent or return it; these are the ways 
in which clouds and storms are kept off; 
and a pleasant, smiling sunshine secured 
even in the humble home, among very 
poor people, as in higher stations. Much 
that we term the miseries of life would be 
avoided by adopting this rule of conduct. 

What Every Boy Needs. — A thorough 
business education is what every boy needs. 
Many men of great learning, and of studi- 
ous and industrious habits fail to get 
along well in life simply because they lack 
a business education. They don't know 
how to do business, and have not the facul- 
ty to earn their own living. There is a 
lack of business teaching in our common 
schools. If a jierson wish«6 to learn how 
to do business before he becomes practical- 
ly engaged in It, he must go to some of the 
Business Colleges or Institutes, as they 
are called. 

Who Gets the Worst of it. — A poorly- 
dressed boy, passing with a basket of ber- 
ries in his hand, said to me, "Will you 
buy my berries to-day?" "I will take 
some of them," I said, and, taking his 
basket, stepped into my house. Seeing 
that he did not follow, I said to him, 
" Why don't you come in and see me 
measure your berries? How do you know 
that I shall not take more than I pay you 
for?" "I am not afraid," said he, " f oi' 
you would get the worst of it if you did." 
"How so?" said I. "Because," said he, "I 
should lose only a few berries, but yon 
would be a thief." 

A Word for the Boys. — A plijsician of 
great note has said: " Tobacco has a ten- 
dency to soften and weaken the bones of 
young people; it greatly injures the brain 
and spinal marrow, and in fact the whole 
nervous fluid. A boy who smokes fre- 
quently, or in any way uses tobacco con- 
stantly, is never known to make a man of 
much energy, and generally lacks muscu- 
lar as well as mental power." 

A Bio Base Viol. — It is said that there 
was at one time at the French court a viol 
so large that several boys could be placed 
within it, who sang the air, while the man who 
played it saugthe tenor. It was often thus 
used at the concerts which were given to 
amuse Queen Margaret. 

The Camphor Tree is a native of Borneo 
and Sumatra, The champhor is obtained 
by splitting open the tree, where it ia 
found in large pieces in the interior. 

The beautiful, though common noma 
"Mary," is Hebrew, and means a drop o| 
saltwater — a tear. 



July 15, iSyi.] 



27 



lOMESTIC 



.CONOMY. 



The Art of Making a Puddiog. 

For this purpose wheat flour should be 
sifted and accux-ately measured, Indian 
meal scalded, tapioca soaked over night, 
sago and rice washed in several warm 
waters, dried bread rolled and sifted, the 
whites and yolks of eggs separately beaten ; 
do not put them into hot milk or they will 
curdle; add the whites the last thing. 
Butter is the best shortening for wheat 
flour; bat lard, suet and churn drippings 
are nice for corn meal. 

Scald molasses and let it cool before 
using. Cream of tartar and yeast powder 
must be sifted with the flour, soda or sal 
volatile dissolved in lukewarm water and 
strained. A large amount of soda and 
saleratus is required for molasses; in using 
it with sour milk more or less should be 
used according to the acidity of the milk. 

Raisins should be stewed, citron sliced 
very thin. Zante currants mashed and 
thoroughly dried, and all fruits well 
dredged with flour and added the last 
thing. Beating all the ingredients thor- 
oughly insures a light pudding. 

Batter puddings and custards require 
straining. Whether the pudding is to be 
baked, boiled or steamed, the dish or mold 
must be well greased. Bits of butter are 
sometimes put over tlie tops of baked cus- 
tards to prevent their burning. We think 
steamed custards preferable. For boiling, 
four eggs should be allowed to a quart of 
milk, tlie milk placed in a tin jjail in a 
kettle of boiling water. 

Pudding bags should be made of strong, 
unbleached sheeting. Just before using, 
dip the bag in hot water, wring out, and 
dredge thoroughly with flour. Allow 
plenty of room for the pudding to swell. 
Place an old plate in the bottom of the 
pot to keep the pudding from being burn- 
ed. Keep it well under water and the 
water constantly boiling. When done, dip 
the bag in cold water and the pudding will 
slide out in form. 

For steaming, the earthen Turk's head is 
very common, and if well greased before 
the pudding is put in there will be no diffi- 
culty in preserving the exact form. More 
time is required to cook a pudding in 
steaming than in baking or boiling. — 
Household. 



Good and Diseased Meat. 

Good meat is neither of a pale pinkish 
color nor of a deep purple tint. The 
former is indicative of disease, and the 
latter is a sign that the animal died from 
natural causes. Good meat has a marbled 
appearance, and the fat, especially of the 
internal organs, is hard and suety, and is 
never wet, whereas that of diseased meat is 
soft and watery, often like jolly or sodden- 
ed parchment. Again, the touch or feel of 
healthy meat is firm and elastic, and it 
hardly moistens the fingers; whereas that 
of diseased meat is soft and wet — in fact, 
it is often so wet that serum (the watery 
l^art of the blood) runs from it, and then 
it is technically called wet. Good meat has 
but little odor, and this is not disagreeable; 
whereas diseased meat smells faint and 
corpse-like, and it often has the- odor of 
medicine. This is best obser^^ed by cutting 
it and smelling the knife, or by pouring a 
little warm water upon it. Good meat will 
bear cooking without shrinking, and with- 
out losing very much in weight; but bad 
meat shrivels np, and it often boils to 
pieces. 

All these effects are due to the presence 
of a large proportion of serum in the meat, 
and to the rel itively large amount of inter- 
cellular or gelatinous tissue; for the fat 
and true muscular substance are to a 
greater or less extent deficient. The use 
of diseased meat not only affects the human 
constitution, but it is also certain that 
tape-worm, trichina, and other ijarasitical 
diseases are produced by it. Experience 
also points to the fact that carbuncles and 
common boils are in some degree referable 
to the use of the flesh of animals affected 
with pleuro-pneumonia; and occasionally 
we witness the most serious diarrhoea and 
prostration of the vital powers after eating 
diseased meat. It is, therefore, safest to 
forbid its use. — Good Health. 



Keeping Cider Sweet. — Thomas John- 
son of East Mecca, Ohio, informs the N. 
Y. Farmers' Club, that his custom is to 
make the cider designed for drinking as 
late as circumstances permit. Then, after 
three days or so, draw it off as carefully as 
possible, so as not to stir up the pomace. 
Then strain it through a woolen cloth into 
other clean barrels. Then put into each 



barrel a half pound of mustard, ground or 
unground; bung your barrels tight; keep 
them in as cool a place as possible so as 
not to freeze. He has kept it in this way 
as sweet as when put up, as late as June 
or July. Remember, when you draw your 
cider off, don't let in any more air than suf- 
ficient to make it run. 

Oiling Floors for Kitchens. 

I have, for several years, followed the 
plan of oiling uncarpeted floors, in order 
to avoid the labor of scrubbing them, and 
I find it works well. You can either oil or 
paint them, of course, but I consider the 
oiling preferable, on the following grounds: 

It is cheaper. 

You can apply it yourself. 

You have not to wait for it to dry. 

It produces a pleasanter color. 

It doesn't show tracks of dust, mud and 
suchlike; and, therefore, a floor thus pre- 
pared does not require so frequent mop- 
ping. 

An oiled floor is better than a plain one 
in the following particulars : 

It looks better. 

It does not require scrubbing; which 
saves your back. 

It is never to be mopped in hot water nor 
strong suds; which saves your hands. 

Grease spots never hurt it; which saves 
your temper. 

To prepare a floor, I take a quantity of 
the cheapest and least offensive oil I can 
secui'e, and apply it with a common paint 
brush. I put it on smoothly, so that it 
will strike in equally all over and yet not 
stand in spots on the surface. I do this at 
night, after the evening work is finished, 
and find the place ready for use the next 
morning. Of course it would not injure 
the oiled surface itself to tread upon it at 
once; but grease is liable to be tracked 
from it, at first, to adjacent parts of the 
house. A new coat of oil applied once in 
six months, or even once a year some- 
times, is sufficient to keep a floor in perfect 
order. 

One may thus prepare to great advant- 
age the floors of kitchens, jjautries, and 
summer-dining rooms, back halls, stair- 
ways and porticos, closets, bath rooms and 
laborers' bedrooms. It is also a good plan 
in children's apartments, particularly when 
you are training them to do their own 
room work, to leave bare that end or side 
of the floor under the bed stands, and to 
oil it. That portion of the floor under the 
bed can then be easily kept free from dust, 
the sweepings can be more readily removed, 
and the children will be afforded free scope 
for their duck-like style of ablations, with- 
out danger to the carpet. — Western Rural. 

Pennyroyal for Fleas. 

The oil of pennyroyal will drive these 
insects off'; bat a cheaper method, where 
the herd flourishes, is to throw your dogs 
and cats into a decoction of it once a week. 
Mow the herb, and scatter it in beds of 
pigs once a month. I have seen this done 
for many years in succession. Where the 
herb cannot be got, the oil may be pro- 
cured. In this case, saturate strings with 
it, and tie them around the necks of dogs 
and cats; pour a little on the back and 
about the ears of hogs, which you can do 
while they are feeding, without touching 
them. 

By repeating this application every 12 or 
15 days, the fleas will flee from your quad- 
rupeds, to their relief and improvement, 
and your relief and comfort in the house. 
Strings saturated with the oil of penny- 
royal, and tied around the necks and tails, 
of horses, will drive off lice; the strings 
should be saturated once a day. — Scientific 
American . 



How TO PuEiFT Cisterns. — If they are 
very foul clean them out. If not, heat 
half a bushel of charcoal, and when in a 
glow, pound it into pieces as big as hickory 
nuts, and shovel them with the coarsest of 
the dust into a wet gunny bag or other 
coarse sack; put in a stone big enough to 
sink it, and, tying a cord to it, draw it uj) 
and down through the cistern ; many leav- 
ing it suspended near the top of the water 
one day and near the bottom the next. The 
results will be observed very soon, and 
will be permanent for several weeks, when 
the operation may have to be renewed. 



Domestic Receipts. 

Buckwheat Cakes are many times better 
and more wholesome when made light and 
thin. At night mix the flour with milk- 
warm water, a little salt, and a teacupf ul of 
good yeast into a rather stiff batter, and set 
it in a warm place to rise. In the morning 
thin the batter with milk, and add soda 
dissolved in hot water. They should not 
be baked up wholesale and pitched into a 
deep dish— that makes them heavy, but 
laid in neat piles on a flat plate, and baked 
as fast as needed at the table. 

Bread-and-Butter Pudding. — When 
dry bread is left, spread it with butter, and 
pile up the slices in a pudding-dish. Fill 
in with custard, add a few raisins. Bake 
long enough to cook the custard. 

Tomato Catsup.— To one peck of ripe 
tomatoes boiled and strained, take 4 table- 
sponfuls of salt, 4 of ground pepper, 4 of 
ground mustard, 2 of ground allspice, 2 of 
ground cloves, 1 of cayenne pepper, 1 
quart of strong vinegar. Boil soft, and 
strain through a seive that will let a little 
of the pulp through, then add the spice 
and boil gently for several hours; cool, and 
bottle. 

French Pickle. — Half jjeck green toma- 
toes, sliced, and the hearts cut out, six 
large peppers, one head of white cabbage, 
six large onions, all chopped fine, % lb. 
white mustard seed,% ft dark, one table- 
spoonful of black pepjaer, one teaspoonful 
cayenne; mis together, cover with good 
vinegar and boil four hours; sealed up in 
small jars keeps it best. 

East India Pickle. — Chop Cabbage fine, 
leaving out the stalks, together with three 
or four onions, a root of horse radish and a 
couple of green peppers to each cabbage. 
Soak the whole in salt and water for three 
or four days. Spice some vinegar very 
strong mace, cloves, allsjjice and cinna- 
mon. Heat it scalding liot. Add alum 
and salt, and turn it on the chopped pick- 
les, which should previously have all the 
brine drained from them. In a course of 
three or four weeks the pickles will be fit 
for use. 



.IFE 



8. 



To Boil Meat to perfection it should be 
done slowly, in plenty of water. As the 
water botls away add more hot water. If 
boiled too quickly the outside of the meat 
becomes tough, and, not allowing the heat 
to penetrate readily, the inside remains 
raw. Boiled meat is best for invalids. 



Mechanical Hints. 

Cast Iron Columns.— Although cast iron 
columns are usually made of regular taper- 
ing shape, the strongest form for a column 
consistent with a given weight is that of a 
double cone, making it thickest at the mid- 
dle. 

A Turning tool used on wood can have 
its temper destroyed by heating in working 
as well as one used in turning iron. In 
either case, the edge of the chisel should be 
exposed to the air, and not wholly buried 
in the substance. 

Cement for Steam and Gas Pipe. — 
The following directions are given for 
making cement impermeable by air and 
steam, which is said to be superior to any 
in use for steam and gas pipes: — Six parts 
of finely-powered graphite, three parts of 
slaked lime and eight parts of sulphate, are 
mixed with seven parts of boiled oil. The 
mass must be well kneaded until the mix- 
ture is perfect. 

How TO Load a Wagon. — In loading a 
wagon the greatest weight should be made 
to come on the hind wheels. Suppose the 
front wheels are four feet and the hind 
wheels five feet in diameter — then five- 
ninths of the load should rest on the hind 
wheels and four-ninths on the front wheels 

To Soften Kid Boots. — Melt a quarter 
of a pound of tallow, then pour it into a 
jar, and add to it the same weight of olive 
oil, stir, and let it standstill; apply a small 
quantity occasionally with a piece of flan- 
nel. Should the boots be very dirty, 
cleanse with warm water. It will soften 
any leather. 

Substitute for Prussian Blue. — Avery 
fine blue color can be prepared from iron by 
making a saturated solution of green vitriol 
in water andjconverting 57 per cent, of such 
solution into sulphate of the peroxide of 
iron with suljihurioand nitric acids; this is 
added to the remainder of the original li- 
quid. Concentrated sulphuric acid, cau- 
tiously poui-ed in, to prevent too great 
heat, will occasion the formation of a blue 
precipitate, which is, however, soluble in 
water, but if it be separated from the liquid 
and rubbed with ishosphate of soda, a beau- 
tiful blue phosphate of iron is obtained 
which will resist the action of water, and 
can be used as a i)aint. The mixed hy- 
drates of oxide and peroxide of iron are de- 
prived of water, and prevented from form- 
ing higher oxide, by the acids and phos- 
phate. , The reaction works well in a small 
way, and it remains to be seen how far it 
is capable of application on a large scale. 



They who weep over errors are not form- 
ed for crimes. 

They are never alone that are accompan- 
ied with noble thoughts. 

The founders of large fortunes are some- 
times to mean to enjoy them. 

Money is thrown away upon the spend- 
thrift, and counsel upon a fool. 

A man's own good breeding is the best 
security against other people's ill manners. 

To bring forward the bad actions of oth- 
ers to excuse our own, is like washing our- 
selves in mud. 

The bosom of a bad man isa desert, and 
the passions and vices are its tigers and hy- 
enas and serpents. 

Four things come not back: The broken 
word, the spent aiTow, the past life, and 
the neglected opportunity. 

Many Fruits. — There are many fruits 
which never turn sweet until the frost has 
lain upon them. There are many nuts 
that never fall from the bough of the tree of 
life till the frost has opened and ripened 
them. And there are many elements of 
life that never grow sweet and beautiful till 
sorrow touches them. 

The heart is the workshop in which are 
forged secret slanders, and all manner of 
evil speaking. The mouth is only the out- 
er shop or salesroom, where all the goods 
that are made within are sold. The tongue 
is the salesman. 



\ 



Down the Hill. 



The evening of every man's life is com- 
ing on apace. The day of life will soon be 
spent The sun, though it may be in 
mid-heaven, will pass swiftly down the 
western sky, and disappear. What shall 
light up man's path when the sun of life 
has gone down ? He must travel on to 
the next world; but what shall illumine 
his footsteps after the nightfall of death, 
amid the darkness of his journey? what 
question more important, more jjractical, 
more solemn for each reader of our jour- 
nal to ask himself ? That is a long jour- 
ney to travel without light, without a guide 
and without a friend. Yet every man must 
perform it. The time is not far distant 
when all men will begin the journey. 

There is an evening in the natural world. 
Its radiance is bright and beautiful, and 
cheering to the benighted traveler. But 
life's evening star is in a good hope of 
heaven. Its beauty and brilliancy are re- 
flected from the Son of Righteousness, 
whose blight rays light up the evening of 
life, and throw their radiance quite across 
the darkness of the grave into Immanugl's 
land. It has illuminated many a traveler- 
into eternity. It is of priceless value. A 
thousand worlds cannot purchase it; yet it 
is offered without money and without price 
to him who will penitently and thankl'ully 
receive it. 

Death and Life. — Man dies, but nature 
is eternal. The seasons keep their appoin- 
ted time; day returns with its golden splen- 
dor, and night with its eloquent mystery. 
The same stars that lit the ghastly battle- 
field of Troy, rough with the dead bodies of 
ancient heroes — which shone on the marble 
ble streets of imperial Rome, and on the 
sad eyes of Virgil— sleep in the living glow 
of inspiration. The watch-fires of the an- 
gels which through centuries of devasta- 
tion and change, have still burned on un- 
ceasingly, speak to us as they did to Dante, 
Shakespeare and Milton, of the divine glo- 
ry, the omnipotence, the everlasting beau- 
ty and love Oi God. 

Faithfulness.— Whatever happens, never 
forsake a friend. When enemies gather, 
when sickness falls on the heart, when the 
world is dark and cheerless, is the time to 
try true friendship. They who turn from 
the scenes of distress betray their hypoc- 
risy, and proves that interest only moves 
them. If you have a friend who loves 
you, who has studied your interest and 
hapjjiness, be sure to sustain him in adver- 
sity. Let him feel that his love was not 
thrown away. Real fidelity may be rare, 
but it exists— in the heart. They only 
deny its worth and power who never loved 
a friend or labored to make a friend happy. 

Moths fly into the bright flame of a 
candle and singe their win.cs. So men, 
attracted by false yet beautiful lights, fly 
into them and get their immortal wings 
singed. Yet unlike the moth they gain 
wisdom , and a new set of wings from their 
fiery experience, with which they soar into 
the pure ether of God's love, and live for 
heaven ever after. 



28 



[July 15. 1871. 



T[|E Of\cI|^f^. 



Fruit and Tree Growth. 

Nathan Shotwell in the Farmers' Club 
says: A great difference exists in kinds of 
fruit and in relation to their susceptibili- 
ty of growth. For instance, the Greening 
apple throws up a short, crooked trunk. 
The Northern Spy is a strait, vigorous, 
upright grower. It is difficult for grafters 
to supply themselves with scions of some 
kinds in consequence of the tendency to 
slow growth. Ladies' Blush and Sweet Bow 
are specimens of this character, while the 
Koxbury Russet, Baldwin and Greening 
are rapid growers. Scions grafted upon 
flee, vigorous growers will throw up bet- 
ter growths and develop better fruit, both 
in color and flavor, than if grafted on stocks 
of puny growing kinds. Vastly more de 
pends upon keeping the tree in a vigorous 
condition and well pruned for the admis- 
sion of light and circulation of air than all 
the influences exerted by the stock. Mr. 
Hathaway, in liis address before the State 
Pomological Society of Michigan, as re- 
ported in the Mic/iir/au Farmer, claims 
that the Northern Spy, grown on the 
Greening stock, is much paler than that 
grown upon the Spitzenberg stock, stand- 
ing iu the same soil, and that the llambo, 
grafted on the Promme Uris, took the 
character of a Eusset. I have no faith in 
such mixtures by the ordinary system of 
grafting. I believe the Russet, tlie Green- 
ing, and the Baldwin, though grafted from 
time to time upon stocks of all varieties, 
and generally upon inferior kinds, are as 
perfect to-day as they were where they orig- 
inated. The crab apple, though grafted 
upon the stock of the Twenty-Ounce Pip- 
pin, will be the crab apple still. 

Tree Mending. 

O. H. Huester, of Michigan, gives the 
following specific directions for mending 
a girdled tree: \\ hen the leaves of the gir- 
dled tree begin to open, and the bark parts 
freely from the wood, is the time to begin. 
Cut a number of scions, according to the 
size of the girdled tree — from two to four 
or as many as eight. At each point you 
propose to bridge over, cut the ragged 
bark away, above and below, to that which 
is sound, and make a slight longitudinal 
incision in the bark, so that it will ad- 
mit the scion without bruising its bark. It 
would be well to raise the points of the bark 
on. each side of the incision. Now cut 
your scions to the proper length, allowing 
an inch and a half at each end to slip un- 
der the bark of the girdled tree; pare off 
the scion at each end, as far as it is to go 
under the bark — on one side only. Now slip 
the scR)n down, flattened side next the tree- 
wood, under the bark, at the lower incision, 
and, by gently bending, shorten it back to 
allow it to be entered above. In this man- 
ner insert the requisite number, tie a 
string over each splice, to keep the bark 
from rolling up, and cover all the several 
splices with grafting wax, and your tree is 
sure to live and outgrow the accident — 
jjrovided all is done with average skill and 
care. I have trees in my orchard that I 
repaired in this way four years ago, and 
now, except a slight enlargement at that 
point, one would never suspect that they 
had ever been girdled; in fact, I consider 
them just as sound as any other trees. 

BuDDiNO. — Peaches budded upon plain 
stocks, do not grow quite as vigorously as 
when upon peach roots; but they are less 
liable to be injured by cold or attacked by 
borers. 

A Profitable Apple Tree. — Mr. J. B. 
Price, of Alabama, writes to the South- 
ern AyricuUurisl that he has measured 
twenty-five bushels of applesfrom one tree 
this season. When the tree was transplant- 
ed it only cost twenty-five cents. It did 
not occupy more thaa 20x20 feet, and not 
more than an hour's labor has been given 
to it for the past five years. All included 
would not make the apple tree have 
cost Mr. Price more than -SI. 2.5. Now the 
apples this year were worth, at the lowest 
estimate, fifty cents per bushel — being for 
the sea3on§12.50, making.for 1870, $11 clear 
profit. 

Blood as a manure has been recommend- 
ed for orchards; some applying it raw 
have killed the trees. It should always be 
composted with muck or garden earth, and 
stand some months; and then it makes a 
safe and effective fertilizer. 

Apples may be kept from decay by cov- 
ering them with dry aslies, a method easily 
tried, and if sound satisfactory, capable of 
«xtensive application. 



Abraham Lincoln on Thorough Farm- 
ing. 

It was not often that the Giant of San- 
gamon could swing his mind away from 
the court calendar and the impending con- 
flict to speak of corn and wheat and plow- 
ing. But when he did, his talk was 
pregnant with that saving common sense 
which the events of the last years of his 
life made of vital importance to the coun- 
try. Witness the following paragraph from 
a cattle-show speech made at Milwaukee in 
1859: 

For the last four years I do not believe 
the ground planted with corn in Illinois 
has produced an average of 20 bushels to 
the acre. It is true, that heretofore we 
have had better crops, with no better cul- 
tivation; but I believe it is also true that 
the soil has never been pushed to one-half 
of its capacity. 

What would be the effect upon the farm- 
ing interest, to push the soil up to some- 
thing near its full capacity? Unquestion- 
ably it will take more labor to produce 50 
bushels from an acre, than it will to pro- 
duce 10 bushels from the same acre. But 
will it take more labor to jiroduce 50 
bushels from one acre, than from five? 
Unquestionably, thorough cultivation will 
require more labor to the acre; but 
will it require more labor to. the bushel ? 
If it should require just as much to the 
bushel, there are some probable, and sev- 
eral certain advantages in favor of the 
thorough practice. It is probable it would 
develop those unknown causes, which of 
late have cut down our crojjs below their 
former average. It is almost certain, I 
think, that in the deeper plowing, analysis 
of the soils, experiments with manure, and 
varieties of seed, observance of season, and 
the like, the causes would be found. It 
is certain that thorough cultivation would 
spare half or more than half the cost of the 
land, simply because the same product 
would be got from half or from less than 
half the quantity of land. This prop- 
osition is self-evident, and can be made no 
plainer by repititions or illustrations. 
The cost of land is a great item, even in 
new countries; and constantly grows 
greater and greater, in comparison with 
other items, as the country grows older. 

It would also spare the making and 
maintaining of inclosures — the same, 
whether these enclosures should be hedges, 
ditches, fences. This, again, is a heavy 
item, heavy at first, and heavy in its contin- 
ual demand for repairs. I remember once 
being greatly astonished by an apparently 
authenic exhibition of the proportion the 
cost of an inclosure bears to all other ex- 
penses of the farmer, though I cannot re- 
member exactly what that i^roportion was. 
Any farmer, if he will, can ascertain it in 
his own case, for himself. 

Again, a great amount of " locomotion " 
is spared by thorough cultivation. Take 
50 bushels of wheat, ready for the harvest, 
standing upon a single acre, and it can be 
harvested in any of the known waj's. with 
less than half the labor which would be 
required if it were spread over five acres. 
This would be true, if cut by the old hand 
sickle; true, to a greater extent, if by the 
scythe and cradle; and to a still greater ex- 
tent, if by the machines now in "use. These 
machines are chiefly valuable as a means of 
substituting animal power for the power 
of men in this branch of farm work. In 
the highest degree of perfection yet reach- 
ed in applying the horse power to harvest- 
ing, fully nine-tenths of the power is ex- 
pended by the animal in carrying himself 
and dragging the machine over the field, 
leaving certainly not more than one-tenth 
to be aiiplied directly to the only end of 
the whole operation — the gathering in of 
grain and clipping of the straw. When 
grain is very thin on the ground it is al- 
ways more or less intermingled with weed.", 
chess, and the like, and a large part of the 
power is expended in cutting these. ,It is 
plain that, when the crop is very thick up- 
on the ground, a large proportion of the 
power is directly applied to gathering in 
and cutting it, and the smaller to that 
which is totally useless as an end. And 
what I have said of harvesting is true in a 
greater or less degree of mowing, plowing, 
gathering in of crops generally, and, in- 
deed, of almost all farm-work. 




Threshing Machine. — The Visalia Delta 
notices a " small threshing machine" with 
which Dutch Bill of Yoko, during nine 
hour's work on the premises of Myers, on 
Lewis Creek, cleaned up 773 bushels of 
wheat and barley. 



Out of the Old House. 

BT WILL M. CABLETON. 

Out of tbe old house, Nancy — moved up into 

the new; 
All the hurry and worry are just as good as 

through ; 
Only a bounden duty remains for you and I, 
And that's to stand on the doorstep here, and 

bid the old house good-by. 

What a shell we've lived in, these nineteen or 

twenty years! 
Wonder it hadn't smashed iu, and tumbled 

about our oars; 
Wonder it stuck together and answered till 

to-day; 
But every individual log was put up here to stay. 

Things looked rather new, though, when this 

old house was built. 
And things that blossomed you, would've made 

some women wilt; 
And every other day, then, as sure as day 

would break. 
My neighbor Ager came this way, invitin' me 

to " shake." 

And you, for want of neighbors, was sometimes 

blue and sad. 
For wolves and bears and wildcats was the 

nearest ones you had ; 
But lookin' ahead to the clearin', we worked 

with all our might, 
Until we was fairly out of the woods, and 

things was goin' right. 

Look up there at our new house! Ain't it a 

thing to see? 
Tall, and big and handsome, and new as new 

can be; 
All in apple-pie order, especially the shelves. 
And never a debt to say but what we own it all 

ourselves. 

Look at our old log house — how little it now 

appears ! 
But it's never gone back on us for nineteen or 

twenty years; 
And I won't go back on it now, or go to pokin' 

fun. 
There's such a thing as praisin' a thing for the 

good it has done. 

Probably you remember how rich we was that 

night. 
When we was fairly settled, an' had things 

snug and tight; 
We feel as proud as you please, Nancy, over 

our house that's new. 
But we felt as proud under this old roof, and a 

good deal prouder, too. 

Never a handsomer house was seen beneath 

the sun. 
Kitchen and parlor and bedroom — we had 'em 

all in one; 
And the fat wooden clock, that we bought when 

we came West, 
AVas ticking away in the comer there, and 

doin' its level best. 

Trees was all around us, whisperin' cheerin' 

words ; 
Loud was the squirrel's chatter, and sweet the 

songs of birds; 
Aud home grew sweeter and brighter — our 

courage began to mount — 
Aud things looked hearty and happy then, and 

work appeared to count. 

And here, one night it happened, when things 

was goin' bad, 
We fell in a deep old quarrel — the first we ever 

had; 
And when you gave out and cried, then I, like 

a fool, give in. 
An' then we agreed to rub all out, and start the 

thing agin. 

Here it was, you remember, we sat when the 

day was done, 
And you was making clothing titat wnsn't for 

eiOier one ; 
And often a soft word of love I was soft enough 

to say, 
And the wolves was howlin' in the woods not 

twenty rods away. 

Then our first-bom baby, a regidar little joy; 
Although I fretted a Uttle because it wasn't a 

boy; 
Wasn't she a little flirt, though, with all her 

pouts aud smiles? 
Why, settlers came to see that show a half a 

dozen miles. 

Yonder sat the cradle — a homely, home-made 

thing; 
And many a night I rocked it, providin' you 

would sing; 
And many a httle squatter brought up with us 

to stay. 
And so that cradle, for many a year, was never 

put away. 

How they kept a comin'! so cunnin' and fat 

and small ! 
How they growed! 'twas a wonder how we 

found room for 'em all; 
But though the house was crowded, it empty 

seemed that day 
When .Jennie lay by the fireplace there, an' 

moaned her life away. 



And right in there the preacher, with bible and 

hymn-book stood, 
" 'Twixt the dead and the living," and "hoped 

'twould do us good." 
And the Uttle whitewood coffin on the table 

there was set. 
And now as I rub my eyes it seems as if I 

could see it yet. 

Then, that fit of sickness it brought on you, 

you know — 
Just by a thread you hung, and you e'en a 

most let go; 
And here is the spot I tumbled, an' gave the 

Lord his due, 
When the doctor said the fever'd turned, an' 

he could fetch you through. 

Yes, a deal has happened to make this old 

house dear — 
Christeniu's, funerals, weddin's — what haven't 

we had here? 
Not a log in this buildin' but its memories has 

got, 
Ane not a nail in this old floor but touches a 

tender spot. 

Out of the old house, Nancy— moved up into 

the new; 
All the hurry and worry is just as good as 

through; 
But I tell you a thing right here, that I ain't 

ashamed to say; 
There's precious things in this old house we 

never can take away. 

Here the old house will stand, but not as it 
stood before; 

Winds will whistle through it, and rains will 
flood the floor; 

And over tbe hearth once blazing, the snow- 
drifts oft will pile. 

And the old thing will seem to be a mournin' 
all the while. 

Fare you well, old house! you're naught that 

can feel or see, 
But you seem like a human being — a dear old 

friend to me; 
And we never will have a better home, if my 

opinion stands. 
Until we commence a keepin" house in the 

house not made with hands. 
— Toledo made. 



Atlantic Farm Items. 

ThE Coming Cotton Crop. — The Depart- 
ment of Agriculture has received returns 
with regard to the cotton crops, which 
show that there has been a great decrease 
in the breadth of land planted. The aver- 
age percentage of reduction of the yield 
according to present appearances from ac- 
reage and diminished production, for the 
year,jis set down as between 14 and 15 per 
cent, as compared with that of 1870. 
The average yield has not in former years 
e.xceeded 150 pounds »per acre. That for 
1870 was more than 200 pounds. The con- 
dition of the growing plant is below an 
average in nearly every State. The spring 
has been unusually wetand cold, retarding 
growth, causing many of the plants to 
turn yellow and die, and obstructing culti- 
vation. To a large extent replanting has 
filled the vacant spaces with "imperfect 
stands." The weather however has recent- 
ly been more favorable, and it is not impos- 
sible that an average condition may be ob- 
tained by the commencement of the pack- 
ing season. It is too early yet to predict 
with much certainty. It is some consola- 
tion, however that the planters are grow- 
ing corn and other products, for home_con« 
sumption this year. 

ACow County. — Chautaugua, N. Y.,has 
not less than than«)0,000 cows valued at §3,- 
000,000, also thirty cheese factories. A 
Dairyman's Board of trade has recently 
been organized there. 

Quails. — A boy in Ohio watched a flock 
of quails running along the rows of corn, 
presuming they were pulling up the com 
shot one, and found in its crop one-cut- 
worm, twenty-one striped cucumber bugs, 
and one hundred chinch bugs. 

The Peach Crop of Delaware is estima- 
ted at 4,500,000 baskets. 

Crops in Illinois and Iowa. — The 
wheat prospects in Central Iowa and Illi- 
nois is represented as very encouraging. 
The growing wheat stands thick upon the 
ground, and the recent rains and, warm 
sunshine have given it a luxurious appear- 
ance. Growers predict the earliest har- 
vest known since Illinois was settled. The 
prospect of all the other grain is equally 
promising, as well as that of corn and po- 
tatoes. 

Chinch Bugs are already making their 
appearance in the wheat fields of Illinois. 

Wokld's Fair. — It has been decided to 
hold a grand agricultural exhibition in 
Constantinople next year. The Porte has 
under consideration a proposal for an in- 
dustrial exhibition at Smyrna. 

The farmers about Sedalia are complain- 
about the ravages of the chinch bug. 

Two cherry trees at Anna 111., yielded 
fifty-four dollars in fruit this year. 



July 15, 1^71.] 



• 2§ 



California Industrial Fairs for 1871. 

Tlie Stato Fair beirins on the I8th, and ends on the 33d of 
September, at Sacramento. 

The San Francisco Mechanics' Institute Fair begins on 
the 9th of August, and continues four weeks. 

The S. F. Bay Horticultural Fair begins on the 8th of 
August and continues four weeks. 

The San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Fair begins on the 
12th, and ends on the 15th of September, at Stockton. 

The Upper Sacramento Valley Agricultural Society's 
Fair begins on the 26th of September, atChico. 

The Santa Clara Valley Agricultural Society's Fair begins 
August 28th, and ends September 1st, at San Jose. 

The Sonoma and Marin District Agricultural Fair will be 
held on the 25th of September, and continue six days, at 
Petaluma. 

The times of the other Fairs will be inserted as received, 
and kept standing until the several Exhibitions shall take 
place. 



'TY 



KEj r\Ep©i\7. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE AT WHOLESALE. 

[The prices given below are those for entire consignments 
from first hands, unless otherwise i^pecitled.] 

San Fbancisco, Thurs., a. m., July 13th. 

FLOUR — There has been a fair demand for 
local consumption, wtth but little call for ex- 
port; 400 bbls. have been shipped to Batavia 
and some small engagements made for China. 
The stock is large — mostly ordinary grades. 
The millers dropped another 25c. per barrel, on 
Monday, and the market still shows a down- 
ward tendency. 

Transactions embrace 2,500 bbls. California 
extra, 2,000 bbls. Oregon extra, and 800 bbls. 
California supt rfine. 

We quote superfine, $G.12)/^@6.25; extra, in 
sacks, f7.00@7.12. Standard Oregon brands 
may be quoted f6.87.@7.00. 

WHEAT — New crop is coming in more freely, 
tnd prices show a declining tendency. New 
■wheat, which first realized $2.35, can now be 
had for $2.20@2.25. Old is quoted at $2.30®, 
2.35 — a decline of 10c. since our last reference. 
Some fancy lots have been sold at higher rates. 
Sales of 15,000 sacks have been reported, 
during the week, at cun-ent rates. 

The Liverpool market was telegraphed on 
Thursday at lis. 8d.@llB. 9d. — an advance. 
New York rates, fl.G5. 

BARLEY — The new crop is coming in freely 
and meets with declining prices. Sales during 
the week have aggregated about 18,000 sks. 
The range of the market may be quoted at $1.70 
@1.75 — a decline of about 15c. since our last. 
Choice old brewing, however, is still quoted at 
$1.95@2.00 

OATS — Have been in fair demand at un- 
changed rates. Sales of 5,000 sacks are re- 
ported at from f 1'80@2.00 for light to good. 

CORN— The market may be quoted at $2.00 
@2.05, market weaker, with a fair supply. 

CORNMEAL— Is quotable at $2.75@3.25. 
according to quality. 

BUCKWHEAT— Still quotable at $3. 

RYE— Nominal at $2.50 for choice. 

FEED— We quote: Straw, $8@9; Bban, 
$27.50@30.00; Middlings, 45.00; Oil Cake 
Meal $40. 

HAY — The receipts are fair with good de- 
mand. We quote ordinary to choice at $15.00 
@$20.00 ^ ton. 

HONEY — Is .coming in freely. We quote 
Los Angeles comb 13@14c. Potter's in 2-tt) 
cans. $4.50 per doz. 

POTATOES— The market has been steady 
during the week, with free receipts, at $ 1.00(a) 
1.15 for Mission, and $1.05@1.'20 for Halfmoon 
Bay. Peach blows are quoted at $1.20 to $1.25. 

HOPS — Demand light — prices nominal at 9 
@12J^c. for California. 

Hli3ES — We quote Dry, slaughterer's stock, 
16@18c; Salted, 8@9c. Sales during the 
week 2,794 Cal. dry, and 1,700 suited. 

WOOL — The market is quiet, but steady. We 
quote the range of fair to choice shipping 
grades at30@35c for California, and 37%(«)40c 
ifor Oregon. Sales of 60,000 pounds are re- 
ported for the week. 

Walter Brown & Son's New Y'ork Wool Cir- 
cular for June, remarks that the trade has 
passed through the first month of a new clip 
under circumstances never before paralleled. 
The opening of June of the present year, 
found the eastern markets bare of fleece wools, 
stocks in manufacturers hands very low, and 
European advices reporting unusual firmness. 
The consequence was the sudden and large ad- 
vance of fuily 10 cents per pound. The main 
cause of this advance was scarcity. The re- 
ceipts up to July were small, and rapidly taken. 

In Europe fine wools are also scarce and 
higher. Medium clothing grades are very 
scarce; while combing wools have reached a 
high figure. 

The problem to be solved is whether the ad- 
vance in the same material will extend to the 
manufactured articles, so as to keep up the 
price of wool, or whether the advance will be 
merely temporary. If the latter, it will be at- 
tended with disaster to such manufacturers as 
have bought largely at present rates. No at- 
tempt is made to decide the matter. For New 
York prices, see another column. 

TALLOW — The extremes may be quoted 
from 7%@8%c. Extra choice 9c. 

SEEDS— Flax 3@3%c., Canary, 7i®8c., Al- 
falfa, 16c. 

PROVISIONS— California Bacon 14i^@15c; 
Oregon, 13@14; Chicago 15c; California Hams 
14@15; Oregon do, 15%@16c; California 
Sugar-cured Hams, 17@18c; Oregon do, 17@ 



18c; Eastern do, 18@19c; California Smoked 
Beef,13@14c. 

BEANS.— Extrenieft of qnotations^Bayo, 
$3.00@$3.25 Butter, small White and Pea, 
$2.50@$2,75i Pink, $2.25. >• 

NUTS— CaHfomia Almonds, 10@1.5c for 
hard and 20@25c for soft shell; Peanuts, 7@ 
8c; Hickory and Walnuts, 12J^c; Pecan, 23@ 
25c '^ tt). 

FRESH MEAT— We quote slaughterer's rates, 
as follows : — 

BEEF— American, 1st quality, 8@ 9c ^ ft. 
Do 2d quality 6@ 7c ^ ft. 

Do 3d do 4@ 5c "^ ft. 

VEAL— Extremes, 7@llc. 

MUTTON— 4 ^@5c 1^ ft. 

LAMB— May be quoted at from6@6>$c ^ ft. 

PORK — Undressed is quotable at 5@.6c. 
dressed, 8@9%. 

POULTRY, ETC.— Is in limited demand 
Hens $C.50@7.00; Roosters $6@7 ; Ducks, tame, 
$5@6 '^ doz; geese, tame, $1.80@2.00 1^ 
pair; live turkeys, 18@20c "^ ft. 

WILD GAME— Hare, $1.50@$2.00; 

DAIRY PRODUCTS— California Butter, 
fresh, in rolls, may be quoted at 27J/^@30c; 
California firkin butter, 25@30c. Eastern 
firkin 20@30c. 

Cheese — In fair supply, California new, 10 
@14c.. Eastern, 16@17c. for new. 

Eggs — California fresh, 38@40c. 

LARD— Cahfomia Lard, 11-ft tins, 14@15c; 
Eastern do. 14c in bulk, and 14%@15c in tins 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS— Busi- 
ness in this line is very quiet. At the 
same time stocks of all kinds are said to be 
complete, which are sold at reasonable prices. 
BUILDING AND FENCING MATERIALS— 
In fair demand for export — local demand more 
quiet. Cargoes of Oregon sell as fol- 
lows: Rough, $14@15; Dressed, $24; Spruce, 
$16.50. The following cargo rates for Redwood 
Lumber have been established by the R. W. 
Lumber Association : 

Merchantable. Refuse. 

Rough $18 00 $1100 

Surlaced 28 00 18 00 

Tongued and grooved 28 00 18 UO 

Tent ued and grooved, beaded 28 00 18 00 

RuHtic, worked 31 00 20 00 

Siding and batteoB, )<i-inch 20 00 14 00 

Surfaced, !«-inch 25 UO 18 00 

Picket, rough 14 00 

Picket, rough, pointed 10 00 ....'. 

Picket, dressed 22 50 

DRIED FRUITS— In moderate request. We 
quote the market as follows : Cal. Dried Apples, 
10@12c; Oregon do, — ; Languedoc Almonds; 
25c; Figs, Smyrna, 15@20c; Prunes, German, 
12c '^ ft; Raisins, layer, $3.50@4.25 per box; 
Currants, Zante, 10>^@ll>^c.; 50c. 



@ 9 
® i\t 
0,2 00 
C«>1 10 
® ."> 
® 30 
@ - 
C«|4 00 
@3 W 



TABLE OF MISCELLANEOUS. 


Sugar, crflh'd, ft. $ 14?4(a$ 15 


Hemp Seed. n>,$ 7 


Hawaiian, do. 


» (S 12 


Castor Beans, lb. 4 


Coffee, Cos. R, lb 


15'i . 16 


Castor Oil, gal..l 75 


Rio, do 


16 & 


Linseed Oil, gal 1 05 
Broom Corn.^ n> 3 


Tea, Japan. ^ lb 


.SO @ 90 


(ireen, do 


.50 ral 00 


Beeswax, •¥( B)... 27 


Rice, Hawn,'plb 


S'-J® » 


Peanuts, "p* lb 5 

Corn Meal, cwt.. 2 .50 


China, do 


6 (* Ti 


Coal Oil, Vgal.. 


50 @ 60 


Onions, cwt 1 50 


Candles, ■)]* lb — 


15 @ 18 





Leather Market Report. 

[Corrected weekly by Dolliver k Brc, No. 109 Poet st.) 
San Francisco, Thursday, July 13. 

Sole Lkather.— Price still continues the same, there 
beinga scarcity of lighi weights. 

City Tanned Leather,^ lb 26@30 

Santa CruT. Leather. % lb 26(g.30 

Country Leather, "^ ft '2.5®'* 

All French goods still have an upward tendency, with a 
growing scarcity of leading stocks. No change in domestic 

Jodot,8 Kil., perdoz $62 00@ 

Jodot, 11 to IHKil., perdoj 82 00(5 96 00 

Jodot, second choice 11 to 15 Kil. ¥ doz. 68 OOfa) 88 00 

Lomoine, 16 to 19 Kil.,T« doz 9600(n) 

Levin, 12 and 13 Kil., per doz 68 00(o» 70 00 

Cornellian, 16 Kil., per doz 72 00(§ 

Cornellian, 12 to 14 Kil., per doz 63 00(a> 70 

Oeerau Calf, * doz 54 00(3» 

MercierCalf, 16 Kil., per doz 65 OOfg) 

Common French Call Skins, ^ doz 35 00(gi 75 00 

French Kips, 'i!« ft 1 ' Oi3 130 

California Kip. ^ doz 60 00® 75 00 

Eastern Wheel Stuffed Calf. •» ft 80® 125 

Eastern Bench Stuffed Calf, |i ft 110® 125 

Eastern Calf for Backs, ^ ft 1 1.5(S 12' 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, ^ doz 8 .50® 13 00 

Sheep Roans for Linings.^ doz 5 50® 10 ,50 

California Russett Sheep Linings 1 7-5(($ 5 50 

Best Jodot Ca f Boot Lees. 'P pair 5 25 

Good French Calf Boot Legs, *4 pair 4 ,50@ 5 00 

French Calf Boot Legs, ^ pair 4 00 

Harness Leather, "it* ft 30(o» 37'^ 

Fair Bridle Leather, W doz 48 00® 72 00 

Skirting Leather, 'S ft 31® 37,'! 

Welt Leather. % iloi 30 00® .50 00 

Buff Leather. $ foot 20(5 24 

Wai Side Leather, 1^ foot 1S(§ 20 



Thomas O'Neii,. Ornamental Glass Cutter, No. 10 Ste- 
venson street, up stairs. Stained, Ground and Orna- 
mental Cut Glass to order on reasonable terms. 14v20 



Mathew Bridge, Mason and Builder, Residence S. W. 
corner Larkin and Jackson streets, San Francisco, 
would call the attention of all parties intending to erect 
buildings of any description, that he is prepared t< 
build concrete buildings, vhere lime and clean gravel 
are convenient, cheaper than wooden buiUlings. Con- 
crete Buildings, properly built, are in many respects the 
most substantial, as well ascheapest, buildings that can 
be erected. For any further information, address as 
above. 19vl-3m 



Go to the Best.— Young and middle-aged men 
should remember that the Pacific Business College is 
the oldest and moht popular and successful Business 
Training School on this coast. Upwards of Three 
Thousand Students have attended during the pnet six 
years, many of whom now hold prominent positions in 
the first banking and mercantile houses of this city. 
This is the model training school fok business on this 
coast, having the greatest corps of Professors and 
Teachers, and the greatest number of students in at- 
tendance, of any institution of the kind. Young men 
flock to this College from all parts of the Pacific States 
and Territories, British Columbia, Mexico, Sandwich 
Islands and South America. We shall be pleased to 
send our College Circular, giving full information, to 
all who send us their address. When you write, mention 
that you saw this notice in the Pacific Kural Press. 
M. K. LAUPEN, President, San Francisco, Cal. 



San Francisco Retail Market Rates. 



Friday, July U, 1871. 
MISCELLANEOUS. 

Wool Sacks, new 40 @ 

Second-hnddo 67^® 

Wheat-sks, '22x36 15 " 

Potato G'y Bags _ 

Second-hnddo 15 ® 

Deer Skins,?, ft. 15 ® 

Sheep sks, wl on 50 @ 

Sheep sks, plain. 12^® 

Goatskins. each. 25 ® 

Dry Cal. Hides. ' ' 

Salted do 

Dry Mex. Hides 
.Salted do... 



25 ® 30 
'20 ® 25 
35 



® 20 



Butter, Cal f r . ft 35 @ 45 

Pickled, Cal ft 35 @ 40 

do OregoU, ft.. (31 
Honey, ^ ft — 
C'heese, ^ ft . , 
Eggs, per doz.. 

Lard, ?i ft __ „ 

Sugar, cr., 6.'^ ft.l 00 @ 

Brown, do,|* ft 10 (4 13 

Beet, do 1 OO ® 

Sugar. Map. lb. 25 (^ 30 

Plums, dried. B). 15 (g» 25 

Peaches, dried, * 15 (^ 

PRODUCE, ETC. 

Codfish, dry, ft. .6 0() @ 12 .'^.Barley, cwt.. 



90 
70 
10 

23 @ 21 
- 16 

22 
75 
25 
40 

Weak 18 



(gj 



16 



Flour, ex, •i«^bl..7 00 ®7 75 

Superfine, do. 5 .50 (gH 00 

Corn Meal. 100 lb.3 00 ®3 25 

Wheat, %( 100 fts.2 35 ®2 .50 

Oats, %* 100 fts...l 90 ®2 10 



..1 75 ®1 85 
,2 50 @3 00 



Beans, cwt 

Potatoes, cwt... @1 00 

Potatoes, new.. .1 00 (ml 25 

Hay, ^ ton 16 .50 (i:20 75 

Live Oak Wood. 9 00 ®10 00 



FRUITS. VEGETABLES, ETC. 



Pine Apples, t... 5 00 09 00 
Bananas, ^ ft. . . 3 00(i5 00 

Cal. Walnnts, ft. (g» 20 

Cranberries, ^ g 75 (oil 00 

Cranberries. 0,1 (oil 00 

Apples, Early, bx .50 (gjl 25 

Bed Astra'n, . . 1 ,50 (a)2 .50 

Red June 2 00 (a2 50 

Pears, table.'^bi 75 (col 25 

Plums, Cherry,*. 6 (jy 8 

June, %* ft 10 10 I2'i 

" ■" ■ 4 

5 



3 (a» 

5 (cj) 10 

6 (g) 8 
3 (u) 8 

18 (g) 20 



Apricots, Royal 

Moorpark, ^ ft 

White, "# ft... 

Cherries, ft 

Currants, ft 

Gooseberries, ft. 
Raspberries, ft . . 
Strawberries, ft. 
Blackberries, ft . 
Oranges, W cwt.30 00 (g( 
Lemons, ^.cwt.. 5 00 (tt)7 00 
Limes, cwt. . .25 00 l0'JO 00 
Figs, dried, i?. ft . ® 

Asparagus, wh.* 6 ^ 10 

Apricots, ft. 

Artichokes, doz. 
Brussel's sprts, * 

Beets, ^ doz 

Potatoes, Trt ft . • 
Potatoes, sweet,-" 
Potatoes, new. . . 
Broccoli, ^ doz.l .50 mi 00 
Cauliflower, t . . 1 00 (gl .50 

POULTRY. GAME, MEATS, ETC. 




Cabbage, f( doz.. 75 @\ .90 
Carots, I* doz... 10 (g) 25 
Celery,^ doz ... 75 (g)l oO 
Cress, %* doz bun 20 (u) 25 
Dried Herbs, b'h 25 (g) .50 

Egg Plant to) 15 

Garlics 5 (a) 8 

Green Peas, ii ft (g^ 6 

Green Corn, doz. 25 @ ,50 
.Sugar Peas, «^ ft Wt 6 

Cucumbers, doz. ^ 25 

Lettuce, ^ doz.. 12 (g> 25 
Mushrooms,^ ft 25 (0 .50 
Horseradish,^* ft 
Okra, dried, ^ ft _ 

Okra, green, ft 25 (g) 
Pumpkins. *!* ft. 3 (gi 4 
Parsnips, -f bncha 

Parsley 

Pickles, 1^ gal... 
Rhubarb, t« ft.. 
Radishes, t buns 
Green Peppers, * 

Red. do 

Summer Squash 6 

Marrowfat, do. 

Hubbard, do. . 
String Beans, ft. 6 
Dry Lima, shl... 
Spinage, "i^ bskt. 25 
Salsify. ^ bunch 12 
Turnips,^, doz, , 
New 'romatoes,* 8 



(g> 20 
(a) 50 



(g> 25 

(at '25 

50 (gl 75 

6 (g» 

(gf 2.5 

(gi '25 

(3» 25 

6 

@ 6 
5 



@ 

m 8 

(oj .50 



Chickens, apiece .50 @ 75 

Turkeys, 'H «>... 20 (o» 15 
Uucks, wild, ^ p 

Tame, do .... 1 50 @ 

Teal, Ij* doz.... 

Geese, wild, each @ 

'Tame, ^ pair.. 2 50 ©3 00 



From Cnicago. 



(g» 



Hens, each 75 (tl* 85 

Snipe, ^ doz ... (g> 

English, do (g) 

Venison. ^ ft . . (gl 

guails, %( doz ... 

Pigeons, dom. do3 00 (§3 50 

Wild, do 1 50 (gj2 00 

Hares, each ... 40 (g^ .50 

Rabbits, tame.. .50 (gil 00 

Wild, do, %« dz.l 75 (g(2 00 

Squirrel. ^ pair. '25 (g> 38 

Beef, ten*, ■» ft. '20 (g 15 

Sirloin and rib 18 @ '20 

Corned, W ft.. 10 (2 12 

Smol.ed.V ft . 15 (g) 18 

Pork, rill, etc., ft 124® 15 

Chops, do, ^ lb 12 @ 15 

Veal, ¥> ft 15 @ 20 

Cutlet, do ® '20 

Mutton chops,* I2'^@ 15 

Leg, « ft l-2,'-2@ 

Lamb, 18* ft ® 12!^ 

Tongues, beef, ea @ 75 

Tongues, pig, ea @ 15 



Bacon, Cal., ? ft 18 ® 20 

Oregon, do 18 (g» '20 

Hams, Cal, '** ft. 18 @ '20 

Haras, Cross' s c (a* '25 

Choice D'ffield @ 25 

Whittaker's .. @ 25 

Johnson's Or.. @ 25 

Salmon. W ft... 10 @ 1.')^ 

Smoked, new,* 10 (^ 12 

Pickled, %* ft.. 6 (ol 8 

Rock Cod,? ft.. 10 (0 12 

Kingfish, ? lb . . 10 m 15 

Perch, H water, ft 10 ® I2}i 

Fresh water. ft 12'-,fg^ 15 

Lake Big. Trout* '20 ® '25 

.-._..,... ■?.,«, 6 (g) 8 



Smelts, -5* ft. 
Herring, fresh,. 

Smkd, per 100 
TomcoU,? ft.... 
Terrapin, ? doz.3 00 ®4 09 
Mackerel, p'k.ea 

Fresh, do 

Sea Bass, ? ft. .. @ 

Halibut 62 ® 75 

Sturgeon, 'i^ ft . . 4 ® 5 
Oysters, « 100...1 00 @1 25 

Cheap. %* doz.. ®1 00 

Turhot (g) 62'^ 

Crabs » doz (il 00 

Soft Shell 37 ® .50 

Shrimps 10 f^ 12 

Pompino, '^ ft..l !0 (0 



®1 00 
15 -® 



• Per lb. t Per dozen. T Per gallon. 

Wool Prices in New York. 



Brown's Circular, July, 1871. 
DOMESTIC B'LEECES. 
New York. Michigan. Indiana and Wisconsin. 

Quarter-bid Fleece 46®.50 

Common Fleece 52®.55 

Combing Fleece 60®63 



Quarter-bid Fleece .57®60 

Common Fleece .5«®.58 

Combing Fleece 62^65 



Choice Sct'd Saxony Fl. (^ 

Saxony Fleece .59®72 

"'4 and Full-bid Merino, .56®60 

Half-bid Fleece 57(»60 

Ohio, Pennsylvania and Virginia. 
Choice Sct'd Saxony ri.70@75 

Saxony Fleece 62®6.5 

M and Full-bid Merino. 60(162 

Half-bid Fleece 60(862 

Iowa, Vermont and Illinois 

H and Full-bid Merino .52(aj.57 IQuarter-bld Fleece .50W.55 

Half-bid Fleece .52@5< 1 Combing Fleece 5S@62 

Missouri, Kentucky and Tennessee. 

Washed Fleece .57(?liOI Unwashed Combing ,5fl@.53 

Unwashed Fleece 46®.V yjanada Fleece 63(^^65 

TUB-WASHED WOOL. 

Choice (B@70 [Inferior and Burry 60®65 

Fair 6!>(a«\ 

PULLED WOOL. 
N. Y. City extra Pulled. ..53(1.55 
N. Y. City super Pulled ..53(51.55 
N. Y. City No. 1 Pulled. 37(340 



Country extra Pulled.. .5.5®.5S 
Country super Pulled . ..55rai.58 
Country No. I Pulled . ..40®42 
Canada Pulled @ 



Lambs' Wool .50@.53 

Western super and ext 50@.53 

CALIFORNIA 

Spring Clip, fine 40®45 

Spring Clip, medium 40(^15 

Spring Clip. Iw.gds 4.br.,T«®40 

Fall Clip, A 1 30(ai35 

TEXAS. 

Fine 40@45|Inferior 

Medium 40® -15 Very Burry 

Low .•i7@40l 

FOREIGN WOOLS. 

Cape of Good Hope 40®42|Buenos AyresMerino...33®37 

Mcstiza Pulled, X & XX.70(a75 Buenos Ayres Mestiza . 31fe)35 
Mestiza Pulled, low gds.65@70 | 



Fall Clip. Iw gds i. b'ry.28®30 

Extra Pulled 47(^.50 

Super Pulled 47®.50 

Low Pulled 3S@42 



36®.T8 
33®36 



Four Months' Subscription for $1. — Subscribers to 
the Press who remit direct to this office $5 coin, in ad- 
vance, hereafter, will be creditiid four months over a 
year for the extra dollar received above our regular 
rates. This will render it both convenient and profit- 
able to enclose a $0 piece in a registered letter, iu which 
case we will be responsible for its safety. 



Agents Can Make from $1,000 to $5,000 a Yitar in 
most any section of the country, selling Dana Bick- 
ford's new and improved FAMILY KNITTER. This 
Machine is guaranteed (in its present completeness) to 
meet every want of the household for either domestic or 
fancy work. Price $25. Send stamped envelope with 
full directions for an illustrated book. Address 

DANA BICKFORD, 
Vice President and General Agent, C89 Broadway, N. Y. 

'23v22-6m-bp 



$5 TO $20 PER Day and no Risk.— Do you want a situ- 
ation as salesman at or near home to introduce our new 
7 strand White Wire Clothes Lines, to last forever. 
Don't miss this chance. Sample Free. Address Hud- 
son River Wire Works, 7r) William street, N. Y., or 16 
Dearborn street, Chicago, 111. 23vl-12mbp 



Ladies Desiring to Procure a First-Class Sewing 
Machine against easy monthly installments may apply 
to No. 294 Bowery, 157 E. 26th, 477 9th Ave., New York 
Good work at high prices if desired. 21vl-12mbp 



New York Metal Market. 

[tOililECT'ED weekly FUOM the AMERICAN ARTISAN.] 

New York City, Saturday, July 1, 1871. 
IRON. 

Pig, Scotch, No. 1 (cash), per ton $33 00 @ 35 00 

Pig, American, No. 1 (cash) 35 00 (g* 36 00 

Pig, American, No, 2 33 00 (ui 34 00 

Swedish, ordinary sizes 105 00 (gjl20 00 

Common 72 60 (0 77 .50 

Kefiued 77.50 @ 85 00 

Rods 82.50 ® 120 00 

Horse-shoe 95 00 (gj 

Hoop 100 00 (ml45 00 

Scroll 100 00 6(120 00 

Nail-rods, ^ ft - 6*i§ 

Spring — 7J41U) 

Tire — 7>i(g) — 8 

STEEL. 

Bars, best cast, warranted, ^ft — 18 @ — 19K 

Sheet, best cast l(i (gi 

Sheet, second quality 15i<.(gi 

Sheet, third (juality — 12 '(gi 

Saw-plates, circular —20 (gi — 30 

Double-shear, warranted —18 (0 

Single-shear (gi 

Montague & Co. (cast bars) — l^i4(& 

Machinery, round — 11 t0 — 13 

German, best — 11 (gi 

(ierman, goat --10 (gt 

German, t-afile — 9 fgi 

Blister, warranted — 14 @ 

Blister, common — 10 (0 

Jesson & Sons', common , — 17 @ 

Double-refined — 263-^^ 

Stone ax shapes — 26^((^ 

SUNDRIES. 

American Lead, lii 100 fts 7 50 @ 8 00 

German 7,50 (gi 8 00 

Bar 8 60 to) 9 00 

Pipeand Sheet 8 50 @ 9 00 

Mussulman and American Zinc, ^ lb — 9)^(^ — • 

Antimony —16 ^ — 17 

Spelter — 7 (a> — 7'^ 

Copper,old _ 17 gi 



Ovu* Printed Mall List. 

Subscribers will notice that their names are printed 
on colored paper and pasted upon each copy of the 
Press. This is done by machinery, to expedite the is- 
sue of our paper, the regular edition of which has be- 
come too large to be convenient to send out by the old 
method of writing the names, Theflgures found on the 
right of the pasted slips represent the date to which the 
subscriber has paid. For instance, 21sp70 shows that 
our patron has paid his subscription up to the 2Ist of 
September, 1870; 4jy72,thathe has paid to the 4th of 
January, 1872; 4jlO, to the 4th of July, 1870. The in- 
verted letters occasionally used are marks of reference, 
simply for the convenience of the publishers. 

If errors in the names or accounts of subscribers oc- 
cur at any time an early notice will secure theii' imme- 
diate correction. 



Oiur A.t£ents. 

OuB Friends can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence and encouraging favors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

Travellnor Aireiits. 

W. H. Murray— Colorado Territory. 

M. W. Levy— Denver, Colorado. 

M. B. Stakb— Pacific Coast. 

Thos. Poyzer -California. 

Wm. J. Clark— California. 

L. P. McCarty— California. 

E. P. Hicks — California and Oregon. 

A. C. Knox, City Soliciting and Collecting Agent. 

Haas Bros., of Napa, Cal.. are authorized to act as 
agents lor the Pacific Rural Press in that place. 



Thursday Noon our last forms go to press. Ccm- 
muiiicitions should be received a week in advance at.d 
advertisements as early in the week as possible. 



Send us Communications.— They will be re 
spected. If you have not time or the experience to 
write finished articles, send us facts brief and plain. 
We will take care of them. Remember that writers im- 
prove themselves with others by use of the pen. Offi- 
cers of societies, clubs and meetings, pletse report. 



We were happy to receive a call to-day from Wm. H. 
Murray, special traveling agent and corresp'indent of 
the well known and ably conducted Scientijic I'ress of 
San Fra-icisco. 

This is the best practical mining journal in the United 
States, and should find a welcome in every hou.schold. 

Mr. Murray is here on business connected with the 
paper, and will canvass this county lor subscribers 
before his departure 

We cheerfully recommend the Scientific Press to our 
readers as worthy of their support and patronage.— Cen- 
tra/ City Herald, Colorado. 



A Florence Sewing Machine, but slightly used, and 
good as new, for sale at 10 per cent, less than its cost — 
ttf7.50. Part of the money may be pail in installments 
by a person who gives good recommendations— in the 
city, or in the country near San Francisco. To be seen 
at this office. apl-bp-tf 



Travis 4 Wagner, 41 Firet St.-Mill Stones, Bolting Cloths 
and general Mill Furnishing, Portable Mills of all sizes from 
16 to 36 in. None>u|>erior manf'd for farmers d ranchmen. 



Evert Mechanic should read and familarizo 
himself vnth "Bro'wn's 507 Mechanical Move- 
ments," illustrated, published and sold by 
De-svey & Co., Scientific Press ofBce, San Fran- 
cisco. Bound in cloth. Price, (very low) post 
paid, $1, coin, or its equivalent in currency. 
Inventors, Engineers, Students, and Apprentices 
■will find it exceedingly useful and especiaily 
haudy for reference. 

ARTIFICIAL LIMBS. 

A. A. MARKS, No. 675 Broadway, N. 7. City, 

the inventor and author- 
ized United States Govern- 
ment manufacturer of the 
celebrated first premium 
Artificial Limbs with Rub- 
ber Hands and Feet, has 
|HlLlll^l<(■d a new and enlarged edition of his lllusiri.n d 
Pamphlet, of importance to all who have suHered am- 
putatious, especially to officers and soldiers who lost 
their limos in service. Copies sent free to applicants] 
21vl-13ts-r2tr 

' FISH CULTURE. ~ 

,j_^«S!Srs»». FOR SALE. AT THE TAHOE FISH- 
J»3^!»>^SS5 EUY, situated five miles from Truckte 
City, C. P. B. R., 

One Hundred Thousand Mountain Trout, 
one year old. »nd Five Hundred Thousand just 
hatched, suitable for stocking Springs, Ponds, Likca 
and Rivers. 

Orders solicited by COMER BROS. & CO., 

2v2-I6p-6w Truckee, 





80 



[July 15, 1871. 



Douthett's Patent Double Motion 
D^SH CHTJUN. 

Making Butter in from 6 to 10 Minutes. 
The only really useful and practical 

Ever Offered to the Public. 



The old Btyle of DASHEH CHUR\ always had the 
preference over sU others, and with this simple and 




practical attachment, now stands wtthout a ktval. 
At the East it iu rapidly taking the place of the 

TJiermometer and Cylinder Chum, 

and its sales arc enormous. Having bought the 

IHfitht for tills Coast> 

we are now prepared to furnish either large or small 

CHURNS AND CASTINGS 

as may be desired. Vfe manufacture six different 8li:es 
of churns and the small casting can be applied to the 
three smaller sizes, and the large one with the frame 
and balance wheel to the three larger ones. 




WE CHALLENGE COMPETITION 



In this chum and invite any one needing a ooqd churn 
to examin«i and try thin one before purchasing elsewhere. 
The gearinj; is all simple, leaving nothing to get out 
of order; the dasher is easily removed by simply 
opening or removing the guide holding it in its place, 
leaving the chum 

ENTIRELY CLEAR OF ANT OBSTACLE, 
fact, it is the only chum that ever hag been offcrei 

thich IS EMTIBELI 



FEEE FEOM ANY OBJECTION, 

and we^ofler it as the 

Best Churn in Existence. 

No. 1 Chum holds 2 gallons; 

2 do do 3 do 

3 do do 6 do 

4 do do 8 do 
6 do do 13 do 
8 do do 22 do 

E. K. HOWES & CO. 

Moa. 118, 120 and 122 Front Street, San Francisco, Ci.1- 
Tl-eow3iui 



I87I. 



SUBSCRIBE FOR THE 



187I. 



Overland Monthly 

The 07ily Literary Magazine 

PUBLISHED ON THE PACIFIC COAST, 



The Sixth Volume of this popu- 
lar Calirornia Magazine will com- 
mence with the January Number 
for 1871. We promise our read- 
ers rich things during the coming 
year. 




Terms : — i4 . 00 per annum, 
payable in advarue. 

Cura Ratbs:— Two copies, I7.00; 
Fire copies, $ 16.00 : Ten copies. |3o.oo ; 
and each additional copy, I3.00. For 
every Club of Twenty SuhacriWers, as 
extpa copy will b« furnished gratis. 



PUBLISHED BY 

John H. Carmany & Co., No. 409 Washington Street, 

SA^r FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Bound Volumes. — Six Numbers — from January to June, and July to December— consti- 
tute a volume. Bound volumes will be sent, post-paid, for $3.00, paid in advance. 



Farmers and Teamsters, 

S-A.VE YOXJR^ 3XONEY! 

Bt tJSINQ THE 

Patent Wood Horse Collars and Hames 
Combined, 

Which has many advantages over the Leather Stuffed 
wiih Straw. 

Ist. DuitABn.rrT, lasting at least ten times as long. 

2d. Convenience. Opening below, can be laid on and 
off the Horse, having one fastening in place of two Lr 
three. 

3d. Is one-third lighter than leather collar and hame. 

4th. Can be easily fitted, as it is so couKtructed that 
the length and width can be changed in a few minutes. 

5th. AS there are no stitches to break, or stuffing to 
press out, it nevkb loses its shape, always bearing 
upon the muscular part of the shoulder, near the neck— 
the proper place for draft. 

6th. Its smooth, hard surface, giving equal pressure 
on the whole line of draft, neveb sweats ob bubs oifr 

THE BAIB. 

7th. It has an important advantage in the stationary 
curved arch, keeping the collab from seitino tight 
AROUND the tup OF THE ^►CK when heavy tongues bave 
to be carried (as in some machines) , thus keefino the 

NECK CuOL, and FREE FRO.M SORES IN THE HOTTEST 

WEATHER. Leather Collars will tighten over the top 
of the neck, and heat and gall the animal. 

8th. Wood being a non-coudui tor of heat the soreness 
caused by Leather Collars becoming wet by perspiration 
is avoided. It has many other advantages which rannot 
he known without atrial. This Collar is WAKUANTED 
to Cure Horses with Sore Shoulders in Three Weeks, 
Working Every Day. Give them a trial. 

For Circulars, price of Collars, and all other particu- 
lars, apply to or address 

WXLDMAN & MAKBLE, 
No. 30 California street, San Francisco, Cal. 
Sole Manufacturers and Dealers for the Pacific Coast. 
Agents wanted. 19vl-3m 



CHOICE POULTRY. 

The undersigned. Importer and Breeder of 

Ligrbt and Dark Brahmas, 

Partridge and Buff Coohins, 
Houdans, 

Black Bed Same Bantams, 

Black African Bantams, and 
Aylesbury Bucks. 

OFFERS FOB SALE BOTH 

IMPORTED AND CALIFORNIA BRED STOCK. 

ALSO, 

Eefffs for Ilatclxingr. 

No orders filled 0. O. D. 
For further particulars address 

C. M. NICHOLS, 

Fruit Vale Avenue, 
Brooklyn, 

Alameda Co., 
2]vl-t< Cal. 



WM. M. LANDRUM, 

BREEDER A!n) IMPOKTEB OF 

Long:- Wool Varieties 'and Southdown 
SHEEP AND ANGORA GOATS. 



Offers a fine lot of all grades of BAMS for sale. 

WM. M. LANDRUM, 
22Tl-6m 'WatsonTille, Santa Cruz County, Cal. 



YOSEMITE HOUSE, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 
ALEX MoBEAN, Proprietor. 

THE LABQEST AND 

Best Furnished House in this city. 

r January 28.~4Tl-3mr 



Crandall Patent Spring Bed, 

Received Premium for best Spring Bed at the State 
Fair and was on exhibition at all of ^the District Fairs 
n this State. 

IT EXCELS 

IN 

LlBhtneaa, CleanllDeai, 

Klustlclty and Darubllltr, 

Any other Spring Bed Ever Invented. 

Being without upholstery in can be aired at pleasure: 
while the springs being in couplets are self-supporting 
thus dispensing with cords, twine, etc., and from th< 
peculiar construction of the various parts It is Impossi 
lile for the bed to get out of order. 

Manufactory — 123 Front street, near comer of M 
Sacramento; and at 1124 Market street, San Francisco 
These beds can also be obtained of our agents in nearl; 
every town in the State. 

C'UUL,£Y <fe OREE.V, Proprietor*. 



Til E 

ASPHALTUM PRESSURE PIPE 
c o m: -P A. TV ^sr , 

HATIV6 ERECTED A MAXl'PACTORX 

of sufficient capacity to supply their Asphaltiun Pipe in 
large quantities. 

Are now Prepared to Take Orders 

AND MAKE CO.\TKACT8. 

This Company will manufacture Pipe and guarantee 
it to btaud any pressure required; itis lighter than iron 
pipe and more durable, it is not affected by chemical 
action, cannot corrode, and being glazed imparts no dis- 
agreeable taste to water. To miners and farmers it is 
invaluable; any body can put it down; it is twenty per 
cent cheaper than iron pipe and ten times more durable. 
For further particulars, apply at the office of the Com- 
pauy. Room No. 2, 645 Market street. 

119^ Circulars sent on application. 16v21-tf 



SACRAMENTO SEMINARY, 

I street, between Tenth and Eleventh, 
SACRAMENTO, CAL. 

The Seventeenth Semi-Annital Session of this Semi- 
nary for Young Ladies, owned and conducted by Mr. and 
Mrs. Hermon i'erry, assisted by a full and efficient corps 
of Professors and Teachers, will commence on MON- 
DAY, AUGUST 7TH, 1871. 

For particulars address 

HERMON FERRY, A. M., 
24vl.2m Sacramento, Cal. 



1868, 



J. M. MAXWELL 
1871. 



HEXR7 E. CtTHMINaS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commission 

House, 

ESTABLISHED 1868. 

415 and 417 Davis street, cor. of Oregon, San Francisco. 

Our business being CTClusively Commission, we have 
no interests that will conflict with that of tb« producer. 
17 vl-tf 



PURE BERi<SHIRE SWINE. 

R. S. THOMPSON, 

Importer and Breeder of 

Improved Berkshire Hogs, 

NAPA, CALIFORNIA. 

Orders solicited. 

19-vl-lm B. 8. THOMPSON. 



THOS. BUTTERFIELD & SON, 

Breeders and Importers of the 

Cotswold, Lincoln, Leicester, Texel and 

South Down Sheep ; 

ALSO, THE ANGORA GOAT. 

Now offer for sale the Piire Bred and High Grades. 
We have a good lot o' crosses iKtween the Cotswold and 
South Down, between the Lincoln and Leicester. 

THOS. BUTTERFIELD & SON, 

24vl-llw Hollister, Monterey County, Cal. 




FIRST PREMIUM AWARDED at the State Fair. 1870, 
f or the be».t Farm Wagon ; a !so for the best improved 
Thimble Skein. All kinds of Wagons on hand and 
made to order, of the Best Eastern Material, and War- 
ranted to give satisfaction. 

E SOULE, 



ap23-3in 



Comer Eleventh and I streets, 
SacBAiautTO, Cal. 



BAKER & HAMILTON, 

tUPOBTEBS OF 

Hardware, Farming Implements, 

MA.CHINES, ETC. 




THE EXCELSIOR MOWER. 

Are Sole Agents for 
EXCELSIOR MOWER AND REAPER, 
CHAMPION MOWER AND REAPER, 

BIRKE S EAGLE MOWER AND REAPER, 

NEW YORK MOWER AND REAPER, 

Haines' (Genuine Illinois Harvester, 

Pitts' Improved California Thresher, 

Portable Steam Eng-ines, Etc., 

With a full stock of all kinds of implements needed In 
Farming. 

Send for List of Prices. 




THE CHAMPION SELF-RAKE REAPER. 



9, 11, 13 and 15 J street, SACRAMENTO. 
13, 16, 17 and 19 Front Street, SAN FRANCTSCO. 
17.vl-3m 



EGGS! KGGHI EGGS! 

STEVENS BROS' 

Patent Egg Boxes. 

We would respectfully call the attention of all persons 
who ship or handle Eggs, to the advantage to be derived 
from using Stevens' Bros. Patent Egg Cases. 

These cases hold thirty dozen Eggs each, self count- 
ing, and can be packed with ease and facility. Eggs 
shipped in the above cases sell quicker and give more 
satisfaction to buyers than any other package in use, as 
the contents are not damaged, and buyers subjected to 
no trouble as regards the count. 

NO BROKEN EGGS I NO HEATED EGGS! 
NO PACKING REaUIRED I 

To the Trade. 

We offer these Egg Cases at the following rates : 
SCALE OF PRICES : 

100 case* or over, cash price $3 00 each 

60 cases or under, cash price 3 60 eacl^ 

CAUTION! 
Stxvehs' Patent Eoo Boxes, patented Feb. 26, 1867. 
All persons are hereby cautioned against manufactur- 
ing, selling and using any cases for packing and trans- 
porting eggs, constructed with compartments, by 
placing a separate diaphragm horizontally l)etween each 
tier, from the bottom to the tup of each case, and any 
and all infringements upon said patent, either for man- 
ufacturing, selling or using without authority from the 
undersigned, will bo prosecuted. Parties desiring in- 
formation will apply to the owners. 

STEVENS k GRAY, 
Union Market, Howard street, 
18-yl-3m Between Third and Fourth streets. 



WM. M. LVON. 



CHAS. 0. BABMEB. 



LYON & BABNES, 

Successor* to Ltos k Sos, dealers In Produce Vegeta. 
bles. Butter, Eggs, Green and Dried Fruits, Cheese, 
Poultry, Honey, Beans, etc., etc. 
lvl-3mi No. 21 J Street Sacramento. 



July 15, 1871.] 



^<&^mM 



31 







Sf^^SELFflAKINCRE/ 





"ANUFACTUREO BY ADRIANCE.PLATT&Ctt 
STYLES, SIZES & PRICES TO SUIT ALL FARMERS. 

Dc9cr'pt!ve Clrctilars Forwarded by MalL 

MARCUS C. HAWLE Y & CO., Agentv 
108 L tlO Front Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

GEEAT SEDUCTION IN PRICES OF 

MACHINES AND EXTRAS 

FOR 1871. 

The Buckeye is the 

,BEST MOWER NOW IN USE. 
As a Reaper, 

We guanuiteB it superior to any SELF-RAKING REAPER 
yet invented. 

Sole Agents for the Celebrated 

S^reepstaltes Thresher. 

Also, Sole Agents for 

GENUINE HAINES' HEADER, 

HOLLINGSWORTH WHEEL-HORSE RAKES, 

BURDIOKS NATIONAL FEED-CUTTER. 

We have also WOOD'S MOWER, KIRBY MOWER and 
REAPERS. Also, Extras for the above, with a full 
btock of Agricultural Implements and Hardware. 

MARCUS C. HAWLEY & CO., 

108 and 110 Front street, and Nos. 10 and 12 Pine street, 
ap2'i-3m San Fbancisoo. 



WIESTER & CO., 

No. 17 New Montgomery Street (Grand Hotel), San Francisco. 

Pj^lXEIVTS BOXJGmT .A-PSTD SOLO ON com:31is»iotv. 

ratent Sand-Caps for li^iTjs of Veliicles. 

The invention consists of a ring of metal which Is made 
conical in form and has its smaller end attached to the axle 
near the collar. The edge of the larger end projects into a 
groove, which is formed in the inner end of the hub, and 
thus effectually protects the collar and the axle-box from 
sand and dust. In the illustration, A is the hub of the 
wheel, B the axle, which may be fitted in any of the ordi- 
nary ways, C the collar, and E a ring of wood or metal, 
which may be put on by removing C. In the case of axles 

already mado, or m new work, the ring may be slipped on before the axle is welded up. Town, County, Shop and 

State Rights for Sale. 

A. 'Ne-w Hatent A-tmospherlo Attaclimeiit to Dental Flates. 

Can be applied to both New and Old Plates, so as to retain them firmly in the mouth while eating or talking; 
superior to any thing ever before invented, cost of applying it small, and the greatest improvement immediately 
felt by ihe wearer. 

All who have badly-fitting plates can, by the application of this Attachment, wear them with perfect comfort 
and usefulness while eating, talking, etc. State, County and Office Rights for Sale. 

Hill's Grate Bar. 

This Bar will withstand 800 degrees more heat than any other Bar now in use. It is unequalled in durability. 
It generates more steam from the same quantity of coal, making a saving of from 10 to 15 per cent, in fuel. It has 
been examined and used by some of the most scientific Engineers in the Unit d States, and pronounced the best 
Grate Bar extant for marine or land boilers. The Patent Right to the Paciflc Coast is placed in otir hands for sale. 
A complete model can be seen at our olfice, or a descriptive circular will be sent on application. 

A. New rotato l>lgger. 

County Rights for Sale and one Digger free. 
A. New P^atent Stencil JPlate tliat >vlll Mlarlt any Name or Niinitoer. 

A. Complete Self-acting N\it Roaster. 

Tlie Sest Horse Hay Ilake e-ver in-vented.. County Rights for Sale. 

NeTT Gas X^lght. 

This Light takes the place of the Candle, the Kerosene Lamp and Coal Gas. Each Lamp is a perfect Gas 
Factory, making its own gas as fast as it is required. It is a safe, cheap and beautiful light. Circulars and full 
particulars Bent on application. 

The Trlim-ipli "Waslilng 3Iaclilne. 

He who finds a good wife finds a " good thing"— so we have heard it said -and he who finds a Washing Ma- 
chine such as the one invented by Mr. Hockabout, finds a thing that will do to talk about. The fact is, this 
Machine is beginning to be talked about a great deal, and the more it is talked about the more fully reo) lo are 
becoming convinced that there is at least one Washing Machine that is not a humbug. It is simple in con- 
struction, and More simple in its operation. All that is required is to feed it with clothes and turn the crank. It 
is provided witb a heating chamber which keeps the water hot and et' ams the clothes. While in operation there 
are three rollers which pass over the clothes very rapidly yet so gently as not to break the buttons or injure 'he 
garments. It would be difficult to enumerate in a brief advertisement all the superior merits' of this novel in- 
vention. It can be built by any ordinary mechanic at a moderate cost and allow a handsome profit. State and 
County Rights for sale. A complete working model and large machine can be seen at our office. 
I.<nslier»s "Vetret aV>le Cutter. 

There are few inventions for which there is a more general want than a good, cheap and rapid Vegetable Cut- 
ter. We think the one recently patented by John Lusher, of Indiana, tuUy meets this want. It costs but a trifle, 
never colors or rusts, will last many years and always keep sharp. It operates equally well on Potatoes. Cabbaye, 
Turnips, Beets, Cucumbers, etc., cutting six slices at each mov ment of the hand. It can be made by any Tin- 
smith, and at a trifling cost. State, County or Shop Rights for Sale. Circulars sent on application. A sample 
can be seen at our office. 



NASH & CUTTS' 
FANNING MILL AND GRAIN SEPARATOR. 




FIRST PREMIUM at tUi. i jlifuruui '^tate Fair of 1870 
over all other Mills in the State, after a Thorough Prac- 
tical Trial by the Committee of Farms, with all kinds 
OF GRAIN. It is the Cheapest and Best Mill in use, and 
the only one that will completi ly separate barley. Outs, 
Smut, Chess, and all kindsof Grass and Weed Seed, from 
Wheat, and at the same time sepaate perfectly the dif- 
ferent qualities of Wheat. Also separates Oats and all 
foul seed from Barley, or Barley and Wheat from Oats. 
It will clean Beans, Peas, Corn, and all kinds of grain, 
perfectly, and more rapidly than any oth' r Mill ever 
built. For sale by NASH, KING, MILLER & CO., at 
Manufactory, corner K and Tenth streets, Sacramento, 
Cal. 2Gvl 3m 




mmzm 



THE STUDEBAKER 




AVERILL'S 



CALIFORNIi CHEMICAL PAINT COMPANY, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

CHEMICAL PAINT, OF THE 
Purest White, and 100 Different Shades, 

MIXED READY FOR APPLICATION-ANY ONE CAN APPLY IT. 

This is the ONLY PAINT OF COMMERCE manufactured, being always held In solution by its pcctiliar 
chemical combination, and sold by the gallon. It is warranted not to peel, crack, nor chalk off; has a greater 
body and covering property, and will last twice as long as the best of other Paints, with a fine, hard, glossy sur- 
face, Impei vious to the atmosphere, and extremely durable. 

Oflice, 40S California Stx-eet. 

MANUFACTORY, Corner Fourth and Townsend Streets. 

a. W. OSBORN, ) A„..„f= 
C. p. BROWN, j Agents. 




Of a far Higher Class than any other proprietary 
medicine of the day stands 

Terrant's Effervescent Seltzer Aperient, 
And for this reason: it is an exact counterpart of one of 
the most valuable natural medicines in the world. We 
refer to the great Si-ltzer Spring of Germany, to which 
thousands of the dyspeptic, the bilious, the rheumatic, 
and the victims of venal diseases resort annually, and 
return to their homes convaleticent oy cured. The Ap. 
ericut is one of the first, and by far the most siiccessful, 
of all the efl'orts raaiie to reproduce, in a portable form, 
the popular mineral waters of Europe. See that you 
pukchase only the genuine AinlCLE. 

SOLD BY ALL DRUGGISTS. 




SEETMK' 




ap8-3m 



THE BEST FAltM WAGON; 

TEE BEST RANCH WAGON; 

THE BEST TRUCK WAGON; 

THE BEST TEAM WAGON; 

THE BEST HEADER WAGON; 

The Best Thimble Skein and Iron Axle 

■W A O O N S, 

Sold for $100 to $175. 

AMES & WOOLVERTON, 

General Agrents for the Pacific Coast. 
6vl-3mr 217 & 219 K St., SACRAMENTO, CAL. 

THE PATENT 

Novelty Mill and Grain Separator 





In one of the greatest Improvements of the age for 
cleaning and separating Grain, while it combines all the 
essential qualities of a first-class Fanning Mill. It also 
far excels anything that has been invented for the sepa- 
ration of Grain. It has been thoroughly tested on a 11 
the different kinds of mixed Grain.- It takes out Mus- 
tard, Grass Seeds. Barley and Oats, and makes two dis- 
tinct qualities of wheat if desired. 

For further Information apply to R. STONE, 
3fiTl.}m 122 Battery street, San Francisco. 



FULL BLOODED SHEEP! 

For Sale, at Fair Prices, 40 Rams and 20 
Ewes, of 

Full Blooaed SlUslan Stock, 

from the celebrated "Electoral" Flock of William 
Chamberlain, Esq., of Red Hook, Duchess County, New 
York. These are the purest and best bred Silesian Sheep 
in the United States, if not in the world, and have 
carried off the 

FIRST PREMIUMS 

in Fine Wool Classes at the State and National Fairs 
since 1854. 

ALSO FOR SALE, 

Full Blooded Cotswold and Full Blooded 
Leicestershire Rams and Ewes, 

just selected from the Best Flocks in England by one of 
the best of judges, Wm. T Wilson, Esq., and imported 
by him especially for this market. 

Also, California Bred, Full Blooded 

COTSWOLD AND S&UTHDOWNS, 

and }i and other crosses between these Breeds and be- 
tween each of these Breeds and Full Blooded 
Spanish Merinos. 

Also, Full Blooded Berkshire Pigs, 

selected and Imported by the same party above named. 

HIGHEST PRICES PAID FOR WOOL, 

and Wool Pressed and Shipped for Exporters, with Care 
and on Reasonable Terms, by, 

ROBERT BECK, 

At the Office of the Secretary of the Cal. State Agricul- 
tural Society, Sacramento, Cal. 
20vl-3m 



THE 

A Weei 



^- W AGE, 

^ OF Sixteen Pages. 



The "Ofllclal Org in" or the I. O. O. F. on 
the Pacific Coast- 
Is devoted to Odd Fellowship, the Arts and Sciences 
and General Literature ; and as a famil) paper is not 
surpassed by any jonmal in the United StatCk. Subscrip- 
tion price per year by mail, $5. Delivered in the city, 
per month, 50 cents. Office, Odd Fellows' Hall, 328 
Montgomery street, San Francisco. 19vl9 



STEINWAY & SONS' 
Patent Afx^SL ITe Pianos, 

GRAND, SaUARE AND UPRIGHT. 

Pianos to Let. 



A. HEYMAN, 

I street, between Sixth and Seventh, 
mal8-ti Opposite old Capitol, Sacramento. 



THE GREAT 

ENGLISH AND SCOTCH QUARTERLIES, 

AND 

Blackwood's Magazine, 

reprinted in new YORK BY 

The Leonard Scott PubliEhing Compariy. 

QUARTERLY. 
The Edinburgh Review, Loud n Quarterly Review, 

British Quarterly Westminster Review. 

MONTHLY. 
Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine. 

These periodicals are the medium through which the 
greatest minds, not only of Great Britain and Ireland, 
but also of Continental Europe are constantly brought 
into more or less intimate communieatii'n with the 
world of readers. History, Biography Science, Phi- 
losophy, Art, Religion, the great political questions of 
the past and of to-day, are treated in their pages as the 
learned alone ■ an treat them No one who would keep 
pace with the times can afford to do without these peri- 
odicals 

Of all the monthlies Blackwood holds the foremost 
place. 



TERMS. 

Per annum. 

For any one of the Reviews $1 00 

For any two of the Reviews '? OU 

For any t ree of the Reviews ID 01) 

For all tour of the Reviews I'.! 00 

For Blackwood's Magazine i 00 

For Blackwood and (me Review ''00 

For Blackwood and any two of the Reviews 10 00 

For Blackwood and any three of the Reviews 1.1 00 

For Blackwood and the four Reviews 15 00 

Single numbers of a Review, $1; single numbers of 
Blackwood, thh-ty-five cents. Postage, two cents a 
number. 

Circulars with further particulars may be had on ap- 
plication. 

THE LEONARD SCOTT PUBLISHING CO.. 

140 Fulton street. New York. 

Postmasters and others disposed to canvass, liberally 
dealt with. 



The Leonard Scott Publishing Co. also publish 
THE FARMER'S GUIDE 

To Scientific and Practical Agriculture, 

By Hb;nry Stephens F.R. S., Edinburgh, and the late 
J. P. Norton, Professor of Scientific Agriculture in Yale 
College New Haven. 

Two vols., Royal Octavo, 1500 p.iges and numerous 
engravings. Price, $7; by mail, post-paid, f8. lam-Giu 



GILES H. GRAT. 



JlVtS M. BATEIf. 



GRAY & HAVEN, 

\TTOKSE YS AND COUNSELORS AT LAW, 

(n Building of Paciflc Insurance Co, N. E. corner Cali- 
fornia and LeldesdorH streets, 

27vl6 SAN FBANOIHOO. 



32 



— — ,.., 









Is issued weekly on Saturduys, coutaining 
sixteen pages devoted to 

Agriculture, Uttrtfoulture, 8tocl£ 

Unlsliig^f T><>iiioKtlo H^ooiiomyt 

Homo >ltiiiitlnoturc» 31e- 

cHniiles, IiicliiRtrles, etc. 

With an able and ample corps of editors, spe- 
cial contributors and correspondents, we pub- 
lish a liberal variety of articles, entertaining as 
well as instructive, which not onh' make the 
BcTRAL Press an able assistant to its patrons, 
but an attractive and welcome visitor to every 
reader in everj' intelligent 

Home Circle ; 

for few there are — male or female — who will not 
find pleasure and ennoblement in the study of 
progressive farming and gardening. 

Honest, intelligent and correct information 
is faithfullj' given, in behalf of, and urging 

An improved Cultivation of the Soil; 
A greater Diversity of Products; 
Better Breeds of Stock; 
Better Varieties of Fruits; 
The Culture of New Products; 
Creation of New Home Industries; 
Adoi)tion of Improved Implements; 
Higher and Hajiijier Aims in Life, etc. 

Valuable and Timely Hints, 

are given weekly to lessen the labors the of 
farm, the household and the shop, and add to 
the health, the wealth and the wisdom of everj- 
patron of industry. 

How to Farm in the Pacific 
^ States. 

As the conditions and circumstances of soil 
and climate and seasons on this coast are so pe- 
culiar that many of the approved methods of 
eastern agricultiu-e are not at all appUcable on 
our side of the Continent,— special attention 
will be given to considering the need, extent and 
character of the modifications necestary. This 
will alone render the paper of great practical 
value to our home readers and more essential to 
them than all the distant publications obtaina- 
ble, without such auxilhary and modifying in- 
structions. 

The following are among the specialties upon 
which the Pacific liuRAL Press will treat: 

Silk, Cotton and Sugar Beet Culture; Nurseries, 
Orchards, Tropical and small Fruits ; Steam- 
plowing, seeding and harvesting for large 
tracts; Reclamation of swamp and un- 
productive lands; Hill and mountain farm- 
ing; CJrape growing; Fig, Rasin and Fruit 
drying; Irrigation; Lessons and Lectures on 
the chemistry of growing crops and on fer- 
tilizing lauds; Practical Farming vs. Specu- 
lation; Taxation of unimproved lands; 
Railroads and improved transpoi-fcition for 
crops and the better class of immigrants; 
Farmer's Clubs, lectures and associations; 
Co-operation in farming, mechanism, man- 
ufacturing and other industries; Govern- 
ment lands for settlers whether sold by R. 
R. operators or the U. S. ; ReUable whole- 
«ale and retail market reports ; Brief notices 
of Mechanical and Scientific Progress; 
Instructions for regular and farmer me- 
chanics; Household Reading; Health and 
domestic receipts ; a sprinkling of sprightly 
reading; Life thoughts; Poeti-j', condensed 
stories, items of news, etc., ■will be given. 

"No ediloriaLs or selections of unchaste or doubt- 
fid infiuence; or tottery, quack or other disreputable 
advertisemenls, will be admitted into its columns. 

A select variety of advertisements only will be insert- 
ed. CirculaU-d widely ainuDK the most thrifty of our 
population, the P. U. P. will be the cheapest and 
most effective medium for a large range of first cla.ss 
adverlifiemeuth in tlte Pacific states. 

Correspondence is respectfully soUcited from 
every worthy source. 

Local. Canva-ssers Wanted for every town, 
city and county. Special inducements offered. 

Parties desiring to get up clubs or act as 
agents, will be furnished sample copies and pros- 
pectus free. 

SUBSCRIPTION IN ADVANCE. 

One copy one year $4.00 

One copy six months 2.50 

One copy three mouths 1.25 

Single copies 10 

CLUB RATES. 

Ten copies or more, first year, each $3,00 

lA free copy or premium sent to getter up of club. J 

DKWEY &: Co., 

Publishers, Patent Agents and Engravers, No . 
4U Clay st., Sou Francisco. Nov. 21, 1870. 




tjujy 15, i§7t. 




•aOLD 



Everybody Should Buy It. 

IT J« H'LL or 

i.I.lSTlUTIOXS, 

LIFE AND 



IVIAP OF THE WORLD 

Is worth more than its price. 

SKNT PUEPAm nv 

DE^WTEY & CO., San Francisco, 
FOlt 75 CE.N'TS. 
BOUND, $l.'.'5. 



Designing 



and 




To Merchants, Manufacturers. 
Farmers and Nurserymen. 



Tenders will be received to the 2.'ith of September 
next for the following supplii b lor the service of the 

California Cotton Growers and Manu- 
facturers Association. 

Twenty tons Cottim Seed, 12 Farm Wagons. 30 Plows, 
15 Harrows. 15 Cultivators, 100 Hoes, 3fi Spades, 36 
Shovels. 12 Road SiraprrR, 12 Wheelbarrows, 12 Stoves, 
12 Axes, 12 Hatchets, 12 Hummers, 12 Picks, 12 Band- 
saws, 4 Cross-Cut Saws, 4 Augers, 4 Brace and Bits, 4 
Complete Sets Carpenters Tools, 4 Sets Light Harness, 
4 Saddles and Bridles, BO Sets Draft Harness, 2.50.000 feet 
Lumber, dressed and undressed. 100 Doors, 200 Butt 
Hinges. 100 Looks and Keys. .'l(X) Sash, glazed or un- 
glazed, 100 Kegs Nails 1,000 pounds paint, (iO gallons 
Oil. .500 000 Mulberry Trees. 500,000 Grape Vines. 5,000 
Fruit Trees in Variety, 200 Sacks Flour, 400 Bushels Po- 
tatoes, 300 Bushels Indian Corn, 00 Draft Horses, 30 
Cows, and 20 H<igs. 

Address Tenders to 

JAMES DAL£ JOHNSTON, 
Secretary and General Agent Cal. Cotton Growers and 

Manufacturers Association, San Francisco. 19vl-3m 



WE HAVE SENT 

IITJXDTlKnS OI"" SsIIVGl^E 

To the Pacific Coast 

BY UAH. AND EXPRESS, 
And in every case with entisfaction to the purchaser. 

The Prices are now all Reduced! 

SOLID SILVER HUNTING WATCHES as low as $ir>. 
SOLID GOLD HUNTING WATCHES as low as lO.T . 

Our Prices are all in Greenbacks, and we deal in none 
but Genuine Waltham WAXruKS. 

Every one who wants a Watch or feels a desire to be 
posted, should write to us for our Illustrated History of 
Watchmaking. It will cost you nothing, as we send it 
postpaid without charge, and with it a full Catalogue of 
all the Watches with prices of each. When you receive 
this 5'ou will 1)6 Burprise<l at the low rates, and you will 
then understand our plan of sending Watches to any 
place, however remote, without any risk to the pur- 
chaser. 

We send any Watch yon order, and let you examine it 
before you pay for it. Do not order a Watch until you 
have first sent for the Price List, and when you write 
please mention the Scientific Piikss. 

Address in full, 

HOWARD & CO., 

"Watchmakers and Jewelers, 

NO. 865 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

We have a full stock of extra heavy Cases, such as 4, 
5, 6 and H oz., always on hand, and can fill all orders 
promptly. 2Cvl-bp-aw 




Holbrook's Patent Swivel Plows, 

For Level Land and Side Hill. 

■WON TIIS 

HIGHEST PRIZE 

at NY. Sule Trial, 
1870. for Plowing 
Send Stamp for Circular. Sod & Stnbbls 

They leave no dead furrows nor ridges, but, an even 
surface for the Heaper, Mower, Kakc. and Irrigation; 
turn deep flat furrow-slices on level land; clear and pul- 
verize thoroughly; are of easy draft, strong and durable. 
Have sclfadjusting, self-clearing hinged st<!el Cutters. 
Changeable Mould-boards for sod and stubble. 

They are particularly well adapted for reclaiming 
Bog .Meatlows, with the Patent Steel- Edged Swivel Share 
and Side Draft Clevis. 

Manufactured and sold by 

F. F. HOLBROOK & CO., 

]9vl-7!<m Boston, Massachusetts 



HOOKER'S 

Improved 

DEEP-WELL 




The best and cheap<'St Domestic Pump in the market 

UKKKV ^ I>I.A1 !>::, 
Wholesale Agents, 112 California 81. San Francisco. 



GEO. B, BAYLEY, 

Corner Sixteenth and Castro Streets, OAKLAND. 




Importer and Breeder of 

cuoioii: i:>oui^TK"v. 

Every variety of Fancy Poultry constantly on haiiff 
and for sale. 
Address, with stamp, P. 0. Box 639, San Francisco. 



Important to Wool Growers. 




PURE BLOODED 

FRENCH MERINO RAMS 

FOR ?-AI.F. BY 

ROBERT BLACOW. 
Of Centerville, Alameda County, Cal. 



These Rams are guaranteed to be pure blooded 
French M*>rino. and I would respectfully call attention 
to them from tliose who desire to see or purchase the 
best and purest of stock. ]v2-8t 



EUREKA AND ECONOMY. 




Patented November 23, 1869. 

These Mills have stood the test and received the First 
Premium at the Mechanics' Fair in this city, and we 
challenge the world to produce their equal in point of 
Beauty, Strength, Durability and Simplicity. 

They are the most easily controlled, run with the 
lightest wind,an<l are the least liable to g(t out of order 
of any Mill yet liefore the public. 

We use the best material, and our workmanship is 
superior to all other in the State. All of the above wc 
guarantee, 

ALDO, 

Horsepowersand Tanks. 

W. I. TUSTIN, 

Pioneer Windmill Manufacturers, 
Corner Market and Beale streets, 
2v2-lam-tf San Francisco. 



E. J. FRASER, M. D., 

SURGEON, 
ikio. 108 Stookton stroot, S. F., Cal, 



S. N. PUTNAM, 
704 UontiTomery Street, San Francisco. 

Dealer in improved and unimproved Farms, Grazing 
and Timber Lands, particular attention given to pro- 
curing small Farms and Homesteads (or purchasers, 
claims for Pre-emptors, etc., in every part of the State. 
lvl-3rar 




By the Best of Artists, 
At this Office. 



The Pacific Rural Press 
is meeting with Popular Success. 
New correspondents are corning 
to its aid and its patrons are in- 
creasing from various sections at 
home and abroad. Testimonials 
of the great value of its timely 
and fresh information are daily 
received, and we now know that 
we can and shall publish and 
maintain a first-class agricultural 
journal of great profit to every 
reader and of essential benefit and 
importance to the community of 
the Pacific Coast. 



ACTIVE MEN ! 

WITH EXPERIENCE IN CANVASSING 

busiutss, can now obtain lucrative and imtii aucnt i-iu- 
ployintnt by DEWEY & CO.. Patent Agents and Iniblisb- 
■ry of the SCIENTIFIC PRESS and the PACIFIC KU- 
ItAL PKESS, No. 414 Clay street, S. F. 



CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



I'asii'Ker , 
Sunda,v 
except d| 



Express 
Train 
Daily. 



4.00 PM 
4.4'J P M 
3..VI r M 
7.-W P M 
9.3S P M 



H.OO AM 
8.40 AM 
7.30 am 
12.21 PM 
2.10 pm 
4.10 PM 
7.S0 P M 



2.3(1 P .M 
5.2.^ P M 
I.I.Sam 
9.10 AM 
12.00 M 
4.40 PM 

0.20 A M 



1871. 



{ Kxpresa 

Train 
I Daily. 



San Francisco.. 

Oakland 

San Jose 

.Stockton 

Sacramento . . . 
■ Marysviliti 

Sesraa 



6.4.'ipK 
•S r:pM 
.1.3(1 p M 
l.2» P M 
11.4 AH 
K.IO AM 
.1.40 A M 



Sacramento 


1 1.4.1 A M 


Colfax 


8.4.1 A M 


Reno 


1.00 am 


Winnemncca 


4.0.1pm 


Battle Mountain. 


1.2.1PM 


Elko 


8.4.1 A U 


Oo-dpn 


.1.20 p M 



Pass'eer 
Sundays 
excepted 



12.311pm 
II..1K PM 
12.1.1pm 
8.3.1 p M 
7.00 am 



SA.N .JOSE BRANCH.-Lkavf. San FiiANcisroat 910 a. 
m. daily (except Sundays), and 3 p. M. daily. Returninx 
leave .San .Jose at 7 30 a. m., daily, and atS .10 p. m., daily 
except Sundays). 

OAKLAND BRANCH.- Leave Sas Fbancibco. '6M, 
<|(i. HI .U'JO and II 1(1. a. m. 12 00.1 .10, 3(». 4 00. .1 |i,630, 8 9) 
.ind '11 3(1 n. m. (10 20. II 10 and 3 CO to Oakland only). 

Leave Brooklvn. M 15. •!> 30. 7 40, 8 SO and 10 00 a. m.. 1 10. 
2 m. 4 .1.1. (i HI. and 10 10 p. m. 

LF.AVE Oakland. M 2.1. •« 40. 7 Vl. 9 00. 10 10, 11 00 and U SO 
a. m., 1 40, 2 .10. 3 50. 5 0.1, 6 20 and 10 20 p. m. 

ALAMEDA BRANT-H.-Leave San Fbascisco, 7 20. 900, 
and II Ma. m.. I 30, 4 00. S 3U and 7 00 p. m. (7 20. 11 19 and 
5 JO to Fruit Vale only). 

LfiveH.>y*-..ri)s. •4J0. 7 00and 10 4.1a. m.. and 3 30 p. m. 

Leave Friit Vale, •5 2.1, 7 3.1, SOU and 1120 a. m.. 130. 
4 05 and 5 30 p. m. 

•Trains do not run Sundays. 

T. H. GOODMAN, A. N. TOWNE, 

Gen'l Pass in- and Ticket Aet. Gcnl Supt. 

Annual Election — Notice to Stockholders. 

The First Annual Election of S ockholdcrs of THE CAL- 
IFORNIA fO ION GROWERS AND MANUKAC- 
riREKS ASSOCIATION will uke place at the office of 
the Association, in the city ol Sa'i Francisco, at lu o'clock 
ill the fore' oon, on Saturday, the Ith day of August. 1871. 

By order of the Board of Trustees. 

JAmES DALE JOHNSTON, Secretary. 

San 1- rancisco, July 1st, 1871. junH.4t 

SWEET CHESTNUT TREES. 

ONE-HALFMILLION, besides a large gnneral Nursery 
Stock. A Sixteeu-page Circular Free. Also a Trade 
List for Nurserymen and Dealers. Can send safely to 
California. Small Tree.', by mail; large ones bv fwight 
or express. Address STORI'.S, HARRISON k CO., 

Iv2-6m Painesville, Lake Co., Ohio. 



F. A. ROULEAU. 

SEARCHER OF RECORDS, 

No. 620 Washingi^on Street, 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Phelps' Patent Animal Trap, 




FOR GOPHERS, SQIRRELS, RATS, CAVOTES, 
and other "Varmtnta." 

This Trap, as may be seen, is of simple constmction, 
and not likely to get out of order, and very durable. 

It is Very Efficient 
and can be used conveniently by women or children. 
THE OHE.\PEST AKD BEST YET INVENTED. Price 
6U cents. By mail, prepaid (to places where expresii 
charges are high), ^1. A liberal discount to oliibs op 
dealers who buy by the doxen. Address the inventor 
and manufacturer, D. N. PHELPS, 

al-ly-awbp San Leandro, Alameda County, Cal. 




Volume II.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 22, 1871. 



[Number 3. 



The Farallones. 

"The Farallones" is the name of a small 
group of islands lying some twenty-seven 
miles seaward from the Golden Gate, which 
may be seen in any clear day from either 
the Cliff or Ocean House. The view 
which we give, herewith, was taken from 
the outside of the islands, looking east. 
The lighthouse is seen perched upon the 
top of the principal island, Avhile the air 
is literally filled with birds, like bees 
around a hive. Those which are most nu- 
merous are Murre or foolish Guillemot. 
This bird, after laying its egg, never leaves 
it, except for short periods of time during 
•which the male stands guiird over the 
same, for the reason that the gulls are 
always by and watching for an opportu- 
nity to steal and eat it. The eggs are un- 
accountably large for the size of the bird 
— about twice as large, in proportion as 
hen's eggs. 

In addition to the murre there are also 
the pigeons, hawks, coots, pufRin, gull, 
shag, etc. The two last are the only ones that 
remain there through the winter. So nu- 
merous are they during their periods of 
incubation, that if you walk among them 
they rise by thous.ands and fairly darken 
the air with their flight. 

Besides the birds, the rocks adjacent to 
the sea are constantly covered with great 
numbers of seals — many of them of huge 
proportions, weighing from 2,000 to 5,000 
Ijounds and upwards. It is said that 
these curious animals have each their jjar- 
ticular rocks, where they take their siestas, 
and that they do not allow their premisses 
to be invaded by stranger seals without a 
fight. 

A very ftill descrii^tion, with numerous 
illustrations of this interesting locality, is 
given by Mr. Hutchins, in his "Scenes 
and Wonders of California," to the pub- 
lishers of which, Messrs. A. Roman & Co., 
of this city,jwe are indebted for the beau- 
tiful illustration which we herewith j're- 
sent. 



PlONEEES AND SuTTER'S FoET. — A '49 

Pioneer, in the Calistoga Tribune, suggests 
that the various Pioneer Societies in the 
State unite to the purchase of the site of 
Sutter's Fort, at Sacramento, with the view 
of restoring its broken down walls and fit- 
ting it up as a place of public resort and 
infirmary for indigent pioneers. The site, 
if not thus rescued, will soon be cut up 
into city lots, and the last vestiges of its 
-walls destroyed. The City Street Railroad 
•will soon be extended to the locality, and 
there is no question but that the specu- 
lation could be made to pay for itself, if it 
•was so desired. The suggestion is an emi- 
nently proper one, and most timely. 

Col. Strong's Cotton Crop. — Col. 
Strong writes that his cotton is showing a 
profusion of blooms, and that the crop is 
growing with a degree of rapidity seldom 
witnessed in the Atlantic States. The 
Colonel is in good spirits and^sanguine of 
success in his enterprise. 



The Girdled Peach Orchard Again. — 
Our readers will doubtless recollect the 
Green-Martin peach orchard at Benton 
Harbor, Michigan, which, up to last fall, 
had been girdled .^re times, but the dam 
age so repaired with the help of the neigh- 
bors, who have as many times turned out 
to save it, that it has thus far been pre" 
served. We now learn that this orchard 
has the present season been girdled again ! 
We have also the satisfaction to learn that 
this time the operator has been caught and 
safely lodged in jail. He was employed in 
a bakery in St. Joseph, and his name is 
William Cornell. He had loaned Green 
$1,500 some years ago; Green failed, and 
Cornell lost his money — the savings of a 
life-time of hard labor. He fancied the 
sale of the orchard by Green to Martin G. 



Contributions From Japan and China. 

Mr. H. D. Dunn, agent for the Industrial 
Fair, has brought 170 packages of most 
varied description from Japan, and 19 
packages from China, making a total of 
GO tons. These will make a tine showing. 
The next steamer will bring 20 to 25 tons 
additional. The Japanese Government 
has appointed a special committee of nine, 
who are now in the city, who will rejiort 
on the Fair, and on our agricultural, 
mining and manufacturing industries. 

In order that the public may form some 

idea of the variety and extent of the j)ro- 

posed exhibit, we append the following 

list furnished the Institute by Mr. Dunn: 

Flax in its raw state. 

Flax in various stages of inauufacture. 




THE SOUTH FAEALLONE ISLAND, FROM THE Bia ROOKERY, LOOKINQ EAST. 



Hunter was a bogus transaction, and 
sought revenge by girdling Hunter's trees, 
planted by Green. 

How TO IviLL Horse Radish or Noxiotts 
Weeds. — A recent writer says he has ef- 
fectually dis23osed of certain weeds on his 
lawn, among them horse-radish, "by cut- 
ting with a spade two or three inches be- 
low the crowns, and pouring on the part 
left in the ground a little kerosene. The 
sod was dropped back and the horse-radish 
failed again to put in an appearance. Any 
troublesome weeds can easily be killed 
in this way without injuring the grass. 
This aiij)lication is more convenient and 
cheaper than sulphuric acid, which we 
recommended some weeks since for a simi- 
lar application. 

CoTswoLD Wool at the East. — The Al- 
bany Register of July 1st alludes to a re- 
cent shearing and sale of some Cotswold 
fleeces in that city. A fleece taken from a 
full-blood ram, with fiber from 12 to 14 
inches in length and weighing 14 pounds, 
sold for 46 cents per pound. A fleece 
from a quarter-blood lamb measured three 
inches in length. The price given is much 
lower than the general estimate of the 
value of this wool. 



Vegetable Tiillow in its raw state. 

Vegetable Tallow manufact-ared into wax and 
other articles. 

Coal. — Sample lumps of the diflferent varieties 
in Japan. 

Iron Ore. — Samples of the different quaUties 
in Japan. 

Iron in pig and in various forms, as rod, bar, 
sheet and plate. 

Steel, cast and in bar and other shapes. 

Copper Ore.- — Sample specimens. 

Copper in pig and in bar, rod, sheet and other 
forms. 

Lacquer and Varnish Gums. — Samples of the 
various kinds. 

Oils of vegetable and mineral production. 

Lacquer varnishes of the various kinds used. 

Tools used by carpenters, stone masons, black- 
smiths, plasterers and farmers. 

Matting in rolls of various kinds. Also mat 
clothing used against rain. 

Cotton in its raw state. Also seed of same. 

Cotton manufactures, say in thread, ^piece 
and smaller articles. 

Silk, raw, floss, reeled ready for m.anufacture. 

Silk in skeins and woven in different ways. 
Also silk garments. 

Paper, all varieties made. 

Paper stock or materials from which the vari- 
ous kinds of pajjer are made. 

Bamboo Work, all the various kinds of man- 
ufacture, viz. : basket work, carvings, thread 
work, wove and spun work. 

Lacquered ware in all its varieties. 

Porcelain ware in all its varieties including 
inlaid and enamelled ware. 

Fans. — An assortment of the different kinds 
made. 

Ivory Car-vings. — An assortment_showing skill 
in workmanship. 



Crystal Work. — Plain stones, also mounted 
in gold and silver jewelry. 

Bronze Work. — Plain, carved and inlaid with 
other metal and enamelled. 

Bird cages of bamboo and other material. 

Fishing tackle, lines, etc. 

Colors in lacquer and in a dry state. 

Brushes, armor, Japanese war weapons, an- 
cient and modem. 

Cutlery. — ^From swords to the smallest arti- 
cles made. 

Leather. — In skins of all kinds made. 

Leather Manufactui'es. — All varieties. 

Sugar in its raw and refined state. 

Tobacco in the leaf and manufactured states. 

Umbrellas, lanterns, mirrors, costumes, hats, 
shoes, musical instruments, kites, toys, etc. 

Wheat and other grain, dry vegetable pro- 
duce, flour. 

Fruits dried and preserved. 

Stone suitable for cutlery and lithographic 
purposes. 

Mineral specimens and curiosites. 

Coins. — Specimens of ancient and modern 
dates. 

Carvings in wood and stone. 

Tea. — Specimen boxes of various kinds. 

Tortoise shell work in all its varieties. 

Fine metal castings, bells, coppersmith work. 

Glass work in its varieties. 

Woods used for cabinet and furniture pur- 
poses. 

Screens, ornamental and useful. 



Beet Sugar In Utah. 

In our trips about Salt Lake valley we 
came across a beet sugar establishment, or 
a building that had been erected and once 
used for that jjurpose, but which is now 
standing entirely idle, the business having 
been abandoned. Upon inquiry of some 
of the parties who were interested in the- 
enterprise we were informed that they ob- 
tained the most approved machinery and 
the best artizans that could be found in 
Europe; that they planted large quantities 
of the real Selesian sugar beet and made a 
number of thorough trials to ijroduce sugar, 
but an almost entire failure was the uni- 
form result. The cause could not be at- 
tributed to defective machinery or want 
of skill in the operation, and the soil pro- 
duced the finest sjaecimcns and largest 
quantities of beets. The conclusion ar- 
rived at was that there was too much al- 
kali in the ground. Would it not be well, 
as a further test, to raise a small lot of 
beets there an send them to Aivarado for 
trial ? 



A Peaceable People. 

The Territory of Utah contaios about 
150,000 Mormon inhabitants, and we are 
informed by A. Milton Musser, a gentle- 
man of high standing and well posted in 
the premises, that one Justice of the Peace, 
could adjudicate all legal questions arising 
between Mormons in the entire Territory, 
if they could be concentrated, and have 
three hours a day to sj^are to work in his 
garden. Mr. Mu.sser also states that out- 
side of Salt Lake City and the mining 
towns surrounding, there cannot be found 
a drinking saloon or gambling house in 
the Territory. 

Old Wheat. — Kalisher & Boseman 
shipped 75 tons of old wheat from Stock- 
ton to this city on the 11th inst., and on 
the 14th J. D. Peters shipped 25 tons more 
and 25 tons of new, to the distillery at 
Antioch. 



34 



[July 22, 1871. 



ECHANICAL ^PROGRESS. 



New Gala'anio Gas Lighteb. — Prof. 
Klinkerfuss, of Gottingen, has iuvented 
an apparatus for igniting gas and other 
lights. As regards gaslights, -we condense 
from the Sci. Am. Each lamj^-post has 
its own galvanic apparatus, and the gal- 
vanic pair touches the liquid only during 
the short space of lighting up. An her- 
metically closed vessel is provided with a 
compartment or bell, open at the bottom, 
so as to communicate with tlie main vessel, 
and having a galvanic pair of zinc and 
graphite Mxed to the cover in such a man- 
ner that the solution of bichromate of po- 
tassa and sulphuric acid, in the lower part 
of the vessel, is not reached by them when 
the apparatus is in its usual inactive state. 
A pipe leading to the burner of gas flame, 
passes, air proof, through the cover of the 
vessel and is immersed in the liquid, thus 
shutting ofif the outer air from communi- 
cation with the upper part. The latter is 
tilled, above the above named liquid, with 
illuminating gas sui:)plied from the gas 
works, and as the pipe which passes 
through the cover is of sufficient length to 
hold the hydrostatic column raised by the 
small and nearly constant pressure usual 
in gas pijaes, it takes the place of the last 
stop cock in the supply pipe. By another 
pipe leading to the bell from a station at 
any required distance, the air in the upper 
part of the bell can be rarefied, and thus 
the liquid in the hermetically closed vessel 
can be sucked up, lowering the surface so 
that the escape of the gas through the 
pil^e leading to the burner is first opened, 
and then, on continued suction, the zinc 
and graphite plates are reached by the 
liquid. At this point the galvanic circle 
is closed, and the platinum wire over the 
mouth of the pipe leading to the burner 
becomes heated, and acquires sufficient 
catalytic power to kindle to a flame the 
hydrogen contained in the gas jet. After 
this is efifected, a slight remission of the 
sucking power in the pipe is made to sink 
the level below the galvanic plates, in order 
to avoid unnecessary exposure, but with- 
out shutting oflf the escape of the gas. 
In order to make sure of this eft'cct on all 
the lamps, a model apparatus must be 
placed at the station, corresponding in all 
respects to those of the lamps. The put- 
ting out of the light is etlected by opening 
the sucking pipe to the access of atmos- 
pheric air, thus restoring the previous 
state of equilibrium, and, at the same, pre- 
venting differences of temperature in dif- 
ferent parts of the sucking pipes to cause 
partial suckings, and thiis stoj) the corres- 
pondence in the working of the apparatus 
on the different lamps. This apparatus 
may be attached to any ordinaiy gas pipe, 
and is easily removed, when required, for 
the purpose of a revision. 

Iron Paper. — The Thinnest Yet. — The 
London Mining Journal records the pro- 
duction of the thinnest sheet of iron ever 
yet seen, and records the history of similar 
sheets. "VVe condense. In 1H51 a Pitts- 
burg (Pa.) firm produced a sheet with a 
surface of 44 in., weighing 60 grains, and 
l-1800th of an inch thick. A Welsh firm 
next made one of the same surface weighing 
only 46 grains. Staffordshire, England, 
produced still thinner sheets, which, re- 
duced to the same standard would weigh 
only 33 and 31 grains respectively. After 
these came sheets which would weigh (re- 
duced to the standard of a surface of 44 
inches) 2'i% and 23 grains respectively. 
But the Upper Forest Tin Works, near 
Sweansea, have capped the climax. They 
have produced a sheet, 10x5 ^^ inches, 
weighing 20 grains, which is but 16 grains 
for 44 surface inches, and it re<iuircs 4,800 
placed side by side, to make 1 inch in 
thickness. This stands on record as the 
thinnest sheet of iron ever rolled. The 
thinnest sheet of tissue paj)er to be pur- 
chased measures the 1200th x^art of an 
inch; is 4 times as thick as this. 



Needle INCHING.— The latest invention 
of importance in the needle trade is a 
pointing machine, of English origin. A 
grooved grindstone, revolving at great 
speed, grinds the end of each wire into 
the desired shape. To this grindstone the 
wires are applied from an inclined plane, 
on which a number are placed cut to the 
length required. By means of a disc, sur- 
rounded with caoutchouc, revolving slowly 
in a direction transverse to the grindstone, 
a continuous supply of wires rapidly re- 
volving in succession is supplied to the 
stone, and the same disc causes the wire 
to revolve while being pointed. Eedditch, 



in Worcestershire, England, employs 8,000 
people in making needles, and is the trade 
center of Great Britain. The principal 
seat of industry on the continent is Aix-la- 
Chapelle, but at Lyons, and one or two 
towns in Normandy, the common qualities 
are largely made. The Chinese 8uppl3- 
their own requirements, and it is thought 
that the craft is more ancient in the Celes- 
tial Empire than in Europe. Certain it is, 
that round-eyed needles were made in 
China long before the primitive square- 
eyed ones were known in England. — Me- 
chanics' Magazine. 

New Transit Instrument. — A new tran- 
sit. Heller & Brightley's, is described in the 
Proceedings of (lie Amer. Philosophicid So- 
ciety. It is a " long center " transit, with 
plates ribbed, so as to get equal strength 
with Jess weight, which detaches as easily 
as the "short center," but keeps all the 
centers covered and not removable from 
the instrument, and leaves the tripod-head 
and legs with the four levelling-screws, 
etc., to be carried by the assistant. It is 
steadier than, and weighs one-half as much 
as, the ordinary long center. It has an im- 
proved tangent screw, which will never 
get "lost motion" by wear. This is ef- 
fected by means of a loug cylinder nut, 
from whose interior Y, of the screw has 
l>een removed; into half the recess thus 
left in the nut is fitted a cylindrical fol- 
lower, with the same length of screw- 
thread as the nut, fitted with a key that 
allows longitudinal motion but prevents it 
turning in the recess. In the remaining 
half of the recess is placed a strong spiral 
spring, between the fixed nut and the mov- 
able follower, with tension enough to 
force these apart and thus remove any lost 
motion which may occur in the screw. 
The tangent screw is attached to the plates 
by a modification of the gimballing of a 
ship's compass. A new eye-piece and im- 
proved lenses give a clear and sharply 
defined field of view, and one so flat that the 
cross hairs are without parallax in any part 
of it, and micrometer hairs or stadia can 
be used. Platinum cross-hairs, 1-lOOOth 
of an inch thick, are used. The screws are 
lubricated with plumbago. A simple ar- 
rangement of the clamps on the axle of the 
transit, makes it answer the purpose of a 
pair of compass sights for taking off-sets. 

Dimensions of Narrow Gauge Engines. 
It appears that a narrow gauge locomotive, 
with driving wheels 36 inches in diameter, 
and cylinder with 16 incli stroke, at a 
speed of 36 miles per hour, develops the 
same speed of piston as a full gauge loco- 
motive with 5 feet driving wheels and cyl- 
inder with 24 inch stoke, at a speed of 40 
miles per hour. With driving wheels 40 
inches in diameter, and 16 inches stroke 
of piston, the narrow gauge locomotive 
develops the same travel of pi.ston in going 
one mile as does the full gauge locomotive 
with 60 inch driving wheels and 24 inch 
stroke of piston. Equal speeds are there- 
fore attainable on the narrow as on the full 
gatjgo. The angle of stability of the nar- 
row gauge locomotive, with 3 feet driving 
wheel, is somewhat greater than that of 
the common locomotive with 5 feet driving 
wheel. Many interested in the success of 
the narrow gauge system have been puz- 
zled to understand why engineers claim 
ecuial safety and speed for the former with 
the wider gauge. The above facts give 
the reasons for these claims. — Iron Age. 



Machine for Folding, Pasting and 
TiuMMiNO Papers. — Messrs. Chambers k 
Co. , of Philadelphia, have invented a new 
machine, which they have made for Every 
Saturday, of Boston. The Record saj's : 
It is the only machine of the kind in the 
world, and is really a wonder in its work- 
ing, accomjjlishing the various processes 
of folding, pasting and trimming at one 
operation. The two sheets of which Every 
Saturdny is composed are fed in at opposite 
ends, taken up by tlie machine and carried 
toward each other, while by a scries of au- 
tomatic movements they are folded, trim- 
med and pasted in transitu ; arriving simul- 
taneously at the center of the machine, 
the smaller sheet is placed accurately in- 
side the larger one, and both receive their 
final fold and are deposited carefully in 
the box placed for them, a perfect paper. 
This operation is repeated, when the ma- 
chine is at its highest .speed, 30 times per 
minute, without mistake or variation. 

Bronze Bust of Irving. — A colossal 
bust of Washington Irving is to be erected 
in Prospect Park, Brooklyn, New York. 
With the pedestal, it will be 14 feet high. 
All the work has been done in the U. S. 



.CIENTIFIC IfROGRESS. 



American Telegraphic History. — In 
Prof. Morse's a<ldress at the unvailing (>f 
the statue in New York City Central Park, 
he alluded to the history of the telegraph 
in the U. S. We condense: To Alfred 
Vail, of Morristown, N. J. with his father 
and brother, is due the first important aid 
in the progress of the invention. Aided 
also by Professor Gale, the telegraph ap- 
peared in Washington in 1838, a suppli- 
ant for the means to demonstrate its power. 
To the Hon. F. O. J. Smith, then Chair- 
man of the House Committee of Com- 
merce, belongs the credit of a just appre- 
ciation of the new invention, and of a zeal- 
ous advocacy of an experimental essay, 
and of the inditing of an admirably written 
report in its favor, signed by every mem- 
ber of the committee. It was nevertheless 
thrown aside among the unfinished busi- 
ness of the session; and now commenced 
days of trial. Years of delay were yet be- 
fore it. It was not till 1842 that it was 
again submitted to Congress. Ferris, and 
Kennedy, and Winthrop, and Aycrigg, 
McClay, and Wood, and many others, ral- 
lied to its support, and at length, by a bare 
majority, the bill that was necessary was 
sent to the Senate, where it met with no 
opposition, and was passed the last night of 
the session. Now commenced a new series 
of trials. To Ezra Cornell is due the 
credit of early and effective aid in the su- 
perintendence and erection of the first 
public line of telegraph ever established. 
Notwithstanding the success of the experi- 
mental essay, another important step was 
necessary ere the invention could demon- 
stra e its vast utility. It was not until the 
skill and experience of the Ijest Postmaster 
General that ever held that office, the Hon. 
Amos Kendall, were brought into requis- 
ition, that, amid many discouragements, 
the various companies were organized, and 
in the hands of such enterprising men as 
Sibley, Swain, and Wade, and a host of 
determined men, this vast country was 
webbed with telegrai)hic wires. 

Another grand stride was yet to be taken 
ere international communication could be 
established. In October, 1842, the first 
submarine telegraph cable was laid by mo 
in one moonlight night, in the harbor of 
this city, which proved experimentally the 
practicability of submarine telegraphy, and 
from the result of this success I ventured, 
the year after, in a letter to the Secretary 
of the Treasury, to predict the certainty of 
the Atlantic Telegraph. It was then be- 
lieved to be a visionary dream; and had the 
individual carrying out of so bold an en- 
terprise depended upon me alone, it might 
still have been a dream. But at this crisis 
another mind was touched with the neces- 
sary enthusiasm, admirably fitted in every 
particular to undertake the novel attempt. 

To Cyrus W. Field, more than to any 
other individual, belongs the honor of car- 
rying to completion this great undertaking. 
Associating with himself Cooper, and Tay- 
lor, and Roberts, and White, and Hunt, and 
Dudley Field, and others on this side of 
the Atlantic, and, two years later, Peabody 
and Breet, and Brooking, and Lampson, 
and Gurney, and Morgan and others in 
Great Britian, making the ocean but an in- 
significant ferry by his repeated crossings, 
undaunted by temporary failures and un- 
forseen accidents, he rested not till Britian 
and America were united in telegraphic 
bonds— the Old and the New World in in- 
stantaneous communication. 



Compressed Slack Coal. — The Iron Age 
says that the process of E. F. Loiseau has 
been tried in Philadelphia with good re- 
sults, on anthracite waste, and has been 
successfully used for four months at Nash- 
ville, Tenn. Only 7 per cent, of clay is 
used. The fuel is rendered water-proof 
(which is necessary) by dipping the pi-e- 
pared balls into a liquid composed of 18 
ttis. rosin and 3 gala, gasoline, or benzine, 
to the ton of fuel. The coal is sufficiently 
compact to allow transportion and storing, 
burns nicely, j)roduces but little ash and 
no cinder, ignites readily, and maintains 
its shaj)e until thoroughly consumed. It 
answers well in heating and cupola fur- 
naces. It is now retailed at $5 per ton. 

Ozone Acts on Explosive Compounds. 
It has been found, says the .Journal of Ap. 
Chein. that ozone will decompose nitro- 
glycerine into nitric acid and glycerine 
acid. Nitro-cellulo.se (gun-cotton) and 
nitro-mannito yield nitric acid and oxalic 
acid. When gun cotton undergoes spon- 
taneous decomposition, a similar class of 
compounds is produced, but what is rather 
remarkable in this case is the fact that 



sealed packages of gun cotton are more 
likely to decompose spontaneously than 
open ones, as if the ozone was generated 
in the closed bottle and not in the open 
one. Air rich in ozone will cause the ex- 
plosion of several of the nitro compounds. 
It would be interesting to know if the ex- 
plosion of powder mills could not be traced 
to the action of an unusual quantity of 
ozone generated by thunder storms in the 
air, rather than to the direct action of the 
lightning. The powerful decomposing ac- 
tion of ozone calls attention to it as a 
useful agent in many branches of manufac- 
ture, and the importance of devising some 
way of generating it economically and in 
large quantity is more pressing than ever. 

Electrical Shadows. — In a paper in 
the Amer. Jour, of Science, Prof. A. W. 
Wright, of Williams College, admits the 
possibility of tlio impression of outline 
images upon the surfaces of other objects. 
He says: — "The formation of the electrical 
shadow, discussed in my former paper, as 
has been suggested by Mr. C. F. Varley, 
who has more recently obtained results 
similar to those there described, appears to 
afford a satisfactory explanation of a sin- 
gular and very interesting phenomenon, 
which has occasionally been observed in 
the case of objects struck by lightning, 
especially of persons killed by it. A num- 
ber of instances are on record where the 
person struck was found to have, impressed 
upon some portion of the bodj', a delinea- 
tion of something near him at the time of 
the stroke, and a similar effect has been 
noticed, also, in the case of inanimate ob- 
jects. The experiments in the production 
of the electrical shadows show that it is 
merely necessary that the object should 
interrupt the lines of action of the elec- 
tricity, and that it maybe at a considerable 
distance from the electrified cloud, the 
chief and indispensable condition being 
that the latter should be negatively electri- 
fied. We should then have the body ex- 
posed to the lightning, perfectly electrified 
by induction, and, as the tension became 
sufficient, the dark discharge accompanied 
by the glow would take place, followed by 
the lightning stroke. If, then, any object 
should be in the path of the discharge, its 
image would be formed in the glow, and 
this might, in rare cases like those record- 
ed, be sufficiently intense to leave a per- 
manently visible impression." 

Fixing Magnetic Lines. — Prof. A. M. 
Mayer has invented a very perfect method 
of fixing the figures produced by iron 
filings when set in momentary vibration on 
a surface over a magnet. He wets a clean 
glass plate with shellac, dries it, places it 
over, and just touching, a magnet or mag- 
nets, with its ends supported on wooden 
rests. Iron filings are then uniformly 
sifted o'ver the plate, and the spectrum 
produced by tapping it with a copper wire. 
A heated cast iron plate is then placed over 
the glass plate (which has been cautious- 
ly removed), and the iron filings, absorb- 
ing the radiated heat, sink into the softened 
film of shellac and are thus fixed. Plates 
thus produced serve for the most accurate 
measurements upon the magnetic field, can 
be photographed or used as lantern slides. 
They give most perfect images of the mag- 
netic curves. — Meek. Mag. 

LiTHorRAC'TEUR, as we learn^rom Engin- 
eering, although extensively used in Ger- 
many for over two years, has just been in- 
troduced into England. It is the invention 
oi Prof. Engels, of Cologne, and consists 
of nitro-glycerine as a ba.se, gun cotton, 
the constituents of gunpowder, some chlo- 
i-ates, and infusorial earth. These sub- 
stances are mixed in special ways (kept 
secret) until they form a black putty-like 
compound, which is made up into paper 
cartridges, 4Ji inches long and ", inch in 
diam., weighing 1%' ozs. each. When 
lighted in the air by ordinary means, it 
burns quietly, but when ignited by a cap 
it explodes violently. A'arious attempts to 
explode it by most violent shocks, as in 
railroad collisions, failed, while its power 
in qtiarries, mines, etc., when exploded by 
the cap, was tested most successfullj'. 

Boiling Point of Glycerine. — Says the 
Cium. News: When the pressure in the still 
is reduced to 12.5 m. in., chiefly water goes 
over. When the boiling point under con- 
stant pressure has risen to 179.5" C, per- 
fectly pure anhydrous glycerine condenses 
in the receiver. Under a pressure of 50 m. 
m., glycerine distills over unchanged at 
210^ C. 2 parts glycerine and 3 parts water 
freeze at 112' F.; 1 part glycerine and 1 
part water, at 6' F. ; 1 part glycerine and 3 
parts water, at 20^ F, 



July 22, 1871.] 



35 



kORRESPONDENCE. 



A Trip to Colorado— 2. 

[Written for the Pbess.] 

Scenery about Denver. 

At Denver I find myself in a favored 
spot. Here we have fine views of the snow- 
capped ranges and of prominent peaks far 
distant, yet easily seen through the clear 
atmosphere. Of the scenery here much 
has been said and written. I have been 
told that, in this respect, the place vies 
with Berne, in Switzerland. I acknowl- 
edge never having visited this last named 
city, and therefore am strongly convinced 
that Denver beats it. 

And I have some serious reasons for this 
conviction. Around Denver you can find 
scenes of rural prosperity and beauty — a 
fertile soil, a charming climate, coal, iron 
and copper mines. Some forty miles ofi", 
you reach Central City and its gold mines. 
Georgetown is ten hours distant with her 
treasures of silver. On the road to the 
latter place — a beautiful road — in South 
Clear Creek valley, are cold and warm soda 
springs, great luxuries for the traveler. 
Beyond it lies Gray's Peak, said to be 14,- 
245 feet high, the " apex of the North 
American Continent." You can easily get 
to the Parks of Colorado, wonderful places,- 
to mountain lakes and peaks too numerous 
to mention. Not only does the region 
afibrd natural scenery which may or may 
not equal that at Berne, but it also affords 
many other features of surpassing interest, 
the existence of which around Berne I am 
not aware of. 

Manufactures. 

Denver is a busy place, with manifold 
signs of rapidly increasing prosperity. I 
am now writing on paper made in the 
vicinity, not in Denver exactly, but at 
Golden (by the Golden City Paper Co.) 
not far off, Denver imports quite largely 
from California. I am told that annually 
$50,000 worth of California fruits is sent 
to Colorado, and I see California blankets 
everywhere. 

There are three banks and banking 
houses here, six churches, a convent, two 
large seminaries and two free schools. 
There are two flouring mills, three planing 
mills, a woolen mill, a foundry, pottery, 
brick yardf, wagon factories, jewelry fac- 
tories, etc., etc. There are four hotels, 
the American, Sargent's, Broadwell and 
Tremont, all respectable, I am told, but 
the first two of the highest standing. There 
are gas works for supplying the city with 
light. 

The Denver Foundry and Machine Shop, 
James W. Jackson, does a fine business in 
mining machinery, sawmills, flour mills, 
etc. The Denver Woolen Mills commenced 
operations last August, with $50,000 in- 
vested in building and machinery. This 
is known as a 3-set mill, has also 2 blanket 
looms and 5 narrow looms. It employs 12 
hands, and has manufactured goods of the 
value of $5,000 in four months. Good 
Merino wool is worth 28 cents wholesale. 
I visited the mill, and was pleased with its 
appearance. 

There are three newspapers published 
here. The Rocky Mountain News is the 
pioneer paper of the country, and is well 
edited and conducted. The Colorado Tri- 
bune is an interesting shet t, published diily 
and weekly by Walker & Woodbury. The 
Herald is a weekly journal. 

The U. S. Branch Mint or Assay Ofiice 
is located here, and its operations are con- 
ducted in the most satisfactory manner, 
under the management of J. L. F. Schir- 
mer. 

During the month of June, the Branch 
Mint received 7,838.54 ounces of gold bull- 
ion, valued at $132,179.03; of silver bull- 
ion, 810.22 ounces were received, amount- 
ing to $1,028.92. The total value of re- 
ceipts was $133,207.95. The bullion made 
two hundred and eighteen gold bars, and 
two of silver. 

Stages— Railroads— Items. 

Denver is the point of departure of the 
stages for Georgetown, Central and other 
mining districts; also to Pueblo, 150 miles 
south, Trinidad, 225 miles. Fort Lyon, 300 
miles, and Santa Fe, 450 miles south. 

Four railroads terminate here: the Kan- 
sas Pacific, the Denver Pacific, the Col- 
orado Central, and the Boulder Valley. 
The building of the Denver and Eio 
Grande, from Denver to Colorado City, 
Pueblo, Canon City, San Luis Park, and 



finally to El Paso, New Mexico, will give 
this place a very large amoiint of trade. 
All the bonds for the first 80 miles of this 
road have been sold, rails have been bought 
in England and shipped via New Orleans 
and St. Louis, and 1,300 tons are now on 
the way. The officers of the road are \^ . 
J. Palmer (President), R. H. Lamborn 
(Vice-President), W. H. Greenwood 
(General Manager) and J. P. Mersereau 
(Chief Engineer.) 

But I might write all day concerning 
this place. A few items more must suffice. 
One important article of ti-ade here is coal. 
It is brought hither from five diflerent 
mines: Hazelton's, in Jefierson county; 
Eulner's, Brigg's, Murphy's and Marshall's, 
in Boulder county. These are respectively 
18, 19, 22, 23, and 25 miles distant. The 
average price is $9 per ton. The lumber 
business is a large one, and there are six 
large lumber yards here. The total value 
of Denver manufactures last year is given 
as nearly $609,000. Smelting works in the 
vicinity'are talked of. The cattle business 
is bound to be an important one. 
Colorado Agricultural Society. 

The Colorado Agricultural Society has 
grounds and biiildings about two miles 
from the city in a fine location. It has in 
view the interests of the whole Territory, 
and the advancement of all industries, 
mining, agricultural and manufacturing. 
The first annual exhibition was held here 
in 1866, and was a success. The next one 
will commence on September 12tb, and 
continue until the 16th. I predict that 
this too will be successful, judging from 
the interest shown here. The officers are 
as follows: President, H. B. Bearce; Sec- 
retary, Fred. A. Clifton; Treasurer, Frank 
Palmer; Executive Committee, W. N. 
Byers, G. T. Clark, J. E. Bates, J. H. 
Veasey, H. G. Bond; Superintendents of 
Classes — Class A, Agricultural, F. C. Tay- 
lor; Class B, Mechanical Arts and Agri- 
cultural Implements, E. A. Willoughby; 
Class C, Farm Products, etc., C. H. Mc- 
Laughlin; Class D, Horticulture and 
Floriculture, Chas. Kuter; Class E, Fine 
Arts, John Armor; Class F, Geology and 
Mineralogy, Prof. F. Schirmer; Class G, 
Poultry, Sheep, Swine, etc., M. M. Trim- 
ble; Class H, Horses, etc., John E. Force; 
Class I, Cattle, J. L. Bailey. 

w. H. M. 



Swamp and Salt Marsh Lands. 

Editoks Press: — As there appears to be 
much more interest manifested in our 
swamp lands, in the last two years, than, 
previously, perhaj^s it would be as well for 
you to republish an article given by me in 
1865 to the Rural Home Journal, on the 
modes of reclaiming such lands, and 
gi'owing rice in South Carolina, by a cou- 
sin of mine who was a large rice planter 
there. 

Trunks and Gates, 

The trunks and tide gates described by me 
have been in use for many years, and have 
been found to answer the purpose better than 
any others. The advantage of these is 
that being hung on upright pivots, ten or 
eleven feet long, the gate opens and closes 
with a smaller pressure of water, and is 
less likely to be obstructed — the pivot rod 
being above the water does not rust and 
prevent the gate from shutting close down 
as the hinges do below the water, — and if 
necessary to irrigate or flood the lands as 
has been the case this year on some of the 
reclaimed tule land on the San Joaquin, it 
can be done by leaving the outer gate open 
without the necessity of watching the 
tides — being self-adjusting. Several years 
since I gave the plan to a friend, who tried 
them on the San Joaquin and found them 
to work very well. 

Ditches. 
In some cases it may be necessary to 
make the center ditch under the embank- 
ment, but I think from the examinations I 
have made that the banks of the rivers and 
sloughs are generally firm enough to omit 
it. The trouble in the experiments made 
here, is that the ditshes have been two 
small and the dyke or embankment is 
placed too near the ditch; the latter should 
be from 12 to 15 feet wide, and the levee 
at least ten or fifteen feet from the ditch, 
and made only sufficiently high to keep 
out ordinary floods and tides, and with a 
greater slope on the outside next the 
river; then sown immediately with timo- 



thy or some other good sod grass that 
would keep the levee firm and solid. The 
levees here have been built too much 
like a wall, the sods placed on it like adobe 
bricks, the peaty soil of which they are 
composed becomes dry and light, above the 
water line, leaving large cracks, and are 
liable to float off on the first flood. I do 
not think it is policy to levee against such 
floods as we had in 1862. 

Reclaiming Salt Marsh. 
The salt marsh around the bays, if prop- 
erly reclaimed and rightly managed, can- 
not fail to be very productive. A levee 
one foot above the highest spring tides 
will be amply sufiicient. During the win- 
ter, keep the inner gates closed, flood the 
lands as often as possible from the rains 
and with fresh water streams from the up 
lands; then in the spring sow it down in 
grass for pastures or hay. In the Eastern 
States such lands reclaimed and sown with 
timothy, red-top and clover have produced 
from a ton and a half to three tons per 
acre, also good crops of corn, rye, broom- 
corn, sugar beets and mangel-wurtzel have 
been obtained. C. D. Gibbes, C. E. 



Suspension Chutes for Loading Vessels. 

Eds. Press: — The great improvement 
now being made in this vicinity is the sus- 
pension chute at Pigeon Point. 

This important work has been under- 
taken by Messrs. Moore and Templeton, 
the former of your city, tha latter of Red- 
Wood City. 

The " Suspension Chute" is a Califor- 
nia invention, and is another illustration 
of the skill, wisdom and perseverance of 
the American people in overcoming all ob- 
stacles to production and progress. 

The bluff shores of California, and the 
scarcity of small harbors, have been great 
drawbacks to coast-wise traffic. To this, 
add the fact that many fertile valleys and 
valuable forests are cut off from the inte- 
rior by the " Inner Coast Range," and we 
readily see that the cost of shipment often 
equal, if it does not exceed, the first cost 
of production. This evil is partly over- 
come by the use of " Suspension Chutes." 
They have been tried in Sonoma county, 
and have given much satisfaction. 

B. C. Bell, who has built six, and won 
some reputation for skill and reliability, 
has charge of the construction of the pres- 
ent one, which is, I understand, the lar- 
gest he has undertaken to build. 

The Mode of Construction. 

The work will be 600 feet long, com- 
mencing level with the bank, and extend- 
ing out to 40 feet water. I cannot, without 
a sketch, give all of your readers a clear 
idea of the structure, but will give a gen- 
eral description — such as I can with words 
and figures. 

The inner and middle portion of the 
wharf is built upon frames of various 
bights, according to the nature of the 
bluff's. The outer end of the permanent 
wharf is 50 feet above water, supported by 
double bents. The three outer, lower 
bents are let into the solid rock two feet, 
and tamped with asphaltum. The posts 
are sheathed by yellow metal for five feet. 
They are held down and in place by strong 
iron rods, tightened by turn-buckles. Be- 
yond the outer bent the wharf projects 60 
feet, supported by brace work. 

The suspended chute is hinged in three 
nearly equal parts, and is 102 feet long. 
This is suspended from a boom, which is 
itself suspended from shears or masts, 77 
feet high. All of this suspended work 
projects 162 feet beyond the self-support- 
ing part of the wharf. 

The standing rigging is all of iron. The 
main braces for tower or shears are 1% 
inch wire rope; other braces % inch wire 
rope. The whole is well supported and 
braced by wire ropes attached to eye-bolts, 
let into solid rock. The main eye-bolts 
are of 3-inch iron, and are let into the rock 
3 feet, and leaded. The efi'ort is thus 
made to form a structure which will keep 
its place during our southeast storms. 

The chute is double — one side for lum- 
ber and wood, the other for produce and 
the truck when unlading vessels. This 
can be raised or lowered to suit the tides 
or the size of vessels, which are moored in 
40 feet water. 

The total cost of construction is esti- 
mated at $10,000. In connection with this 
work, and by far the most expensive, is a 

Wooden Canal 
From the head waters of the Gazos ereek 
to the sea board, about 7 miles in length, 
and a tramway about 1% miles in length, 
leading to the head of the wharf. 

This canal is 48 inches in width at top, 



and is designed for floating lumber, 
ber, firewood, etc., to the place of ship- 
ment. 

Already 5 miles of canal are in opera- 
tion, and the work will be pushed steadily 
on to completion. Perhaps a month more 
will see the chute in operation, if not the 
completed canal and tramway. 

Jeigh Areh. 

Pescadero, July 13. 

Half-Moon Bay and Vicinity. 

Eds. Press: — Your correspondent, " G. 
W. T. C.,"has done Half-Moon Bay and 
vicinity so well that I have but little to 
add. 

The Grain, Flax, Etc. 

There is promise of abundance of oats, a 
good quantity of barley and some wheat. 
I have reference to the breadth of land 
sown, for all the wheat and barley I have 
seen gives as fair prospect of an abun- 
dant yield, as does the oats. 

There is quite a field of flax, just on the 
summit, cultivated for the seed only. No 
need of the Norway oats in the vicinity of 
Pescadero. The common oats often carry 
their heads so high that I can scarcely 
reach them. If the straws had the strength 
of bamboo they might do for fish poles. 

The great draw-back to cultivating bar- 
ley in this bottom, is that it must be 
raised after it is grown, in order to gather 
it. In some places it is so thick and evenly 
down that nothing is to be seen save 
bearded barley heads. One of your sub- 
scribers has employed about 200 swine to 
harvest th^ barley. I presume but few of 
your readers ever saw 

Canary Seed 
In the field. Near Purissima is quite a 
large field of this grass. There is a good 
stand on the ground and this year is likely 
to be quite as profitable as has been the 
past. 

From Pescadero southward, along the 
coast, for 12 miles. 

Dairying 
Is the chief business. About 1,500 cows oc- 
cupy the various ranges— cheese is the prin- 
cipal produce. Steele Brothers have about 
700 cows, 300 of which are under their 
own direct supervision, and the others, on 
different ranges, are managed by other 
parties for a share of the product. All 
the milk of both their home dairies, is this 
year worked in their 

New Cheese Factory. 

Here, Mr. and Mrs. Pratt, with one 
helper, manufacture cheese from the milk 
of 300 cows. So much for division of la- 
bor aud the factory system. In this fac- 
tory there is a storage room for about 60,- 
000 lbs. of cheese. With very little addi- 
tional help they could manufacture the 
milk from twice the number of cows. 

Steele Brothers expect to make at this 
factory, this season, 100,000 lbs. of cheese. 
Their share from other dairies in this vi- 
cinity will be about half as much more. 
On all this range the feed has been unusu- 
ally good this season. Jeigh Arrh. 

Pescadero, July 8th, 1871. 



New Ditch in El Dorado Co.— That 
Georgetown is to have a new ditch, says 
the Placerville Democrat, is a settled fact, — 
that of the El Dorado and San Francisco 
Canal Co. The new ditch is to be from 
ten to twelve feet wide on top, eight feet 
wide on the bottom, and from four to five 
feet in depth, and will have a carrying ca- 
pacity of from ten thousand to twenty 
thousand inches four hundred days with- 
out the natural flow ; so it will be seen that 
by filling these reservoirs during the win- 
ter when there is an abundance of water, 
there is no danger but the supply will be 
ample for the summer, or dry season. The 
surplus water, we understand, after sup- 
plying the entire divide between the forks 
of the American river, will be taken to 
Sacramento, perhaps to San Francisco. 

Important Land Decision. — A recent 
decision of the Commissioner of the Gen- 
eral Land Ofiice makes all lands within the 
limits of railroad grants, upon which a 
homestead or preemption filing existed at 
the date of the grant, which have been 
subsequently abandoned, revert to the 
Government, and are again open to pre- 
emption and homestead. By a former de- 
cision such lands went to the railroad com- 
panies. 



36 



'dEt3SB8i 



[July 11, 1871. 



t^QflE i^ND 



Permanent Pastures. 

Quite too little attention is being given'to 
secure permanent pastures in California. 
It is true that our dry summers render the 
cultivation of most of the ordinary grasses 
out of the question here ; but there are varie- 
ties of grasses -vshich, by their depth of 
root, are enabled to' survive our dryest 
seasons. We need more experiment in 
this direction, and -what has already been 
done should be made more generally 
kno^wn. We should be pleased to learn 
the results of experiments, to the end 
that we may place such information before 
the readers of the Rueal Press. 

Our Oregon neighbors are blessed with a 
climate more nearly resembling that of the 
East, and do not, of course, meet with 
the same difliculty in securing permanent 
pastures that we do in California; yet they 
are reaching an economical jiractice only 
as the result of much experimenting. A 
correspondent of the Willamette Farmer 
gives his exiierience as follows: — A gentle- 
man asked me, " What shall I sow for per- 
manent pasture, yet with a view of beno- 
litting the land as much as possible." 
Here in this climate the grasses grow with 
such luxuriance that it is a question more 
as to the value of the grass, than anything 
else. Generally it is best to sow a variety. 
Yet, hero we dread the blue grass, as it is 
so hard to eradicate if we ever want to cul- 
tivate the land. In shaded ground I 
have found orchard grass of great value, as 
it will grow where timothy or clover will 
not. Timothy and orchard grass mixed 
make a good pasture; the orchard grass 
starts tirst and furnishes early feed while 
the timothy is coming on. For mowing, 
the orchard grass mixed with red clover, I 
begin to believe is better than timothy 
with clover, as orchard grass is already 
with the clover. 



The Ajiebican Pomologicaij Society 
will hold its next session on the Gth, 7th 
and 8th of Scj)tember, at Richmond, Ya. 
All Horticultural, Pomological, and 
other kindred societies in the United 
States and British Provinces, are invited 
to send delegations, as large as thoy may 
deem expedient; and all other persons in- 
terested in the cultivation of fruits are in- 
vited to be present and take seats in the 
Convention. 

It is thought that the coming session 
will be one of the most useful in a national 
point of view that has over been held by 
the Society, affording an opportunity not 
only to examine the fruits of the South in 
comparison with those >if the North, the 
West and of the Pacific Slope, which is ex- 
pected will be freely contributed, but also 
to foster and perpetuate the amicable and 
social relations which have heretofore ex- 
isted between the members of the Society, 
and to widely diffuse the result of its de- 
liberations for the benefit of our constantly 
expanding territory. 

Packages of fruit with the name of the 
contributor, may bo addressed as follows: 
"American Pomological Society," care of 
H. K. Ellyson, Secretary Virginia Horti- 
cultural and Pomological Society, Rich- 
mond, Va. It is to be hoped that the fruits 
of California may be well represented on 
that o.:casion. 



A WONDEKFUL VEOETABIiE PRODUCT. — 

There is a species of cactus, which grows 
in Mexico, and in some jiarts of Arizona, 
which may justly be ranked among the 
wonders of nature, and which is thus de- 
scribed by a late correspondent of the.4^ta.- 
It rises in the form of a beautiful fluted 
column, as regularly grooved from top to 
bottom as if done by the chisel of an artist. 
The columnar stem or trunk is about three 
feet in diameter, and keeps its size and 
symmetrical form to the hight of forty and 
sometimes fifty feet. The edges of the 
grooves running i)eri)endicularly from top 
to bottom of the gigantic plant, are thickly 
studded with long thorns, hard as steel 
and as sharp as a cambric needle. Not a 
limb nor a leaf mars its artistic contour, 
and were it not for their dark green color 
and the corona of crimson flowers at their 
top, one might think them to be the pro- 
ductions of art rather than a natural vege- 
table growth. 



A Novel Fence. 

A correspondent of the Country Gentle- 
man describes substantially as follows, 
what seems to be a very durable and very 
useful fence in certain localities. He 
thinks tho fence will last a century, or un- 
til rust eats off inch-iron rods. Large 
stones of about two feet deep are laid zig- 
zag along the lino of the fence; holes are 
drilled, and iron rods whose length corres- 
ponds Lojthe hight of the i)roposed fence 
are inserted, and fastened with melted 
brimstone. Then cedar rails are bored and 
drojiped on to the rods. The fence is 
made crooked, that it may be stiffer than a 
straight fence. 

It is an excellent fence for land subject 
to overflows, where ice and logs do 
not run. The top of the one built by the 
above mentioned correspondent has been 
three feet under water often, but is always 
undisturbed when the water subsides. The 
rails may be adjusted to any desired dis- 
tance apart. If the stones are set upon the 
top of the ground the s^jaco between them 
must be filled in, if it is desired to fence 



Celebrated Trotters.— No. 3. 

Pocahontas. 
A very beautiful bay mare by Ethan Al- 
len, out of the famous Pocahontas, a large, 
powerful and very high-bred pacer — the 
best that ever lived. The old mare was a 
chestnut, with white legs and a blaze, and 
a patch of white along the belly. She 
had all the look of a stallion. Her 
daughter inherited the beauty and 
splendid trotting action of Ethan Allen, 
together with a great deal of the power 
and invincible game of her mother. Noth- 
ing can suri^ass the beauty of this mare as 
she darts along like a swift, low-flying 
bird, before a sleigh or a road wngon. She 
trotted a mile trial in harness, driven by 
Ben Mace, in 2m. 18s. Dan Mace now has 
her in hand, he having assured Mr. Bonner 
that he can make her beat Dexter's time 
before the snow flies. But he had better 
first make her beat the time she made when 
driven by his brother Ben. Many think 
ho cannot do it, but the power and action 
of the mare are superb; Dan is the eldest 
of the Maces, and the craft and cleverness 




POCHAHONTAS. 



against small animals; or they may be so 
sunk as to bring the bottom rail near the 
ground. 

Pleasures of a Farmer's Life. — There 
is no more noble or independent occupa- 
tion than that of the farmer; there is none 
less likely to throw temptation in the way 
of the young — more conducive to health 
and long life. If the farmer has to plow 
and reap, he enjoys directly tho fruit of 
his labors; if he has to hoe and weed the 
strawberry patch, he enjoys the pleasure 
of taking the luscious berries, in a condi- 
tion in which they ai-e never found after 
being picked and sent to market; so Avitli 
currants, gooseberries, blackberries, etc.; 
if he has to prune and care for his apple, 
Ijear, cherry, peach trees, etc., he has the 
satisfaction of seeing them grow, while 
the abundance of fruitage awaits its proper 
season. There is no more noble occupa- 
tion than that of the farmer, if he will only 
study and inform himself with regard to 
his business. He has opportunities for 
studying Nature in her most interesting 
and useful modes. Do not discourage 
your children from entering upon this oc- 
cupation; rather strive to encourage a 
taste for it. Farming is always pleasant 
and profitable when properly managed. 



Sherman Island. — The growth of the 
crops on this island have been most un- 
expectedly rapid this season, and the farm- 
ers are now busily employed in clearing 
their grounds preparatory to a second crop 
of potatoes, which they feel confident will 
mature before the close of tho season. 



of that family are amazing. Pocahontas 
is a great favorite with the ladies, and she 
fully deserves the distinction in which she 
is held. 



Important Railroad Rumors. 

Various rumors have been afloat during 
the past few days, to the effect that the 
Contr.al Pacific has bought out the Califor- 
nia Pacific Railroad. The suspension of 
work on several branch roads of the latter 
company, and the coincident departure of 
Messrs Latham and Stanford for New York 
have given rise to much 8j)oculation. 

There is another rumor that the Penn- 
sylvania Central has purchased both of the 
above named roads. 

We have no definite facts to give in tho 
matter, and the first positive knowledge, 
should the reports turn out true, would bo 
tho announcement of the completion of 
some bargain on the part of the companies. 
We notice, however, that advertisements 
have been withdrawn from tho i)aper3 for 
the Yosemite routes, and give the item for 
what it is worth. 

If the reports turn out true, either way, 
some of our projected railroads will not be 
completed just at present. 

A Sure Remedy. — One of our Western 
agricultural exchanges after alluding to 
the efforts being made in this State to secure 
efl&cient irrigation, remarks as follows: — 
" In this section we avoid the effects of se- 
vere drouths, not by irrigation, but by 
deep ploughing and underdraining. This 
is our only remedy, but it is a sure one." 



Brown Hay. 

The importance of tho hay crop is so 
great that everything which has a bearing 
upon the subject has an especial interest, 
particularly at this season of the year. 

The following account of the manner in 
which the Germans make "brown hay" is 
from a Report made to the Massachusetts 
State Agriculture Society in 1863, by C. L. 
Flint: 

They prepare in many parts of Germany 
what is called brown-h-ay. When the 
grass is partially wilted, it is collected and 
spread in layers, and firmly trodden down. 
It is dried by the heat which is generated 
in the mow. If the wilted grass is to be. 
thus made into hay, it must be taken when 
neither too juicy nor too dry. Leaves, 
heads, and blossoms must remain firmly on 
the stalk. 

In good hay weather, the grass may be 
cut in the morning, and after being wilted 
and turned, and after lying six or seven 
hours, carted in and trodden down. The 
mow or stack maj' be from ten to twenty- 
five feet high. If not high enough, the 
grass does not generate sufficient heat, and 
moulds and injures. But if the stack is too 
high, and the weight too great, the hay may 
become black and mildewed, because the 
warmth becoming too great, does not find 
its way off sufficiently fast. If the stack is 
put up outside the barn, under a straw- 
thatched roof, resting on poles, they round 
it up very much in the shape of our stacks, 
not less than ten feet in diameter. 

To preserve the hay, the treading must 
be carefully done, so as to get it as firm as 
possible, and to have it all trodden down 
uniformly. The firmer it is the better, and 
this is regarded as of the first importance, 
since it heats all the more, and the moisture 
is more comi)letely driven off, till it soon 
becomes quite dry. 

On the top layer of haj', from six to eight 
inches of straw is spread, that no mould 
m.ay attack the hay on the top, and that the 
evaporating moisture passes into the straw. 
If the work is well done in building the 
stack, the hand cannot be pressed into the 
sides. Within a few days, the heat is so 
much developed that in thrusting in the 
hand it is very perceptible. 

After five or six weeks, the heat is en- 
tirely gone, and the hay is very fragrant, 
and ready for feeding out. It is of a brown 
color when so treated, and hence called 
brown haj'. In using, it is cut down per- 
pendicularly with a knife, so that it comes 
off in vertical layers. It is ^ perfectly 
healthy and sound fodder, and is eaten 
greedily by stock. 

The atlvantages of this method of curing 
hay are — 

1st. That even in rather bad weather, the 
haying is quickly over. 

2d. That tho hay is more nutritious 
than that> cured in the usual way. It is es- 
timated as fifteen per cent, better. The 
reason of this«is that with the wilted grass 
all the blossoms and flowers of the mead- 
ow grasses and the finer leaves are secured, 
which in working over in dried hay are, to 
a great extent lost. 

3d. That much less space is required to 
preserve it, because it is trodden so solid. 
For these reasons, this mode of curing is 
adopted in many sections. In this method 
of drying, where the amount of fodder is 
short, straw may be placed under the stack, 
in oi'der to improve the straw by means of 
the heating whereby it becomes more soft 
and tender, and is relished much better by 
stock. If bad weather is feared, the grass 
may be got in much less wilted, and thus 
preserved by the mixture with straw. The 
greater moisture present in the grass is di- 
vided uniformly with the dry straw. 

Bad, or what is called sour hay, if made 
into brown hay, is much more palatable to 
cattle, and all the more if a little salt ia 
strewn over the layers. 

Gr.ass usu.ally comes into blossom there, 
as with us, in tho latter part of June or by 
the first of July, and that is regarded as 
the most suitable time for cutting it. 

Attention Farmers. — One of our most 
successful gardeners informs us that the 
terrible pest, the "cabbage louse," can bo 
prevented from doing damage to garden 
stuff by following his directions: Boil tho 
leaves and stalk of the elderberry bush, 
and sprinkle your plants with the water. 
Commence early, before the lice get a start, 
and don't be fearful of getting on too much. 
It is well known that the lice will not touch 
this bush, there being something about it 
particularly offensive to them, and asitdoea 
not injure the plants in the least, it is well 
worth the trial. — Plumas Nat. 



July 22, 1871.] 



07 



^Q^icyi-xil^^L floYES. 



CALIFORNIA. 

Tropical Fruit Culture. — The atten- 
tion of our horticulturists is being drawn 
more and more to the semi-tropical fruits, 
and many of our old orchardists think now 
that they made a mistake ten or fifteen 
years ago in prefer ing the northern fruits. 
E. L. Beard says that if he were to start 
his orchard anew at the Mission of San 
Jose, he would set out a large number of 
orange, lemon and almond trees. The or- 
ange trees of E. D. Lewelling, at San Lor- 
enzo, are covered with fruit and promise a 
large crop; and he is so well i)leased with 
his exi^erience in them that he will set out 
300 or 400 more next winter. The frost 
has never injured them seriously in his 
neighborhood. He has one grafted tree 
only six years old, and it will yield a large 
number of oranges this year, and do better 
than any of his seedlings. The tree does 
not need irrigation at San Lorensso. The 
orange orchards -at Los Angeles are suffer- 
ing with the attacks of the aphis or orange 
louse, which did so much damage in 1860 
that serious fears were then entertained 
that the trees would be ruined, but they 
soon afterward recovered and have been 
comparatively free from insect pests until 
this year. — Alia. 

The raspberry crop in Alameda, which 
usually realizes a lai-ge sum, is near a total 
failure this season. 

An Apple Tree Pest. — The same paper 
remarks that some of the ajjple trees in 
Alameda county have been seriously in- 
jured by the wooly aphis, especially in or- 
chards that have been neglected aud al- 
lowed to grow up with weeds. The insects, 
seen from a little distance, look like Avhit- 
ish wool on the branches, and they also 
collect on the roots which swell up into 
lumps where attacked. 

The best remedy so far foujid is a solu- 
tion of two quarts of whale oil soap and 
two pounds of common potash in a barrel 
of water, applied with a soft brush on a 
handle four feet long. A little tobacco 
added to the solution makes it better, but 
care must be taken not to put in too much 
tobacco. The same solution may also be 
used for the brown bai'k louse which makes 
its appearance in Alameda apple orchards, 
and may be detected by rubbing the finger 
over reddish spots on the bark, Avhich is 
covered with a bloodlike liquid from the 
ciiished insects. This species hatches in 
June and the remedy should be ajiplied in 
the summer months. 

Chico. — The Chico Enterprise of the 8th 
instant says the work in the grain fields is 
now in full blast. The farmers have ceased 
all complaint, and now realize the fact that 
instead of being cut short, as has been the 
case in many of the localities throughout 
the State, they will have a more abundant 
yield than that of any lorevious year. 

D. M. Eeave's, a farmer near Chico, has 
harvested 10,000 bushels of wheat this 
week. He says the club wheat always ex- 
ceeds expectation, while other kinds never 
reach them. His fields will more than 
reach their large yield of other years. 

Colusa County will raise hay and grain 
enough to suply the wants of her citizens. 
While many will harvest nothing, others 
will have a surj)lus. On Stony creek the 
crops are fair to good throughout the sec- 
tion. Where farmers plowed deep and 
often, or, in other words, where Aee-p sum- 
mer fallow was plowed more than once, 
good crops have been secured. 

The Stm says there can be no excuse for 
the failure of crops in that county, as the 
Sacramento river affords the facility for 
furnishing moisture to the grounds of all 
that county. 

The Crops in Lake County. —The Lake- 
port Avalanche of June 24:th says: The 
farmers of this county are in fine sjiirits, 
■owing to the splendid prospects of a rich 
harvest. There will be more grain raised 
here this season than was ever known in 
this county before. Farmers who have 
lived here jfor the past fifteen or sixteen 
years tell us that they have never known a 
failure of the crops in this county. 

Sonoma County. — In the Montezuma 
Hills, Sonoma county, and on the plains, 
but little grain has been raised, but in Sui- 
sun, Vaca and Green Valleys there will be 
an average crop. 

Blooded Hogs in Sonoma. — Some four 
months since, says the Sonoma Democrat 
of July 15th, James P. Clark, of this place, 
sent an order to J. S. McCreary of Canton, 
Fulton Co., 111., for two young pigs of the 
Poland-China breed. They arrived on 
Monday of last week, by express, in good 
condition, considering their trip. They 



cost Mr. Clark $40 each in 111., 'though but 
three months old; the exj^ressage out was 
$60 in addition. 

Butte County — The Oroville Record 
says that the crops around Butte creek 
will turn out from 25 to 35 bushels to the 
acre. 

The Hendee Vineyard. — The editor of 
the Record has recently paid a visit to this 
vineyard. The grapes that were intended 
for raisins have been almost totally de- 
stroyed by the late hot winds. It is hardly 
possible that one hundred pounds will be 
secured where several thousand pounds 
were anticipated. The remainder of the 
grape crop will be equal if not superior to 
last year. The apples and peaches are 
splendid, and in about another week will 
be in great abundance. The figs are the 
finest in the country, and the present 
crop, being the second this year, will ex- 
cel the first. The blackberry jiatch was a 
treat for anybody's eyes. We have never 
seen a more flourishing patch of berries 
anywhere. They are in a high state of cul 
tivation, and Mr. Hendee expects to sell 
upwards of eight hundred dollars worth of 
berries the present season. 

Monterey — The' Crops. — The Deniocrat 
hears good reports from the farms with re- 
gard to the harvest. Wheat is turning out 
well. 

The Sugar Beet. — The same jjaper says 
that at the proper time, seed was distrib- 
uted among farmers on the Salinas plains, 
to test the cultiire of the plant thoroughly. 
The Castroville ^/-^m.s says returns of the 
yield of crops is beginning to come in on 
De La Torre's ranch, one large field has 
yielded a ton of barley — within a few 
pounds of 24 bushels — to the acre. This 
land is near New Eeijublic. 

Thirty-five acres of volunteer barley on 
the Cooper ranch, just across the Temble- 
dera from this town, and owned by F. D. 
Hall, give sixty -four bushels to the acre. 

From about twenty-three acres of barley 
on the Castro ranch, which were plowed 
to a greater depth than ordinary, Charles 
E. Williams gets over fifty bushels to the 
acre. 

Wm. Baxter we hear gets something 
over sixty bushels of barley to the acre on 
his place adjoining town. 

These are the reports already made to 
us, but we hear of crops that will, it is esti- 
mated, run over these figures, and we are 
sorry to say that on the Cooper ranch in 
this vicinity, and in many places above it 
there are many crops not worth threshing, 
and some not worth cutting at all. 

Fine Oats — Irrigation. — Mr. William 
B. Gibson, a mile south of Woodland, has 
a field of Norway oats which he expects 
will turn out 40 bushels to the acre — the 
result of irrigation. Other crops on the 
same farm which were not irrigated dried 
up and amounted to nothing. 

San Joaquin County. — The sum of 
$931.50 was allowed in a single day, by 
the Supervisors of San Joaquin county, as 
bounty money for squirrel scalps — L. 
Howard received $567.65; four others par- 
ties received respectively $84.90; $45.95: 
$.36.95; $30.00. Thirty -five other par- 
ties received the balance, in sums of from 
$2.50 to $14.45. 

Large quantities of wheat are now be- 
ing hauled to Stockton from the surround- 
ing country somewhere — from which it 
would api^ear that some of the farmers in 
that part of the State have realized a sur- 
plus of grain. 

Kern County. — The Bakersfield Courier 
has seen a sheaf of wheat composed of 
three varieties, grown in the Barnes settle- 
ment, equal to any ever produced in the 
early days of California in the most fa- 
voured localities of the coast counties 
while the soil was yet virgin, which the 
editor was assured comprised only average 
specimens of the products of fields not 
irrigated. 

Fine Grass. — The Visalia Delta has 
seen samples of Hungarian grass in that 
vicinity three feet high, with heads like 
grain, and which will yield three tons of 
hay to the acre. 

Second Crop in Fresno.— The Fresno 
Expositor, July 12th, says the farmers on 
King's river have gathered their wheat 
and barley crops and are now engaged in 
putting corn on the same land for a second 
crop. This is done by irrigation, and fur- 
nishes additional evidence of the value of 
the same. 

Sacramento County — Tall Rye. — 
Thomas Orn of Salmon Falls, says the 
Folsom Teleyraj.h, has a splendid looking 
field of rye, some of which stands 6 ft. 
9 in. high! A portion of the crop was 
planted on new land, supposed to be of 
little value — and that portion is the best. 



OREGON. 

Price op Wool in Oregon. — The Will- 
amette Wool Manufacturing Co. and other 
wool buyers in that region, are paying 35 
and 36 cents (currency) [)er pound for 
wool. 

The woolen mills near Steilacoom were 
sold a short time ago at Sheriff's sale for 
$16,000. They will probably be started 
up laefore long. 

Heavy Timber Land. — Within two miles 
of Olympia, says the Transcript of that 
place, many acres of land can be found 
which will yield 250,000 feet of lumber 
each. 

High Water. — The high water in the 
Columbia the present season reached with- 
in eighteen inches of the rise of 1862. 
Much fencing has been swept away, some 
cattle destroyed, and the vegetable crops 
on the bottoms submerged. The water 
has now fallen several feet, and has done 
all the damage it will do the present year. 
Some of the best vegetables produced on 
the bottoms are planted after the rise. 

Farmers' Meeting. — The Repnhlican con- 
tains a call for a public meeting of the 
farmers of Polk county, to be held at Dalles, 
July 15th, for the purpose of establishing 
a farmers' organization, to secure and pro- 
mote the best interests of the agricultu- 
rist. Col. Nesmith, Hon. Ben. Hayden, 
and other able speakers, will be present. 

Fires. — The forests about Kalaina have 
suffered much from recent fires. One 
meeting house has been burned, and at one 
time the entire town was seriously threat- 
ened with the devouring element. The 
t )wn was but lately nearly drowned out by 
the floods, and now comes the fire. 

Prolipic— M. M. Hunter, of Mount 
Tabor, Multnomah county, writes to the 
Willamette Fanner that he has a cow four 
years old this spring, which has given 
birth to five calves in less than two years, 
having had two pairs of twins. 

The crop prospect in Umpqua valley is 
flattering. 

Railroad Lands. — On and after Octo- 
ber 15th, the lands of the California and 
Oregon Railroad Company will be thrown 
into market. 

Fine Goods. — The Plaindealer has been 
shown a single blanket, woven by the Ore- 
gon City Woolen Mills, which is really a 
curiosity. It is of a delicate shade of 
brown on one side, while it is white on the 
other, and weighs 11 pounds. 

WASHINGTON. 

The Walla Walla Union entreats land 
holders in that section of the country not 
to put up the price of land to such an ex- 
travagant figure as to scare away new 
comers. The same advice is pertinent to 
many land owners in the agricultural por- 
tions of this State. 

Wagon Timber. — Excellent wagon tim- 
ber is found near Vancouver, in Washing- 
ton Territory. It consists of a superior 
quality of oak. On Salmon creek, a few 
miles from Vancouver, Mr. Louis Leiser 
has a mill in operation, and will make a 
specialty of wagon timber. The ash in 
that region is also of a superior quality, 
and the oak is believed by competent 
judges who have examined it, to be the 
very best. All this timber needs is careful 
seasoning, to make it equal, at least for 
farm wagons, to the best eastern timber. 
The cedar in the same region is very fine. 
A board three feet wide without a knot is 
no unusual thing. It is time for our peo- 
ple to encourage the development of such 
important interests. It is probably true 
that most of the hard wood that grows 
about Salem is brash and of very inferior 
quality. But we should not for that rea- 
son be sending 2,000 miles away for an ar- 
ticle that may be obtained within less than 
100 miles. 

John Day Valley. — A gentleman writes 
the 3fountaineer, from John Day Valley, 
as follows: — Grain of all kinds looks better 
than ever before at this season of the year. 
Grass is superabundant, and stock of all 
kinds are in the finest condition. The 
miners have an abundance of water for 
mining purposes and everything indicates 
a future prosperity excepting the low price of 
grain. 

The farmers are much incensed against 
the local government contractors for their 
opposition to each other, thereby destroy- 
ing the best interests of the country. 
Hereafter the farmers propose turning 
their attention to the raising of wheat. 

IDAHO. 

The Idaho Democrat says tlio farmers of the 
valley have recovered from the disappoint- 
ment produced by a cold, backward spring, 
and after taking a new view of things have 
come to the conclusion that their crops 



will turn out almost equal to the average 
yield. The grain has headed out plump 
and beautiful, and vegetables of all kinds 
are looking exceedingly well. In the ear- 
lier part of the spring it was thought Idaho 
was indeed an afflicted land — we had a few 
severe frosts and hot winds blew occa- 
sionally and sapped up a little moisture. 

Saxonia Barley. — The new variety 
known as Saxonia barley, obtained from 
the Agricultural Bureau last winter seems 
likely to prove a good winter grain in 
Idaho. This year he left a part of the stub- 
ble undisturbed, and he has a fine volun- 
teer crop now in head. He thinks it will 
prove a valuable grain to the farmers of 
this valley, because, if it can be sown in 
the fall it will materially relieve the 
crowded spring's work. 

Grain on Alkali Soil. — The same pa- 
per says that grain sown in soil impreg- 
nated with alkali and properly cared for 
yields larger , and that the alkaline substance 
proves beneficial, and not detrimectal to 
growing crops. That is the experience, at 
least of Mr. Wyatt, of Dry Creek, and was 
proven very satisfactorily to him last sea- 
son. 

COLORADO. 

Colorado Wheat. — The Denver Tri- 
bune says the Colorado people think the 
wheat raised in that territory is superior to 
anything which they can buy elsewhere. 

•The last crop was not sufficient for the 
home demand; but it is hoped the increased 
breadth of land sowed this season will fur- 
nish an ample supply. The mill facilities 
are ample for all demands for flour. 

Attention is called to the Colorado foot- 
hills as desirable locations for people from 
other districts desiring ijcrmanent homes 
for profitable agricultural jDursuits. There, 
as in California, the mountain farms 
possess many important advantages over 
those in the valleys — among which a good 
and ready market is not an unimportant 
one. 

Sugar Beets in Colorado.— The Tri- 
bune says Peter Magnus has been experi- 
menting, most successfully, with the su- 
gar beet. His crop last year, and so far 
this, is all that could be desired, and he 
considers it certain that the cultivation of 
the sugar beet and the conversion of its 
juice into sugar will prove a success in 
that territory. 

Drouth. — The Caribou Post learns that 
the drouth has seriously effected the crops 
to the south of Denver. 

The same paper says the old settlers 
pronounce the present the dryest season 
known since '62. Some fields of wheat are 
suffering for want of rain. Corn gener- 
ally looks well. The scorching sun, the 
cloudless days, and the drying winds, are 
beginning to injure the crops, and cause- 
fears of great scarcity of hay. All the 
smaller streams are drying up. In many 
places the new grass is prematurely turn- 
ing into cured hay, and farmers say that a 
few more weeks of drouth would dry it up 
so that fires would run over the fields. 

UTAH, ETC. 

Crops in Utah. — Our agent, Wm. H. 
Murray, writes from Ogden that the crops 
look well in that vicinity. The corn is 
from 4 to 6 feet high, and the grain looks 
well. This promises to be a good year for 
the Utah farmers — after two years of short 
crops. Our readers will find some very 
interesting notes from Utah on page 44 of 
jiresent issue. 

Crops in Carson Valley. — The Register 
says the crops in the lower portion of the 
valley are a little under the average, but 
those of the upper valley are looking well. 
Even in the latter locality, however, the 
yield will not be as great as in some pre- 
vious years, but the quantity of grain will 
be far greater, as more was put in the 
gi-ound. 

Early potatoes were nearly all killed by 
frost, but the potato crop, nevertheless, 
will be quite a heavy one. 

MONTANA. 

Large numbers of farmers and stock 
raisers are passing northward with stock 
from Eastern Nevada and Western Utah 
into Montana. The most of them are go- 
ing, as emigrants, to settle. All the moun- 
tain valleys in the lower portion of Mon- 
tana are thus being filled up with'a perma- 
nent population. 

Deer Lodge. — The farmers in Deer 
Lodge valley and county have planted 
largely this season with all kinds of crops, 
and the only fear they have for the result 
is from grasshoppers, which have not yet 
shown themselves; but as we understand 
the geography of the country they have 
made their appearance some distance to 
the south, near the Utah and Nevada State 
lines. 



38 



[July 22, 1871. 



Pig Breeding and Feeding. 

Mr. Mechi contributes to an English 
paper the following interesting article on 
this subject: 

The same rule applies to pigs as to other 
farm animals — choose a good breed, espec- 
ially in the male parent. Where there is a 
great natural tendency to fatten in a breed- 
ing sow, "let her work hard for a living; 
don't feed her bountifully, or dhe will get 
fat and have no pigs, or very few, ".but 
remember that the kind of food you give 
her is a most important consideration. 
The foetus cannot be properly formed un- 
less the materials are of the right sort, for 
there must be the elements of bone, mus- 
cle, and fat— the latter alone is of little 
use; therefore, avoid the fatal mistake of 
giving to the sow a large quantity of roots 
before parturition. 

The same mistake is often made with 
sheep and cows. If a sow is allowed to 
range at large, she does well, having access 
to pasture, because in a good pasture we 
have a great variety of jilauts, possessing 
various and valuable qualities — aromatic, 
condimental and others, generally availa- 
ble to the juvenile formation and develop- 
ment, which the natural instinct of the 
animal teaches her to select. This may 
be supplemented by l)ran, a little meal, 
boiled potatoes, and a few white turnips, 
but very few mangolds, especially when 
fresh and succulent. A moderate supply 
of peas, beans and barley, or soaked 
Indian corn, may be added; also clover 
and green beans with the pods on. Cab- 
bage is very safe food. Nothing comes 
amiss to a sow. The great point is to take 
care that the food should consist of a vari- 
ety, and not, as is too often the case, con- 
fined to one sort, especially roots. 

After Parturition. 

Roots may be much more liberally given, 
and especially cabbage, in conjunction 
■with other food; but as the period of par- 
turition approaches, and especially imme- 
diately after parturition, to guard against 
fever, the diet should be sparing and cool- 
ing. I know some who invariably give 
an ounce of Epsom salts in the liquid food 
to the sow after parturition. Aft«r recov- 
ering from the excitement, the necessary 
materials for milk-making must be con- 
tained in the food. Cottagers are often 
successful with their sows, where they 
have a chance of roaming in lanes and 
coming home to receive a littie meal, 
boiled potatoes, pot liquor, vegetables, etc. 
In cold weather, warmth and shelter are 
essential. 

Young pigs, when taken from the mother, 
should have a little meal, and a variety of 
food, but espocially skimme<l milk with 
fine pollard or middlings; as they grow 
older, peas, soaked Indian corn, etc. A 
few roots and green food are always ac- 
ceptable. 

for Fattening Pigs, 

nothing beats one-third pea meal and two- 
thirds barley meal; if mixed with skimmed 
milk, so much the better. Pigs may be 
fattened very rapidly by steamed roots 
mixed with meal or boiled i)otatoes, the 
food given warm. Although bulky look- 
ing, they will not weigh so well, or eat so 
■well, as those fattened on pea and barley 
meal, with or without milk. I was very 
successful in fattening pigs or large hogs 
in hot weather by placing them on sparred 
floors with a pit under them. There is a 
natural tendency in pigs to huddle to- 
gether; if place! on soft barley-straw there 
is no circulation of air under them; there- 
fore stiflf reedy wheat-straw is much to be 
preferred. They get fever in hot weather, 
unless there is circulation of air around 
them, and plenty of water. The latticed 
or sparred floors have an immense advan- 
tage in this respect. The urine all passes 
through and away, and they lie clean, 
cool anil dry, with air circulating around 
them. Pigs naturally deposit their solid 
excrement in a corner away from their 
bed. 

I fattened about 400 pigs, and was al- 
•ways very successful in avoiding disease; 
they were all placed on sparred floors. In 
hot weather ■we showered upon them oc- 
casionally from the jet about 80 gallons of 
■water per minute. After tiie first alarm 
they enjoyed it. Their skins became as 
clean as the back of one's hand, and they 
fed and prospered most satisfactorily. It 
pays to give a pig when he first comes 
from market a good scrubbing with soap 
and water. 

Fat pigs in the country sell well at, and 



time. Pigs, like other farm animals, 
should always have access to water, also 
to a Inmp of rock salt. Bear in mind that 
pigs have no wool, and if well bred very 
little hair, therefoi-e they require warmth, 
if you desire to economize food and pro- 
duce fat. As sows are very apt to overlie 
their young, this is easily prevented by a 
ledge' or board of about 8 inches wide, 
projecting from the wall of the piggery, 6 
to 7 inches from the floor. The little pigs 
are safe from pressure under this ledge. 

The Berkshire Hog. 

The Berkshires are a very popular and 
profitable breed of swine. They are a 
good size, f.atten well in proportion to 
their feed, and are excellent breeders. No 
one will go amiss by purchasing a Berk- 
shire. 

A very great change has been produced 
in this breed by frequent crossings; and 
most likely a decided improvement. Youatt 
and Martin, say: The Berkshire pigs be- 
long to the large cla.sa, and are distinguish- 
ed by their color, ■which is a sandy or 
whitish brown, spotted regularly with 
dark-brown or black spots, and by their 
having no bristles. The hair is long, thin, 
and somewhat curly, and looks rough; the 
ears are fringed with long hair round the 
outer edge. The body is thick, compact, 
and well formed; the legs short, the sides 
broad, the head well set on, the snout 
short, the jowl thick, the ears erect, the 
skin exceedingly tliin in texture, the flesh 
firm and well flavored, and the bacon very 
superior. 

The Berkshires are not generally of an 
enormous size. Their ordinary weight will 
average from 2.')0 to 300 pounds, and some 
at two years old will weigh 400 pounds. 
This is the most convenient and profitable 
weight for general use. 

There have been numerons crosses made 
on this breed. The principal ones with 
the Cliinese and Neapolitan swine, by 
which an imi)rovement in the flavor of the 
flesh, the color, and the size, has been at- 
tained. A cross with the Sufi'olk is much 
approved, and probably makes the finest 
animals of any imported into this countrj'. 
They are hardy, fatten well, have short 
smooth hair, and are a l>eautiful black and 
white color. — National Ayricnlturist. 



Q\jjL^ R.A.'S'NQ- 



Hog Fodder. — A correspondent of the 
Journal of A'jriculture writes as follows: I 
have never seen any distinction made be- 
tween growing fodder for cows and hogs, 
and one might suppose that there is none; 
but there is quite a difference. Any close 
observer will see that cows eat the blade 
first and then the stalk. With hogs it is 
the reverse; they look for nubbins first, 
then the stalk, and last the blade (if at all) 
My experience is this: If I meant to feed 
to cows, I would sow about forty grains to 
the foot; if it was intended for hogs I 
would sow about twenty to the foot. Where 
it is sown about twenty to the foot, every 
stalk will have a nubbin on it, which is 
quite an item. 



Raising Calves at as Agricultaral Col- 
lege. 

The London Milk Journal tells how stock 
is raised at Hohenheim. The rules laid 
down at this great agricultural college are 
that it is best to rear calves entirely by 
hand so as to have less trouble with both 
the cow and offspring, and the quality and 
amount of food must be regulated as fol- 
lows: 



1st week, 


daily 


, 121b milk 


Oft 


oatmea 


. Ott) 


fine hay. 


2d " 


" 


16 












■a 


*« 


20 












4th •• 


•< 


23 












5th to 7th 


*• 


22 


x 




a 




8th week 


•' 


21 


H 




a 




»th •' 


•' 


20 


1 




1 




liith '• 


" 


18 


2 




3 




llth " 


• • 


12 


2 




A 




rjth " 


•* 


8 


2 




in 




i;)th ■• 


" 


i 


3 




10 





In the ninth week the milk is first mixed 
with water and a little fine oatmeal. The 
meal is afterward mixed with dry fodder. 
After three months the milk is withheld, 
and then the j'oung animal receives daily, 
till two and a half years old, from twenty to 
twenty-two pounds of hay or its equiva- 
lent. But the calves never after receive, 
even in summer, any dry food till they are 
nine months old. The average feeding is 
so divided that the younger portion re- 
ceive less, the elder more, till two and a 
half years, when they begin to receive the 
regular rations of the older cattle, includ- 
ing the regular grain fodder, as indicated 
above. The growth with this treatment is 
so remarkable, that it is only a little sur- 
passed by the rapidly maturing short 
horns. 



Heifers. 

23316. 
351 
640 
1184 
1.6 
1.4 



Bulla. 
35jlb. 
472 
7-i6 
1300 
1.8 
1.6 



Average weight of calves .it 3 months 
9 

" " " 1 year 

" '1 " 

Daily incrcaBC of calves 

•' " in secoiid year 

The college whose management of young 
stock is given above by the Milk Journal, 
was established in 1818, by Iving William, 
on the Koville estate in Uoheiiheim, Wur- 
temburg. 



The Af'^'iy- 



National Swine Exposition.— Among 
the other novelties of the day, our western 
friends have concluded on a great national 
swine exposition, to be held at Dexter 
Park, in Chicago, on September 19, 20 
and 21, 1871. All the different breeds- 
White Chesters, Large Yorkshires, Che- 
shire, Poland China or Magie Essex, Berk- 
shires, Suffolks, f tc. 

The premiums are large and attractive; 
$1,000 is offered for the best di.splay of 
hogs of any one breed, not less than ten or 
over twenty; also several premiums of $100 
and $200 each. 

Feeding Swine. — Give piga plenty to 
eat while they are young, as it will pay 
twenfj'-five per cent, more to feed then 
than at a more advanced age. Strict regu- 
larity in feeding is recommended; hogs 
fattening should have just what they will 
eat and no more; be fed three times a day, 
and be kept where they can get clean fresh 
water. To make the greatest amount of 
pork in a given time, obtain the best 
breeds— such as will not break down on a 
plank floor — keep their pens clean, and 
feed regularlj' three times a day until ten 
months old, when they should weigh 400 
pounds. 

Causes of Disease in Swine. — L. W. 
Stuart, in an article upon hogs, expresses 
the opinion that the great causes of disease 
among this class of animals are the want 
of improvement in breeding, breeding in- 
and-in, and breeding too young, imjjairing 
the physical qualities of the anim.als and 
rendering them unable to endure the hard- 



Change of Cattle Feed Necessary. 

Man, when confined for any consider- 
able length of time to one kind of food, is 
more liable to disease than when his regi- 
men is varied. The disease common among 
sailors on long voyages is an illustration 
of this. 

Now, ■what is true of man, is true of the 
various species of domesticated animals. 
When confined for an undue period of 
time to one kind of feed they sicken and 
die. For cattle, nature has furnished a 
variety. In summer, the different kinds 
of grasses, with their rich juices, tempt 
their tastes, and improve their flesh. Yet 
even then, we obtain an argument for a 
variety of feed, from the fact that cattle, 
fed with grain, or other vegetables, put on 
flesh more rapidly than when they are kept 
on grass alone. But in the winter our or- 
dinary dry food is not conducive to growth 
as are the summer grasses. 

" Fodder," as it is termed, has lost much 
of its original properties in curing. The 
defect, in part, may be supplied by roots 
of various kinds. Among these, turnips, 
carrots, beets, and the like, have their 
value. But these, or something of the 
kind, should be provided as a variety of 
winter stock. Farmers should look to 
this, and see if the best cattle, and the best 
folds of sheep, are not those which are 
furnished with a variety of feed during 
winter confinement. Would you have 
good stock ? — then have a variety of winter 
feed. — Boston Cultivator. 



ships to which they are exposed, from lack 
immediately after harvest, also at hoeing of care and protection. 



Valuable Cattle. — Mr. Sheldon of 
New York has refused an offer from Mr. 
King of Minnesota, of 836,000 for three 
heifers! On the same day, Mr. Sheldon 
was offered $B3,000 for five cows, the 
choice of his herd. Short-Horns have 
never before in this country or elsewhere, 
had such prices set on them, and 'we are 
justified in arguing from such offers, an 
increased demand for this class of stock 
at largely enhanced prices. — Home Journal. 

How Much Feed fob a Pound of Flesh. 
An English chemist and agriculturist has 
calculated that to obtain a jjound of flesh 
on domestic animals the following quanti- 
ties of eitlier of the various kinds of food 
mentioned below must be used: Turnips, 
100 pounds; potatoes, 50; milk, 25; oat 
meal, 9; corn, 8J^ ; barley, 7% ; peas, 3J^ 
and beans ^Yt. 



Beekeeping Experiments in Washing- 
ton Territory. 

A Puget Sound correspondent of the 
Williamette Farmer gives his experience 
in beekeeping as follows: "This has been a 
most excellent season for honey, but we are 
likely to have trouble with our bees over- 
swarming. Years ago we tried Quin- 
by's low hives with movable frames, and 
failed, in part for want of discretion, and 
in part because his hive is not entirely 
suited to this climate. This climate, al- 
ways cold when night comes, should have 
hives with greater hight, and also be well 
protected to retain the warmth during the 
evening. He that would discard the mov- 
able frames because some have failed with 
their use is about on a par 'with those who 
would reject all threshing machines be- 
cause one in the hands of an unskilled man- 
ager does poor work. Depend upon it — 
that l)ees properly managed with well con- 
structed hives can be made to succeed ■well, 
the predictions of " old style" persons to 
the contrary notwithstanding. I never 
had an artificial swarm leave me, although 
have lost some from being ■weak. There 
are seasons when thirty per cent, of natural 
swarms go to the timber and are lost. 
If judgment is used in dividing them we 
are certain to gain, and save what we get. 
Just do not be in too much of a hurry to 
increase the numljer of your swarms, rec- 
ollecting that one good swarm is worth 
half a dozen poverty stricken, weak ones, 
and you are half way on the roatl to suc- 
cess in bee raising." 

Why Farmers [Should ^Keep Bees. 

Honey and wax have ever been two most 
useful articles in domestic economy, and 
from the earliest times, the honey-bee has 
been the companion of man. What an addi- 
tion to a farmer's house is a bee-hive, nest- 
ling among the apple trees with its hun- 
dreds of busy inhabitants, some setting about 
the door, or flying lightly above the roof, 
others darting off in quest of new supplies 
of food, and still others returning on labor- 
ing wings laden down with their "baskets" 
filled with crude pollen ! What a scene of 
industry and system is bee-life ! This is an 
every-day picture. But honey and wax 
are not indispensable. Theliunting of the 
sperm whale and the discovery of petrole- 
um have done away with thp need of wax, 
and the sugar-cane and beets give us sweets 
in new Jind more convenient forms. What 
use, then, is the bee ? our reader will ask. 
The answer will recur to but a few. 
The grand use in nature of the bee is the 
securing to the farmer or fruit-rai.ser a 
good crop and the permanence of the best 
varieties of fruit. 

Gardeners have always known that bees 
fertilize squash, melon, and cucumber 
flowers by con'^eying the pollen from one 
plant to another, thus insuring not only 
the complete fertilization of the seed by 
the male pollen and thus improving the 
fruit, but actually causing the production 
of more squashes, melons, and cucumbers 
by causing certain flowers to set that other- 
wise would have dropjjed to the ground 
sterile and useless. This uas been proved 
by fertilizing the flowers by hand; a very 
large, indeed an unnaturally abundant crop 
being thus obtained. It has been noticed 
by a few, though the many have not appre- 
ciated the fact, that fruit trees are more 
productive whpn a swarm of bees is placed 
among them; for when the bees have been 
removed by disease or other means, the 
fruit crop has diminished. 

Abbestino Absconding Swabms. — A 
correspondent of the Amr. Bee Journal 
says: " Mj' Impression is that the old fash- 
ioned practice of tanging proceeds from a 
correct idea; that is, that a swarm will al- 
ways alight when thoroughly alarmed, so 
as to disconcert them. The past season I 
used a large mirror and stopped by that 
means a swarm, ■which I had hived a few 
days previously, and which started to go 
off. I ran after it, flashing the sun's rays 
among them most thoroughly— the mirror 
being fourteen by twenty inches square. 
I stopped them on the last tree in the vicin- 
ity, and in five minutes had them nicely 
hived. I frequently stopj^ed them by 
throwing ■nater, chips, or dirt among them 
when starting to leave." 



July 22, 1871.] 



39 




[Concluding address before the Mechanio Akts Col- 
LEOE. By Eev. Huratio Stebbio-i. Reported expressly 
for the Pbkss.] 

The Theory of Common Schools Estab- 
lished by the State- Some Misconcep- 
tions, Social, Secular and Religious, 
Concerning Them. 

You are, said the lecturer in commenciug his 
address, not merely pujjils of nonage, but you 
are citizens on whom the State imposes duties 
and obligations. Many of j'ou are heads of 
families, and the education of yom- children 
becomes an object of increasing importance as 
they come forward to the responsible conditions 
of life. It may therefore be deemed not inap- 
propriate to speak to you to-night concerning 
the principle on which our school system rests; 
for a clear conception of this places the citizen 
firmly on his feet. 

The Principle on Whicli the State Supports Public 
Schools. 

The Public School is founded on the well- 
established principle that Government may 
assume and exercise powers for the public 
good. This principle is identical with the very 
idea of civilized society, and is involved in al- 
most all the benefits of social order. In the 
regulation of commerce, the coining of money, 
the building of roads and bridges, paving, 
lighting and cleaning the streets of a city, im- 
proving harbors, building light houses, estab- 
lishing hospitals and asylums, levying taxes 
and military service, Government displays its 
power for the common good. It is not for indi- 
vidual good, but for coimnon (jood. Govern- 
ment has no right to enforce what is best for 
the individual in his individual capacity, nor to 
seek the individual welfare save only indirectly 
through the common welfare. 

Popular ignorance is the deadly foe of free- 
dom. Liberty h s gained power and place on 
earth through the growth of intelligence. Ig- 
norance is tit only for oppression, tyranny and 
wrong. Freedom lays positive duties which ig- 
norance cannot perform. Therefore ignorance 
is an injury to the State; it is garbage in the 
streets of the city, it is an impassible road in 
the country, an eiudemic,a nuisance. By a 
principle as plain as that by which the Govern- 
ment compels the unhappy victims of conta- 
gion to be cut ofl" from society, or sweeps the 
streets, or builds bridges, it may require that 
ignorance be removed. It has nothing to do 
with ignorance as it atiects the man himself, but 
as it affects the common good. 

Thus the State, imposing obligations which 
intelligence alone can discharge, is bound to 
supply the means of the intelligence, on the 
same ground that, requiring military service, 
she is bound to furnish implements of war. 
Therefore the State establishes schools and of- 
fers ttie advantage to all. The only thing 
needed to carry out the principle and interest 
of the State is a provision, already made in 
some portions of the country and attracting 
attention everywhere, against neglect and tru- 
ancy, requiring that all children not provided 
with the means of education by their parents, 
shall attend the public schools. This would 
complete the system. 

Immense Social Value of Public Schools. 

Thousands have no conception of the real 
foundations of the public school, or of the 
rights of the State, and feel that education, be- 
ing free to all, is free to be let alone. And this 
opinion is not confined to any one class or con- 
dition of society. There are those who feel 
that they are at liberty to allow their children 
to grow up in ignorance, if they choose. 
Whereas the theory of a free State is, that ig- 
norance is a perpetual standing menace to the 
public welfare, a social and political nuisance, 
a dead obstruction to the peace and dignity of 
the commonwealth. Omitting altogether the 
relation ignorance has to crime, outrage and 
violence, it is incapable of discharging the pos- 
itive duties which the State enjoins upon its 
citizens. The immense social value of the 
public school, when carried forward to realize 
the principles upon which it is founded, is not 
easily comprehended, because its results are 
remote and not exclusively material. But it is 
no exaggeration to say that the Board of Health 
cannot so promote tlie public welfare as the 
Board of Education. Ignorance is only a more 
intellectual nomenclature for the most pestif- 
erous conditions of sewage, nuisance and mi- 
asma. The reply of thousands of men of the 
highest educational experience, of different 
sects and professions, to questions propounded 
by Horace Mann a,s to the result of the highest 
development of the common school system, 
with the best teachers and the attendance of 
all children during the years appropriate to 
pupilage, was, that if the system should be 
thus developed not two per cent, of the rising 
generation of the people would fail to be good 
citizens. 

Public Schools are Not Charities. 

There is another fallacy. We sometimes 
hear the public school system spoken of as a 
charity, and the man who has no children con- 
tributing to educate other people's children. 
It is no more a charity than is a bridge, or a 
road, or a street lamp. There is a superficiid 
yet specious statement that runs hke this: "A 
18 a man of property vidthout a family ; B is a 
man of family without property. Why should 



A pay taxes to educate B's children?" For the 
same reason that he should paj' taxes to light 
the city. And it is not for B's children in 
either case, but for the common good. It might 
just as well be said: "Why should B, who 
does not keep a carriage, pay taxes to pave a 
street for A, who does keep a caniage, to drive 
on?" Taxes are moneys exacted from property 
chiefly to pay the expenses of social order. 
The chief expenses of social order are for the 
protection of the rights of property. There- 
fore it is just that property, and not persons, 
should pay the taxes. And it is no more un- 
just for a man without children to pay taxes 
for the schools, than it is for a man without a 
carriage to pay taxes for the streets. 

Religious Education in Public Schools. 

As is most natural and to be expected, a 
warm diucussion, arising chiefly with the Roman 
Catholic church, is now going on with regard to 
the religious character of the public schools. 
Although there is at present a lull in the dis- 
cussion, it is not to be assumed that the ques- 
tions involved are decided. 

The ground of the Catholics is, that all 
schools ought to have religious education con- 
nected with them; that a school of any kind in 
which religion is not taught, is a godless school. 
Holding these views (and some other sects hold 
similar ones), they claim that the moneys 
raised in the State for public schools ought to 
be divided among the sects; or, at least, that 
those who insist on religious education should 
be allowed their share. This amounts to 
breaking up the present system and establish- 
ing another which may be properly called the 
sectarian system. 

Religious Education Does Not Belong to a Pub- 
lic School. 

The true correction for this and the proper 
reply are found in what I believe to be the fact 
that the pubUc school is not, never should have 
been, and never should be, a religious institu- 
tion at all. With the progress of liberty, the 
State exists independently of the church. Its 
jmrpose is to make intelligent citizens, not 
Christians. This latter is a matter of private, 
domestic conscience. All religious instruction 
should be left to the family, the Sunday-school 
and the church. This is best for religion itself. 
Nothing produces indifference more surely than 
the attempt to force religion in mechanical and 
unnatural methods. And it is unwise and un- 
just to enforce doctrines on those who object to 
them. As to calling the school godless because 
the Bible is not read there, you might as well 
call your place of bu.siness godless because the 
Bible is not read there. 

Religion is a home sentiment, and not of the 
school. God himself has seemed to make this 
distinction in the very frame of our being and 
our earthly lot. All cannot teach their children 
intellectually, but all can teach them religious- 
ly. R(;ligion is not taught by exact methods, 
but by divine influence, the temper and sjurit 
of a household, a mother's loving care. A boy 
cannot have his business training in his 
father's house, nor his religious training in the 
public school. To turn children out into a 
j)ublic school to be taught religion is bereaving 
them of their birthright and heavenly privi- 
lege. 

Sectarian System Financially Impossible. 

Let us see what this demand means. The State 
is required to divide its moneys among the re- 
ligious sects under the specious plea that it tol- 
erates all and cherishes all. I emphasize that; 
tolerate.'; all and cherishets all. But this tolerant 
condition defeats itself, inasmuch as it diffuses 
and dissipates the public money and so in- 
creases the expense of education, by increasing 
the number of educational centers, that prac- 
tically very many would be deprived Of their 
benefit. And who is to determine about the 
sects ? Even within the limits of Protestant- 
ism, what standard would you erect to deter- 
mine the rights and apportion the funds to the 
religious classes of society ? The State could 
not give the sects money enough to make a 
school for each one. The distribution of the 
pubhc moneys among the sects is an absurdity. 
It cannot be done. 

Sectarian System Means Church and State. 

But suppose that society would divide into 
simply Protestant and Catholic, which is really 
what is wanted. Suppose that the Romanist 
should be let off on religious grounds and take 
with him his share of the funds. What does 
that logically end in ? Here is a school, and a 
system of schools, supported by the State on 
religious grounds; that is, endowedby the State. 
If a school may be endowed by the State on 
religious grounds, then a church may be ; and if 
a church may be, then a priesthood may be; 
and that all together means Church and State. 
There is no logical middle ground between a 
school thus sustained and the hierarchy thus 
sustained. To suppose that the American 
people intend to do aoy such thing, or make a 
beginning of any such thing, seems quite ab- 
surd, when England is trying to relieve herself 
of that incubus after an experience of centuries. 

And look at it on other grounds. It is pro- 
posed to instruct on the church theory. 
The State and all good citizens whose money 
is thus expended, have a right to enquire into 
the ability and fitness of the church to educate 
persons. The church has never made a free 
State. Those countries now most directly un- 
der her influence display no particular fitness 
for popular liberty. American citizens may 
certainly be excused not only for their unwill- 
ingness to set up this power of the medieval 
time here in the new world and the modern 
age, but for their suspicion of its sympathy 
with freedom. 



Q©©0 l-JE^LXlf. 



Dyspepsia. 

This is the scourge, perhaps the sin, of 
the American people. It is caused, in the 
most common cases, by eating improper 
food, in improper quanties, and at im- 
proper times. O. P. Ford, of Oswego, 
New York, gives his experience in the 
case, which may be made a benefit to some 
•who are snftering from this terrible com- 
plaint. Ho says: — "Many of the pies, the 
cakes, and the puddings we take into our 
stomachs, if spread on the outside, would 
cause a blister; and still, to please the ! 
palate, we take them down, and expect to 
en joy good health ? The stomach prinds 
on, and continues to work over this un- 
healthy mass of food, until it gives out, 
and we call it dyspepsia. 

"Now, then, when the digestive oi'gan 
becomes thus weakened, blistered, and 
sore, the best thing to be done is to poul- 
tice it on the inside by eating, slowly, 
something that will soothe and heal. This 
may be bread and milk; corn starch, 
boiled in milk; eaten with a little cream 
and sugar; boiled rice and milk; eggs 
cooked in water, and rarely done; and, if 
the bowels are sluggish, bread made from 
Graham flour must be used, and all irrita- 
ting substances must be avoided. No 
liquids should be used while eating, such 
as tea or coffee, as all fluids weaken the 
gastric juice of the stomach. 

"I have received," concludes Mr. Ford, 
"the greatest benefit from a bandage wet 
with cold water, laid on my stomach every 
night. It may be applied by taking a 
linen towel and doubling it in size, to 
cover the stomach and region of the liver, 
wetting it in cold water, and wrapping a 
dry one over it. This treatment must be 
liersevered in; for we did not take the dys- 
pepsia in a day, neither can it be cured in 
a day." 

Some of our friends are suffering much 
with dyspepsia. The remedial agents 
recommended by one who has been "a 
fellow sufferer," are easily obtained; and 
as they have been successful in curing one 
ease, they may be in others. 

Good Health as an Element of Success. 

It is no exaggeration to say that health 
is a large ingredient in what the world 
calls talent. A man without it may be a 
giant in intellect; but his deeds will be 
the deeds of a dwart. On the contrary, 
let him have a quiet circulation, a good di- 
gestion, the bulk, thews and sinews of a 
man, and the alacrity, the unthinking con- 
fidence inspired by these, and, though 
having but a thimbleful of brains, ho will 
either blunder uijon success or set failure 
at defiance. It is true especially in this 
country, that the number of men in whom 
heroic intellects are allied with bodily con- 
stitution as tough as horses' — is small; 
that in general a man has reason to think 
himself well off in the lottery of life if 
he draws the prize of a healthy stomacli 
without a mind, or the prize of a fine in- 
tellect with a crazy stomach. But of the 
two, a weak mind in a herculean frame is 
better than a giant mind in a crazy consti- 
tution. A pound of energy with an ounce 
of talent will achieve greater results than 
a pound of talent with an ounce of energy. 
The first requisite to success in life is to 
be a good animal. In any of the learned 
professions a vigorous constitution is 
equal to at least fifty per cent, more 
brains. Wit, judgment, imagination, elo- 
quence, all the qualities of the mind, at- 
tain thereby a force and splendor to which 
they could never approach without it. 
But intellect in a weakly body is "like 
gold in a spent swimmers pocket." A me- 
chanic may have tools of the sharpest 
edge and highest polish; but what are 
these, without a vigorous hand and arm ? 
Of what use is it that your mind has be- 
come a vast granary of knowledge, if 
you have no strength to turn the key ? 

Carpets, Dust, and Disease. 

The course of recent inquiry into the 
causes of morbid states has rendered it 
more and more probable that the active 
causes of various maladies exist exten- 
sively diffused through the atmosphere, 
and having immediate access to the blood 
through respiration, become efficient 
sources of vital derangement. Hence the 
attention lately given to what is termed 
the "germ theory of disease," and the con- 
firmation that has been lent to this view by 
Professor Tyndall's phrase, "dust and dis- 
ease." Professor Tyndall calls attention 
to the efficiency of a mass of cotton fibres 



placed before the mouth to strain out 
atmosphereic dust; and this property i i 
fibrous or textile masses to separate and 
retain the floating impurities, suggests 
that carpets must exert a more or less 
harmful influence upon health. That 
they are traps and reservoirs of dust every- 
body knows; and it is notorious that they 
often* become so foul that every step 
charges the air with their emanations. 
In this period of household changes it is 
well to remember that, although carpets 
are not perhaps absolutely dangerous to 
life, yet they are unhealthier than mat- 
ting, and that naked floors are healthier 
than either. — Galaxy. 

Evils of High-Heeled Boots. 

The high heels which it is now the fash- 
ion to put on men's, women's and chil- 
dren's shoes and boots, is beginning to at- 
tract considerable attention, from their nu- 
merous injurious effects. The practice is 
openly condemned by learned surgeons, 
and Dr. Wm. H. Pancoast remarked the 
other day, after performing a painful op- 
eration on an interesting little girl, whose 
feet had been ruined by wearing wrongly 
constructed shoes, " tliis is the beginning 
of a large harvest of such cases." And 
what else can be expected ? Mothers walk 
the streets with heels on their boots from 
two and a half to three and a half inches 
high, and not more than an inch in diame- 
ter, and their daughters follow the same 
bad and barbarous practice. In many 
cases severe sprains of the ankles are suf- 
fered. But these are not the worst fruits 
of the high heel torture. The toes are 
forced against the forepart of the boot, and 
soon begin to assume unnatural positions. 
In many cases they are actually dislocated. 
In others the great toe passes under the 
foot, the tendons harden in that jjosition, 
and lameness is contracted, for which 
there is no cure but the knife. When the 
injury does not take this form, it assumes 
other asjjects almost as horrible, and it is 
high time society should set its face as a 
flint against any continuation of the absurd 
and unnatural custom. 

More About the Oleander Poison. 

We made mention, a few days since of 
the fact that the Oleander, so common and 
popular in our gardens, was a very poison- 
ous iilant. We have since met with the 
following paraj)raph in the last number of 
Tilioits Journal of Horlicultnre, in further 
relation to this matter: — 

The oleander is classed by botanists in 
the Dogbane family, of which many of the 
species are acrid-poisonous. Phillip Miller, 
of the Botanic garden, Chelsea, England, 
marks in his Gardener's and Botanist's 
dictionary, that "oil in which oleandeir 
leaves are infused, is recommended in the 
itch and other cutaneous diseases, in pre- 
ference to mercurial preparations for chil- 
dren and delicate constitutions; but that 
the leaves are acrid and poisonous, and 
therefoi'e not proper to be used internally 
without great caution. The branches, 
when burnt, emit a very disagreeable 
odor." Even the odor of the flowers, 
when inhaled in close rooms, sometimes 
produces very unpleasant eff'ects. 

The remedies for this i^oison on such as 
are commonly used for narcotic and acrid 
poisons. 



Trees out of Place. Trees are out of 
place when they over-shadow the roof of a 
house or darken its windows. No small 
Ijart of the sickness of families is attributa- 
ble to the shading of dwellings by over- 
hanging trees and thick clustering vines. 
Our bodies need light, pure sunlight, and 
a great deal of it, and our spirits need it 
none the less; and he who shuts out this 
genial dispenser of health makes a great 
mistake, and does a great wrong. All 
medical testimony is concurrent upon these 
facts. — Ex. 



Light in the Sick Chamber.— The quan- 
tity of light admitted into the sick chamber 
is a matter of immense importance to its 
suffering occupant. As light is an element 
of cheerfulness, it is on that account desir- 
able that as much should be admitted as 
the patient can bear without inconven- 
ience. The light should be soft and sub- 
dued and not glaring. Care should be 
taken that bright, lustrous objects, such as 
crystals and mirrors, should be kept out 
of sight. 

The waters of Lake Michigan now flow 
through the formerly filthy Chicago Kiver 
into a canal and thence to the Illinois River. 
An important sanitary fact for Chicago. 



40 



[July 22, 1871. 




fflteS^fiES^SLMl^ 



PiruLISHF.D BY 



A. T. DEWEY. W. B. KWER. G. H. STBONG. J. L. BOONE. 



PkiNCIPAL F.DITiR.. 

Associate Editob.. 



W. B. EWER, A. M 

.1. N. HOAO, (SMramcuto.) 



Office, No. 4U Clay street, where friends and patroni- 
are invited to our Scientific Pkess Patent Agency, En 
graving .-ind Priutiiin ebtablishmeiit. 

NEW YORK OFFIOF, : Koom M. Park Row. W. E. 
Pabtkiuoe, Editorial and Business Correspondent, 

SCBWRiPTioNs payable in advine< — For one year, $4; 
Bix mon'bs, $i SO; three months, $1 26. Clubs of ten 
names or more, $3 each per annum. 



ADVERTISING RATES. 

1 wvr/v-. 1 month. 3 months. 1 year. 

Perline '25 .») $.!.0(J lo.Oi 

Oue-half inch $1.00 $3 00 6.1K) a).l'( 

One inch 'i.UO 5.00 10.00 36.01 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special 01 
rea ling iiotici^s, legal advertisements, notices appcarinj; 
in extraordinary type or in particular parts of the paper, 
inserted at special rates. 



SAN FRANCSCO: 

Saturday, July 22, 1871. 



Our Weekly Crop. 

This week our friends assemble on the Faral 
lone Isliinfls, and after a few hours stay here, 
visit San Francisco to witness the preparation^ 
made for the Fair of the Mechanics' Institute, 
and call in at Utah on their way to examine the 
contents of the Library of Mechanical and 
Scientific Progress. They take a trip to Colo 
rode, return again to the Swamp and Salt 
Marsh Lands of the coast, run down to Pesca<ler€ 
to see some new Suspension Chutes for Loading 
Vessels, and coast along Half-Moon Bay and 
Vicinitj'. 

After this chase after novelties, we are ready 
to settle down awhile quietly on the Farm, to 
see the Celebrated Trotter Pocahontas put 
through her paces, and to witness a German 
Method of CuriugHay. And here come to us f ron 
all quarters the Agricultural Notes of the week 

In the Swine Yard we are given rules for 
Breeding aud Feeding Pigs, and see a Berk- 
shire Hog of good proclivities. We learn how 
Calves are Raised at an Agricultural College, 
talk of Cattle Feed, and of Bee-Keeping Experi- 
ments in Washington Territory. 

We hear a most interesting discourse con 
cernicg our Public School System, one of the 
greatest bulwarks of a free people, and an 
given instructive hints on the preservation of 
Good Health. Walking to the Orchard, we sec 
how the Fig Crop is Dried and Preserved, and 
discuss the matter of the Exuding of Gum from 
Cherry Trees. The U. S. Agricultural Bureau 
sends us a contribution. In our walk we are 
led to investigate a Singular Hen Disease. 

The list of Patents and certain late Inven- 
tions claim our attention, and a note comes to 
us from an Eastward Traveler. The extent and 
scope of the N. Y, Mercantile Library Associa- 
tion will afford us food for thought. 

The ladies of the Home Circle and the Y'oung 
Folks have prepared their usual collation, 
which is followed by lessons in Domestic Econ- 
omy. 

We receive another letter from Salt Lake, 
Our flour mill shows us a valuable Packing and 
Weighing Machine, As we linger around the 
ranch limits, ere parting, we have opportunity 
for partaking of a dessert of Blackberries. 



Speciat^ Premiums. — We notice that of- 
fers of special premiums for specific ob- 
jects not considered by the State Agricul- 
tural Society, are still being announced in 
the Oregon papers. These offers come 
from public spirited citizens, who thus 
testify to their earijestness in the agricul- 
tural progress of their State. "We are cu- 
rious to see a full list of these premiums, 
and if it was before us might be provoked 
to publish it as an incentive to a similar 
public sjjirited action on the part of the 
people of California. 



A Precocious Grapk Vine.— There is a 
grape vine in the garden of Mr. J. F. Noel, 
of Calistoga — two years from the cutting — 
■which has grapes upon it that will weigh, 
when ripe, from 75 to 100 pounds. 



Figs. 

The fig is among the most delicious and 
healthy fruits known in the world. It re- 
quires a tropical or semi-tropical climate, 
[t flourishes well in most all jjarts of Cali- 
fornia, producing and maturing two crops 
of fruit each season. The first croj) grows 
on the last grown wood of the previous 
season. Having started to form in the fall, 
the embryo fruit is checked by the first 
frost or cold weather, and remains dor- 
mant until the return of warm weather in 
the spring. The small figs are then seen 
swelling before the leaves make their ap- 
[)earance on the trees. 

With us this crop ripens in the forepart 
of July and the fruit is generally larger 
than the next or summer crop, though not 
usually so numerous. We have botli the 
common blue or black fig and the brown 
ischa. The latter, when ripe, is of a 
■.greenish brown color, and we have had 
them average a quarter of a pound a piece, 
is they were picked from the tree. We 
oliiuk this the most delicious kind of figs 
.ve ever saw. While it is very rich and 
molts in the mouth like a delicate peach, it 
IS entirely free from that sickish taste al- 
ways ju-eseut in the blue or black varieties. 
Wliile we have heard many persons say 
hey did not like the fig because it was too 
•ich, we believe we never saw one who did 
lot like the brown ischa on first taste. 
Drying and Preserving Figs. 
Figs have not heretofore been properly 
itilized in this State, for the reason that 
)nr people have not understood the proper 
method of drying or preserving them. 
Dried fruit, generally, such as apples, 
peaches, plums, etc., are cooked before 
eating and however thoroughly or hard 
they may have been dried, the cooking 
softens them up and brings out the origi- 
Qal flavor. Not so with the fig. This 
fruit is best uncooked, to eat as a desert, 
md in prepariug it for this purpose arises 
the difficulty. 

It will not do to dry the fig to a crisp, 
IS we do other friiit, for that renders it 
tasteless and useless. The drying process 
must proceed to a certain point and then 
must be checked and the fruit preserved 
for u.se. In other words the water must be 
so far evaporated that the sugar in the 
fruit it.self will preserve it or jjrevent de- 
cay. To determine exactly when the dry- 
ing process should bo checked requires 
judgement and experience, which can only 
be attained by actual practice. 

Another great difficulty has to be over- 
come — to prevent the fruit, when packed 
away, from becoming wormy. Flies and 
other insects are very fond of figs, when 
drying, and will lay their eggs in the 
cracks of the skins and unless these eggs 
are killed your fruit will be destroyed and 
your labor lost. After a number of un- 
successful efforts to dry or pre.serve figs — 
running through so many years — we were 
furnished with the following recipe which 
we have followed since with satisfactory 
success: — 

" Pick the figs when thoroughly ripe, 

1 dry them on riu-ks as you would other 

I fruit, in the sun, for four or five days — or 

I until the water they contain is thoroughly 

evaporated. If there is any dew, cover 

I them nights. Then place them in a vessel 

I i)erforated with holes, like a cullender, 

and dip them into boiling water for about 

one minute, after which again expose to 

the sun until the surface water has been 

evaporated. Then lay them into wood, 

tin, earthen or other vessels and press 

closely so as to exclude the air, and cover 

securely." 

In this way we have preserved figs so 
that they were equal to the best imported. 
We would recommend k11 who raise this 
fruit to try the experiment. The scalding 
answers the double purpose of killing all 
insect eggs and softening tlie skin of the 
fruit so that the sugar will come to 
the surface as may be seen on the imported 
figs. 



U. S. Agricultural Bureau. 

A glance through the new building of 
the Agricultural Bureau at Washington, 
and its r.apidly accumulating contents, im- 
presses one most favorably with the great 
utility and importance of that Department. 
An api)roach to the building gives one a 
pleasing view of its easy, practical and 
moderately ornamental style, surrounded 
by floral plats and choice shrubbery that 
will complete a delightful picture, with a 
more mature growth. 

Some of the rooms in the interior are 
made elegant with a harmonious variety of 
finished woods, and the entire structure 
seems indeed a creditable one. 

Its ample grounds contains over 1,300 
varieties of ornamental trees. The con- 
servatories, although now and extensive, 
are being rapidly tilled with most useful 
and rare collections. 

A week's examination of the cabinet and 
museum, conservatory and grounds would 
fail to satisfy the inquisitive visitor, who 
is invariably astonished to find so much of 
interest at an institution of which there 
has been, and is being so little said. 

In its present position, this Bureau of 
our national government is new, and nine- 
tenths of the very residents of the Capitol 
itself are (luite oblivious of its rare 
sights and importance as one of the most 
useful and attractive features of their 
" city of magnificent distances." 

We hope soon to give our readers an il- 
lustrated view of the building and conser- 
vatories. To Mr. R. T. McLain, chief 
clerk, wo are indebted for much informa- 
tion and off-hand courtesy which will make 
our siiort vi.sit well remembered. He is 
an active, practical appearing man, and 
has long been connected with the Depart- 
ment. 

Fish Cultdke. — It is gratifying to see 
so much attention being paid to this very 
pleasant and profitable industry on this 
coast. A good beginning has been made 
by our Fish Commissioners in the intro- 
duction into our rivers of — to our Stato — 
new varieties of fish. We also hoar of a 
good many euterj)risos looking to the es- 
tablishment of private ponds for breeding 
different kinds of fish. Among the best 
fish and the easiest raised are the speckled 
trout from our own mountain lakes on the 
Sierras. By an advertisement of Comer 
Bros. & Co., in another column, it will be 
seen that they are jircpared to furnish in 
large quantities small trout suitable for 
stocking lakes, ponds and streams with 
these very valuable fish. 

Precaution. — In order to prevent tha in- 
troduction into the United States of the 
cattle disease known as the " hoof and 
mouth disease," now prevailing in Chili 
and the Argentine Republic, orders have 
been issued to the various collectors of 
customs that no cattle will be allowed to 
enter the United States jjorts from those 
countries, unless accompanied by an in- 
voce having consular certificates that the 
station is free from disease. 



SquirreIi Skins. — We are unable to give 
the name of the French agent who was re- 
cently purchasing squirrel skins. We 
clipped the item from an interior paper. 
If there is any such person in the State at 
this time, it may be to his advantage to 
communicate with this office. 



Sale of Farming Land in Napa. — Mr. 
F. Kellogg, according to the Napa Register, 
has sold within the past few days, to Rev. 
Mr. Lyman, 800 acres of land lying be- 
tween St. Helena and Calistoga, for .$37,- 
000. F. L. Sullivan to James H. Good- 
man & Co., a 1,000-acre ranch, situated be- 
tween Yountvillo and St. Helena, for 
!ij32,500. 

Mechanics' Institute Fair. — Milton S. 
Latham lias been engaged by the Directors 
of the Mechanics' Institute to deliver the 
opening address at the next Fair. 



A Singular Hen Disease. 

Editors Press:— Can any of your read- 
ers inform me, what is the cause of the 
deaths of my hens; — the circumstances 
are as follows: — The hen appears to get 
sluggisli, but eats regularly; she mopes 
all day, and her excrement is small, watery 
and of a darkish color — nearly black. 
She finally grows extremely weak, and 
appears to die from sheer exhaustion of 
the vital jiowers. On making an autojisv, 
the liver and intestines are found thickly 
studded with yellowish, hard excrescences 
or nodules of a cheesy character and of a 
light straw color, and the body is ex- 
tremely emaciated. I have tried everj-- 
tliing I could think of — pepper, nettles, 
cornmeal mixed with weak lye, etc., with 
no good effect. What is the disease? 
What is the remedy V It appears to be con- 
tagious in a flock of hens; but does not ex- 
tend beyond the single flock; as my near- 
est neighbors have fine healthy hens, 
whilst mine are decimated. 

At first I thought it might be some dis- 
ease originating from lice; but I found by 
using kero.sene in the whitewash of the 
hennery; aud "greasing" the hens, Iea.sily 
subdued that ditticulty. 

I would be glad to learn a remedy as I 
have already lost quite a number of valu- 
able hens. The disease seems to attack 
the females only and not the males, who 
ai)ii(tar to erjoy their usual health. It 
also appears to attack bantams and game 
fowls readier than other breeds. 

I have fed wheat and rice boiled, as well 
as in the raw state, and find no benefit; 
cornmeal seems to aggravate the trouble. 

I forgot to state that the livers ai)pear 
to be enlarged. Is it fever and ague 
among tliem ? About a hundred, or a 
hundred and fifty yards from the hennery 
is Sonora creeli, where much stagnant 
water is standing. If any of your readers 
can tell from the description, what is the 
matter, and how to remedy it I shall feel 
thankful for the information. 

Yours truly, Thos. R. Stoddart 

Exuding of Gum from Cherry Trees. 

Fditors Press: — Will you plea.se ask, 
through the Pacific Rural Press, for in- 
formation upon the following: — Is the ex- 
uding of gum from cherry trees consid- 
ered injurious and^ hurtful to the tree? 
What is the supposed cause ? It cannot 
be confined to any particular location or 
quality of soil, as I have some in my or- 
chard that are throwing out large tjuanti- 
ties of gum, when its neighbor tree, only 
thirty feet distant, will bo throwing but 
little if any. 

What remedy, if any, can be applied to 
the tree or soil to prevent or stop it ? By 
answering the above, you will oblige one 
that is rather" a novice as an orcharidist. I 
have 40 acres about one mile west of Peta- 
luma — soil, sandy loam, about thirty acres 
in orchard; balance in vines, small fruit, 
and pasture. 

The old settlers tell me that the grape 
does not pay in this vicinity. It grows 
too much wood, and conse<iuently does not 
produce enough fruit. Many are taking 
up their grape, and putting in blackberries, 
aud more will do the same next year. 

Yours, etc., W. W. Chapman. 

Sowing Alfalfa. — "J. P. D.," of Con- 
tra Costa, wishes to know the best time to 
sow alfalfa in this part of the State — in the 
valley and on the low hills? He sowed 
last February near Martinez, and it died 
out after reaching one foot in hight. The 
squirrels also eat down a large portion of 
it, after one-third had dried up. He does 
not think it will spring up again. Our 
querist also asks if the frost will kill it if 
it is sown after the first rains. 

We do not know what the practice has 
been, in this State, about the sowing of 
this grass; but should suppose that the 
best time to sow would be immediately af- 
ter the first rains, and we should not sui)- 
poso the frost would injure it, if sown at 
that time. If thus sown, at the commence- 
ment of an ordinarily wet season, it ought 
to get sufficient root before the dry weather 
sets it to render it safe from any drouth. 

We should be pleased to give the exjjeri- 
ence of some one who has cultivated this 
grass for several years. It has been grown 
in the State for about 15 years, and we be- 
lieve the general experience has been 
highly favorable with regard to its pro- 
ductiveness and economy. 



July 22, 1871.") 



^1 



^ 



ATENTs & Inventions. 



Full List of U, S. Patents Issued to 
Pacific Coast Inveators. 

[Fbom Official Reports to DEWEY & CO., V. S. and 

FoBEiOM Patent Agents, and Publishebs of 

THE Scientific Press.] 

For the "Week Bndino Jdly 4th. 

Pbepaeing Seal Skin. — Louis Falkenau, 
San Francisco. 

Tilting Chaie. — Chas. K. Peters 
and William P. Taylor, San 
Francisco. 

Holler Skate. — George Vincent, 
Stockton, Cal., assignor of two- 
thirds his right to \Vm. H. Van 
Vlear and Charles D. Ladd, 
same i^lace. 

lloTAKY Sou Cutter — Josiah 
Pool, Rio Vista, Cal. 

Toilet Paste.— Julie Desmarques 
Young, San Francisco. 



Editorial Notes Eastward.— 11. 

Through Wyoming. 
Now -we come to the region of snow 
fences and snow sheds, for we are creep- 
ing slowly to high elevations. We pass 
into Wyoming Territory, and at Evanston 
see some of the coal mines, which form 
such an important part of the wealth of 
this section. We jmss such mines also at 
Point of Eocks, Hallville, Black Buttes, 



see that the farmers are taking advantage 
of the opportunities offered by the railroad 
and are settling up the country. We 
come to the great Valley of the Platte, of 
huge extent, rich and beautiful. We sail 
over the plains, which at sunset are lighted 
up with rich hues and present a scene of 
the deepest peace. The morning sun 
shows us a like view, and we rush ever 
forward into the day, until we finally 
reach, in the middle of the afternoon, the 



Notices of Recent Patents. 

Improved Punch.— D. A. Faulk- 
ner, Centerville, Alameda county, 
Cal. This invention relates to 
imisrovements in stationary pun- 
ches, such as are used for punch- 
ing leather, metal and other sub- 
stances; and it consists in the 
employmeut of an adjustable cir- 
cular plate or die which is pro- 
vided with different sized holes, 
any of which can be readily 
brought under the j)unch. It 
also consists in an imjiroved man- 
ner of attaching and operating 
the punch, so that it can be 
readily removed and replaced with 
a different size when necessary. 

Improved Wagon. — C. Elliott, 
Woodland, Cal. This invention 
applies to buggies, carriages and light 
wagons. It consists in a peculiar manner 
of mounting the bed or body upon the 
carriage frames, so as to secure an easy and 
undulating motion, and at the same time a 
strong and substantial construction, while 
the expenses of manufacture are kept 
within reasonable limits. The 
device recommends itself to the 
attention of carriage-builders and 
others. 

An Improved Ironing and 
Stretching Board. — J. W. Da- 
vis, Ileno, Nevada. The object of 
this invention is to provide an 
ordinai-y ironing board with a 
stretching device, by means of 
which clothes and other fabrics, 
which have been shrunken by 
washing, can be stretched to their 
oi-iginal length and set by iron- 
ing so that they will retain their 
length. The device is simple and 
of easy use, and is said to answer 
its purposes very well. 

Rotary Roasting Furnace. — 
F. Kessler, S. F. This is a com- 
bination of a stationary and a re- 
volving hearth, one placed above 
the other, over which the heat 
from the furnace passes. The re- 
volving hearth is jslaced below 
the stationary one, and first re- 
ceives the heat from the grate. 
From the chamber in which this 
hearth revolves, the heat is led 
through a convenient flue to the 
upper chamber, which is provided 
with the stationary hearth. From 
this chamber the heat escapes to 
the 02ien air. The ore is first fed 
from a hopper upon the stationary 
hearth of the upper chamber, 
where it is subjected to the action of the 
heat, being stirred meanwhile by a series 
of plows which are moved around over the 
hearth. After being sufficiently subjected 
to the action of the hesit in this chamber, 
it is passed through proper gates to the 
revolving hearth of the lower chamber, by 
which it is carried slowly around beneath 
a horizontal shaft, which is provided with 
peculiarly shaped beaters and lifters which 
consecutively mat down the ore and lift it 
into the air, so that, by dropping, it is 
loosened up and exposed equally to the 
heat, thus also permitting the volatile 
gases to escape. After being sufficiently 
subjected to this process, it can be removed 
fi-om the hearth by suitable traps or giites. 

Note.— Copies of tJ. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest time possible (by tel- 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
business for Pacific coast inventors transacted with 
greater security and in much leas time than by any other 
agency. 

The St. Louis Iron Co. contemplate 
erecting the largest blast furnace in the U.S. 




DALE CREEK BRIDGE, UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



Carbon and Rock Creek, but daylight per- 
mits us to see but a few of these points. 
Coal is not the only mineral, however, 
along the railroad, but copper, iron and 
gold are also reported at several places. 
We breakfast next morning at Laramie, 



terminus of this road, and will rest awhile 
at Omaha. d. 



What a N. Y. Library Association Does. 

Fifty years ago, a number of gentlemen 




Elizabeth, Jersey City and Paterson, Ne\^ 
Jersey. In the city, the library delivers 
books at the residences of members, if de- 
sired. It has just introduced the practice 
(being the first in the United States to do 
so) of circulating monthly and quarterly 
magazines and reviews as it circulates 
books. A weekly charge of five cents is 
made for their use. It has lately started a 
bindery of its own in its building, this 
being far more satisfactory and probably 
more economical than the old 
plan of giving out the work. The 
project has been mooted of having 
the library open on Sundays, but 
the feeling against it, on the part 
of those who have already secured 
comfortable homes, is so strong 
that the subject has been dropped 
for the present. As the library is 
intended princij^ally for the use of 
clerks, so many of whom have no 
proper place of resort on Sunday, 
and many of whom would be kept 
from worse places if they had a 
pleasant place to go to, we hoi^e 
that the plan may be carried out 
at no distant day. 

There are, in connection with 
the institution, classes in French, 
German, Spanish, English, Pho- 
nography, Elocution and Gym- 
nastics. These are self-supj^ort- 
ing,but the attendance is growing 
small, and there is some question 
as to the advisability of continu- 
ing them all. The ^jractice of 
jjublic lecturing under the auspi- 
ces of the association was once a 
leading feature, but had died away for sev- 
eral years previous. It was successfully 
revived, however, last winter. The associ- 
ation has four fi-ee scholarships, — two in 
Columbia College and two in the Univer- 
sity of New York. By law the President, 
Vice-President and Treasurer of 
the library are ex officio trustees 
of the Institution for the Savings 
for Merchants' clerks. 

These few items, which we have 
taken from the fiftieth annual re- 
port, will serve to show something 
of the scoi^e and influence of the 
association. It is a great credit 
to New Yoak that the institution ■ 
can be in so flourishing a con- 
dition, and that it receives the aid 
which it does from the merchants 
of the great metroijolis. It ap- 
pears to have received a steady 
and liberal encouragement from 
the mercantile community from 
its start. We hope that the fifti- 
eth annual rejiort of the San 
Francisco association will be able 
to give a corresponding state of 
affairs. 



ia 



SCENE ON THE PLAINS^CROSSING OF LOUP FORK RIVER. 



famous for its plains, its healthy jjosition, 
and from the fact that here the gentler sex 
have acted on jury duty, Wyoming being 
the first to make trial of female jurors. 
Before long we come to one of the most 
noted structures on the road, Dale Creek 
Bridge, some 700 feet long and 126 feet 
high, which is a monument to the skill of 
the U. P. R. R. engineers. [The accomija- 
nying illustrations are from Crof utt's Trans- 
continental Guide Book.] Soon we come 
to Sherman, the highest railroad station 
in the world, 8,2-1:2 feet above the level of 
the sea. 

Now we glide on a downward grade, 
having surmounted all the difficulties of 
our path. At noon we are at Clieyenne, 
where the Denver Pacific branches off to 
the south. 

Through Nebraska. 

Between three and four o'clock we pass 
into Nebraska. On its rolling prairies we 



founded in New York a Mercantile Library 
Association. This had in all 204 members 
during its first year, and acquired 1,000 
volumes. Now this same association ad- 
mits to its halls nearly thirteen thousand 
members, has on its shelves over one hun- 
dred and twenty-seven thousand volumes, 
and circulates in the course of one year 
two hundred and sixty-nine thousand pub- 
lications. Its library is exceeded in size 
by only three libraries in the country, and 
exceeds in circulation all others. Its an- 
nual income amounts to over forty-two 
thousand dollars, and it expends yearly 
some eleven thousand dollars in books. 

Besides the main library, with its read- 
ing rooms, halls, etc., there is a branch 
library in another part of the city, and also 
branch offices in Yonkers, N. Y. ; in Nor- 
walk and in Stamford, Connecticut; and in 



Silk. — The Grass Valley Union 
of July 12th, says: The silkworm 
business this year, in this county, 
has been remarkably successful. 
The worms have hatched, attained 
full size and have spun without 
being troubled by any disease whatever. 
The season has been favorable, and, be- 
sides that, those engaged in the business 
have learned much about the worms. We 
saw yesterday samj)lcs of cocoons from Di- 
mon's Silken Grove ranch, and they are 
very fine. These cocoons were sjjun by the 
French annual worm, and by the Salt Lake 
worm. The cocoons made by the Salt 
Lake worm are easily reeled, requiring no 
wetting or soaking in the process. Dimon 
informs us that his mulberries arc flourish- 
ing beyond his exj)ectations. He has not 
lost a worm this year, has idcnty of eggs 
for next year, and will have food for a 
largely increased number of worms. 
Muiler, of Nevada City, has also been suc- 
cessful, as he always is. Nevada county 
will be well represented as to the silk busi- 
ness at the Mechanics' Institute Fair and 
the State Fair. 




42 



^MMwm saiTBAS ^saiss. 



[July 22, 1871. 




BY OUB LADY EDIT0E3. 



A Story for the Boys. 

The boy that I'm going to tell about was 
Dudley Crawford. Witli a cherry voice, 
a bright, quick eye, a quicker hand and a 
fleet foot, he was a great favorite on the 
jjlay-ground. If there was a weak boy, 
whom the others imposed upon, Dudley 
was always his fast friend, and the mean 
fellows who make up for their cowardice 
toward boys of their size, by " jiicking" at 
little fellows or green boya^had always a 
wholesome fear of Dudley, though I do 
not think he ever struck one of them. But 
his fearless, honest ej'o cowed them, and I 
am sure he would have struck hard if it 
had been necessary to protect the j)oor lit- 
tle fellows who kept under his wing. The 
boys called them " Dud's chickens." 

There was one boy in the school, Walter 
"Whittaker, who had a special desire to be 
on good terms with Dudley. Walter's 
father had gotten rich during the war, and 
Walter had a special fondness for being 
genteel. Ho wore gloves, and kept his 
boots brighter than there was anj' occasion 
for. He was not much of a scholar, 
though older than Dudley. But he was 
fond of calling young Crawford his friend, 
because Dudley's father was a rich and tal- 
ented lawyer. 

At last, there came a financial crash that 
sent all of Mr. Crawford's half million of 
dollars to the winds. He was in feeble 
health whoa it came, and the loss of his 
l)roperty hastened his death. The same 
"panic "left Whittaker poor also. But 
the boys took it very dift'erently. Whitta- 
ker looked crest-fallen as if he had com- 
mitted a crime. DucUej' moui'ned the loss 
of his father, but held up his head bravely 
under the sudden poverty. Whittaker 
looked around for a'" situation." But the 
times were hard, and situations were not to 
be had. Every clerk that could be dis- 
pensed with was sent away, and besides 
mci'chants do not like to employ a fellow 
who wears gloves and looks afraid of soil- 
ing his hands. Dudley had his mother to 
support, and looked about bravely for 
work. But no work was to be had. 
He tried everything, as it seemed, until 
at last ho asked stern old Mr. Bluff who 
owned half a dozen factories of different 
kinds. 

" i'ou want work, do yon, young man ? 
I s'pose you want to keep books or suthin' 
o' that sort. I never saw such a lot o' fel- 
lers askiu' for work an' afraid of soiling 
their fingers." 

" I'll do any honest work by which I can 
earn my bread, without being dependent on 
my friends." 

"Any honest work, will you ? I'll make 
you back out of that air. I'll bet you won't 
begin where I did." 

"Try me, sir, and see." 

"Well, then, I'll give you good wages to 
go into my soap factory next Monday 
morning. Ha! ha! that's honest work, but 
fellers of your cloth don't do that sort of 
honest work." 

" /will sir." 

Mr. Bluff was utterly surprised, but he 
gave Dudley the situation, saying that ho 
reckoned the smell of soa^J-grease would 
send him out. 

Dudley hardly knew what to make of 
his own boldness. But he only told his 
mother that he had a situation n'ith Mr. 
Bluff, and that he did not know the pre- 
cise nature of his duties. He was not 
ashamed of his work, but afraid of giving 
her pain. 

Monday morning he went early to the 
soap factory, sto2)ping at the tailor's on the 
way and getting a pair of blue overalls 
that ho had ordered. It must be confessed 
that the smell of the factory disgusted 
him at first, but he soon became interested. 
He saw that brains were used in soap- 
making. He became more and more inter- 
ested as he saw how accurate some of the 
])roeesses were. He soon learned to cut 
the great blocks of hard soap wit)i wires; 
he watched with eager interest the use of 
coloring matters in making the mottled 
soaps, and soon became so skillful that 
surly Mr. Bluff promoted him to some of 
the less unpleasant part of the work. 

But there was much talk about it at first. 
Some of the young ladies who had been 



useless all their lives, and who Lad come 
to think that uselessuess was neces.sary to 
respectability, were "surprised that i)ud- 
lej' Crawford should follow so low a trade." 
But those very people never once thought 
it disgraceful in Walter Whittaker to be a 
genteel loafer, living off his father's hard 
earned salary and pretending that he was 
looking for a situation. But I will not be 
too hard on poor Whittaker. I think, if he 
could have a situation in which he could 
do nothing, and be well paid for it, he 
would have been delighted. But he shunn- 
ed Dudley. Partly because he was afraid 
of comprising his own respectability, and 
partly because he had sen.se enough to see 
that Dudley's honest eyes looked through 
him and saw what a humbug he was. 

After a year Dudley' father's estate was 
settled, and owing to an unexpected rise in 
some of the i)ro))erty, it was found that 
the debts would all be paid, and a small 
balance left for the family. It was but a 
small amount but it enabled Dudley to lay 
aside his blue overalls, and return to the 
old school again. Dr. Parmelee, the prin- 
cipal was delighted to have such a good 
jjupil back again. Whittaker came back 
about the same time, and the very first 
day he whispered to some of the boys that 
Dudley smelled of soajJ-grease. The boys 
laughed thoughtlessly, as boys are apt to 
do, and passed the joke round. Dudley 
maintained the respect of the school in gen- 
eral, but there was a small clique, who 
never knew their lessons, but prided them- 
selves on being genteel dunces. The boys 
used to talk about the soap-grease, even in 
Dr. Parmelee's presence, but the Doctor 
quietly retorted that if Crawford's hands 
smelled of soap-grease, that was bettor 
than to have soap-grease inside his head 
and pomatum on the outside. They were 
a little more mode.st after this, but they 
could not forbear allusions that kejit Dud- 
ley under fire. 

His mother, wUo was very proud of lier 
son's independence, could not but feel 
sorry that he was subject to such persecu- 
tions. "Ah ! mother," he would say, "the 
thing that I am proudest of in all my life 
is that I spent a year in Bluff's soap facto- 
ry. Do not think that I am annoyed by 
the barkings of lap-dogs." 

At last came the day of graduation. 
Dudley led the class. There was a great 
crowed of fine looking peojde. The 
last speech of all on the programme was 
"Honest Work Honorable — Dudley Craw- 
ford." With a characteristic manliness ho 
stood up bravely for work. So tine was 
his arguments, so undaunted his bearing, 
that the audience were carried away. Dr. 
Parmlee took off his spectacles to wipe his 
eyes. Dudley's mother could not con- 
ceal her pleasure. "Franklin's hands had 
printer's ink on them," ho said, "but they 
wei-e shaken by princes and savans— the 
lightning did not despise them. Garibal- 
di's fingers wei-e soiled with candle-greese, 
but molded a free nation. Stephenson's 
fingers wore black with coal, and soiled 
with machine oil of firemen's work, but 
they pointed out highways to commerce, 
and revolutionized civilization. There are 
those," (Whittaker and his set looked 
crestfallen hero,) " who will gladly take 
the hand of a worthless loafer, or of gen- 
teel villains," (here certain ladies looked 
down,)" but who would not have dared 
shake hands with Franklin, the printer, 
with Garibaldi, the tallow candler, with 
Stephenson, the stoker. But before God 
and right thinking men there are no soiled 
hands but guilty hands or idle ones." 

When he sat down, others beside his 
mother shed tears and good Dr. Parmlee 
shook his pupil's hand in sight of the au- 
dience, but the ai)i)lauso was so great that 
nobody could hear what was said. And 
next day a note came from the chief editor 
of a leading paper saj-ing that one who be- 
lieved enough in labor to carry out his 
principles of life, would make an earnest 
advocate of them. Ho therefore tendered 
Mr. Crawford a prominent place on the 
editorial staff of his paper. 



in conformity to their respective destina- 
tions, by Him who bids the oak brave the 
fury of the tempest and the Alpine flower 
lean its cheek on the bosom of eternal 
snows. But disparity does not necessarily 
imply inferiority; the high places of the 
earth with all their pomp and glory are 
indeed accessible onlj- to the march of am- 
bition, or grasp of power, yet those who 
pass with faithful zeal through their hum- 
t)le round of duty are not unnoticed by the 
Great Task^ — maker's eye — and their endow- 
ments, though accounted poverty among 
men, may prove durable riches in the 
Kingdom of Heaven. — 3frs. Sigourney. 

The Judgment of Women. 

We will say nothing of the way in which 
that sex usually conducts arguments; but 
the intuitive judgments of women arc 
often more to be relied upon than conclu- 
sions which Ave reach by an elaborate 
process of reasoning. No man that has 
an intelligent wife, or is accustomed to the 
society of educated women, will dispute 
this. Times without number you must 
have known them to decide questions upon 
the instant, and with unerring accuracy, 
which you had been pondering over for 
hours, with no other result than to find 
yourself getting deeper and deeper into 
the tangled maze of difliculties. It is 
hardly generous to allege that they achieved 
these feats less by reasoning than a sort of 
sagacity that ap])roximates to the sure in- 
stincts of the animal race; and yet there 
seems to be some ground for the remark of 
a witty French writer, that when a man 
toils, step by step, up a flight of stairs, he 
will be sure to find a woman at the top; 
but she will not be able to tell how she 
got there. How she got there, however, 
is of but little moment. If the conclu- 
sions a woman has reached are sound, that 
is all that concerns us. The inference, 
therefore, unavoidably is, that the man 
who thinks it beneath his dignity to take 
counsel with an intelligent wife stands in 
his own light, and betrays that lack of 
judgment which he tacitly attributes to 
hav.—Ex. 



oiifiq poLKs' CoLdj^ji. 



Love of Parents for their Children. 

There is no love like that between parents 
and children. This comes nearer divinitj- 
than anything we can find in this world. 
The boy is born, parents are poor, on a 
penurious farm; all their thoughts center 
on him: He shall be educated; every inch 
of ground shall tell; they will deny them- 
selves food and clothing, may be, that that 
boy shall go to college. Other children are 
born — the strife is terrible. God jiays 
poverty with bettor coin than gold or sil- 
ver. With almost sujiernatural ingenuity 
the old wilderness of a farm is worked, so 
that it contributes to the education of their 
darling boy, and he departs for the univer- 
sity. He may be truly said to light his 
candle of knowledge by the marrow of his 
parent's hearts. By and by news comes 
that he has disgraced himself — he is ex- 
pelled. Oh! what tears, what anguish, 
what heart-aches, what dead people they 
are! Their darling is disgraced, set adrift, 
for whom they had given everything. 
What shall he do, where shall he go? 
Come home. Into his mother's arms- 
back to his mother's prayers — on another 
term of service. Isn't that love ? Do you 
dare to say that there is no such thing as 
disinterested affection in this world ? Oh 
my friends, there is a great deal of pure 
gold that is never recognized here, but 
which counts for all that. — Henry Ward 
Beecher. 



The Dear Old Grandmother, 

Some one in the Children's Hour thus 
talks about a kind, lovable old lady whose 
presence is sunshine in every house: 

Have you a dear old grandmother who 
conies three or four times a year, and stays 
ever so many weeks, and is so good, and 
tells you such sweet stories ? We have, and 
she's so nice. 

She came yesterday, and the house has 
been brighter ever since. Jack isn't half so 
noisy as he was, and Mary hasn't cried or 
pouted once, but goes about singing like a 
bird; and its all because grandma is here. 
It seems as if nobody would be cross, or 
fsetful, or bad, where she is. She speaks 
so gently always, and there is such a soft 
light in her eyes, when she looks at you, 
and such a sweet smile on her lips when she 
talks. 

Mr. Walton, our minister, was here this 
morning, and I heard him say something to 
mother, after grandmother had left the room 
about "growing old gracefully," these 
were his very words. I think I know what 
he meant. I wonder if I shall ever get to 
be a woman, and then grow old like grand- 
ma— sweet and beautiful, and good! Every- 
dody loves her; and she seems to love 
everybody. 

I think I'd rather die than grow old like 
Katy Long's grandmother. Nobody likes 
her, and I don't much wonder; she's so 
cross and selfish. Katie doesn't love her; 
she told me so, and said she was always 
sorry when she came and glad when she 
went away. Now isn't that dreadful ! 

It is so sweet to be loved ; and I heard 
papa say once that if we would beloved we 
must be lovely. Grandma is lovely, and 
that's why she is loved. 

I'm a little girl, and don't know a great 
deal, but I know why everybody loves 
grandma. Dear grandma ! I hope I shall 
be as sweet and good as she is when I grow 
old. 



Men and Women. 



The Two Sexes. 

Man might be initiated in the mysteries 
of needle- work; taught to have patience 
with the feebleness and waywardness of 
infancy, and to steal with noiseless step 
around the chamber of the sick, and the 
woman be instructed to contend for the 
palm of science; to pour forth eloquence 
in Senates, or to wade through the field of 
slavightor to a throne. Yet revoltings of 
the soul would attend this violence to na- 
ture, this abuse of physical and intellect- 
ual energy; while the beauty of social or- 
der would be defaced, and the fountain of 
earth's felicity broken up. We arrive, 
then, at the conclusion: — The sexes are in- 
tended for different sjiheres, and instructed 



What is it that makes all those men who 
associate habitually with women superior 
to others who do not ? What makes that 
woman who is accustomed and at ease in 
the society of men, superior to her sex in 
general? Solely because they are in the 
liaV)it of free, graceful, continued conver- 
.sotion with the other sex. Women in this 
way lose their frivolity, their faculties 
awaken, their delicacies and peculiarities 
unfold all their beauty and captivation in 
the spirit of intellectual rivalry. And the 
men lose their pedantic, rude, declama- 
tory, or sullen manner, "rhe coin of the 
understanding and the heart changes con- 
tinually. The asperities are rubbed off; 
their better material polished and bright- 
ened, and their richness, like the gold, is 
wrought into finer workmanship by the 
fingers of women than it ever could 
be by those of men. The iron and steel 
of their characters are hidden, like the 
character and armor of a giant by studs 
and knots of precious stones, when they 
are not wanted in actual warfare. 



. The Broken Pledge. 

A gentleman in Virginia had a boy six 
or seven years old who wanted to sign the 
pledge of total abstinence from all intoxi- 
cating drink. All in the family had done 
it, but the father thought him to young, 
and Avould not let him do so. 

After much entreaty permission was 
given. Soon after that the father went 
away on a journey. At a stoi)ping place 
away from the town ho called for some 
water. It was not brought, so he called 
again; still he could not get it, but cider 
was brought, and being very thirsty he so 
for forgot himself as to drink that. When 
he got home he related the circumstance. 
After he had finished, the little boy came 
to his knee, with his eyes filled with tears, 
and sad:-7- 

" Father how far were you from James 
river when you drank that cider ?" 

"Katlier more than fifteen miles, myboy." 

"Well," said the little boy, "I'd have 
walked there and V)ack again rather than 
have broken my pledge !" 

Be Kind to Each Otheh. — A little boy 
and girl, each probably five years old, 
were by the roadside. 'The boy became an- 
gry at something, and struck his playmate 
a sharp blow on the cheek, whereupon she 
sat down and began to cry piteously. The 
boy stood looking on sullenly for a minute, 
and then said : — "I didn't mean to hurt 
you, Katie; I am sorry." The little rosy 
face brightened instantly. The sobs were 
hushed, and she said: — "Well, if you are 
sorry, it don't hurt me." 

A TiiTTiiE school girl up in Massachusetts 
asked her teacher what was meant by " Mrs. 
Grundy." The teacher replied that it meant 
" the world." Some days afterwards the 
teacher asked the geography class to which 
this little " bud of promise" belonged, 
" What is a zone ■? After some hesitation, 
this little g:irl brightened up and leplied, 
" I know; it's a belt around Mrs. Grundy's 
waist." 

Pabbots. — There are said to be nearly two 
hundred species of parrots. Almost all 
these are natives of the tropics, and the 
greater jjortion of them are very rich in 
plumage. But one species is fcund wild 
in the United States — the Carolina or Illi- 
nois parrot, resident in some of the Middle 
and Southern States, but not numerous. 

"Now, myboy," said the committee-man, 
"If I had a nice j)ie, and should give two- 
twelfths of it to John, two-twelfths to lasac, 
two-twelfths to Harry, and should take 
half the pie myself, what would there be 
left? Speak up loud, so all can hear." 
"The plate." shouted a boy. 



i 



July 22, iSyi.] 



^A©1#I© 



OMESTIC 



.CONOMY. 



How to Cool Water. 

At this season of the year a cool draught 
of water is a luxury which we may enjoy 
with a little care. By the following method, 
simple and inexpensive, water may be kept 
almost as cold as ice. Let a jar, pitcher or 
vessel used for water, be surrounded with 
one or more folds of coarse cotton, to be 
constantly wet; the evaporation of the 
water will carry off the heat from the in- 
side, and reduce it to a low temperature. 
In Indiaandother tropical countries, where 
ice cannot be procured, this expedient is 
common. Let every mechanic and laborer 
have at the place of his work two pitchers 
thus provided, and with lids or covers, one 
to sujjply water for the evaporation, and 
he can always have a supply of cold water 
in warm weather. Any person may test 
this by dipping a iinger in water and hold- 
ing it to the air on a warm day; after doing 
this two or three times he will find his fin- 
ger uncomfortably cool. This plan will save 
the bill for ice, besides being more health- 
ful. The free use of ice water often pro- 
duces derangment of the internal organs; 
which, we conceive, is due to the property 
of the water indeijendent of its coldness. 

yoap. 

When you take up a small square of per- 
fumed soaj) and lather your hands briskly 
with it, do you ever stop to think how hard 
it would be to get along without the cleans- 
ing agent ? "How are you ofi' for soap '?" 
would become one of tlie most important 
questions of the day, if you were to have a 
soap-dearth as well as a coal famine. Yet 
the use of soap is not three hundred years 
old. We hear about the lily hands and the 
pure cheeks of the fair ladies of the days 
of old renown — but how in the world did 
these belle dames sans merci manage to keep 
their hands and faces so clean and sweet 
without any soap ? The high-bred lords 
and ladies of the Middle Ages were com- 
pelled to resort to the free use of aromatic 
essences and oils to atone for a want of 
cleanliness; while the voluptuous Greeks 
dipped their garments into jserf umed water. 
So we see that the world learned to be 
sweet before it learned to be clean. Just 
imagine that Tennyson's "Lily Maid of As- 
tolat" never saw even so much as a cake of 
brown Windsor — not even a piece of homely 
rosin soaj) ! —Lake Side Monthly. 

To Destkoy Flying Moths, Etc. — For 
all moths, and beetles that fly by night, use 
fire to trap them. A fire of shavings, or 
any thing that will make a blaze, kindled 
in the evening, will destroy thousands. 
The more flame the better, if it does not 
scorch the leaves. A cheaper method still, 
is to take the half of an old sugar hogshead, 
or any open vessel, with a broad surface, 
partially tilled with water, and seta lighted 
glass lantern on a block or stone in the 
center of the water at night. The moths 
are attracted by the lantern and its reflec- 
tion, and fall into the water. The advan- 
tage of the sugar hogshead is, that it serves 
for a trap by day as well as by night. For 
moths that fly by day, take wide-mouthed 
bottles, half fill them with sweetened wa- 
ter, and vinegar, and hang them in the 
trees, changing the liquid weekly. Thou- 
sands of insects are drowned. 



How TO CiiEAN Floobs. — Office floors 
darkened by dirt may be satifactorily whit- 
ened at the spring cleaning by washing 
with hot ley of caustic soda to remove any 
grease, and when nearly dry, moistening 
with very dilute hydrochloric acid, and 
then with a thin paste of hyijochlorite of 
lime, left on over night. When washed off 
in the morning, the whiteness of the floor 
will be equally surprising and delightful. 
Stone house fronts are cleansed by throw- 
ing against them a jet of water under 
steam pressure. This method is cheap, 
and does not injure ornamental jjarts. 
Aside from the clean and fresh appearance 
thus secured, it is calculated that if all the 
walls of the buildings in London were 
kept clean, instead of being grimy and 
dark from top to bottom, a gain would 
be obtained of half an hour of daylight out 
of every twenty-four. 

Tanning Leather.— It is often a matter 
of both convenience and economy in the 
houseliold or on the farm to be able to do a 
little tanning; so we give here an approved 
receipt which may prove useful to some 
one who is not acquainted with it: " Soak 
the skin or hide eight or nine days in water, 
then put it in lime; take it out, and remove 
the hair by rubbing it, and soak it in clear 



water until the lime is entirely out. Put 
one pound of alum to three of salt, dissolve 
in a vessel sufiiciently large to hold the 
hide; soak the hide in it three or four days, 
then take it out, let it get half dry, and 
then beat or rub it until it becomes jiliable. 
Leather prepared by this process will not 
do so well for shoes, but answers well for 
ham strings, back bands, and various other 
purposes on the farm. 



How Much 



Bread a Barrel 
Will Make. 



of Flour 



They have had a bread controversy in Wash- 
ington City. Some weeks ago fault was 
found with the bakers for raising the price 
of bread; and, a practical baker taking the 
ground that bread could be made for five 
cents a loaf, while others claimed it could 
not; to settle the matter it was arranged 
that three barrels of flour should be pur- 
chased and baked at the government bakery 
the oificer in charge to be the arbiter. The 
result was a yield of 560 pound loaves of 
bread to the barrel. This, it is stated, is 
at variance with the past experience of 
the Washington bakers, who have not been 
able to obtain more than 250 pound loves 
from the barrel in the regular course of 
business. 



Pickling Green Com. 

This is a much cheaper method of pre- 
paring corn to be used in win+er in a fresh 
state, than that of canning it: When the 
corn is a little past the tenderest roasting- 
ear state, jjull it; take off one thickness of 
the husk, tie the rest of the husk down at 
the silk end in a close and tight manner; 
place them in a clean cask or barrel com- 
pactly together, and put on brine to cover 
the same of about two-thirds the strength 
of meat pickle. When ready to use in 
winter, soak in cold water over night, and 
if this does not appear sufiicient, change 
the water and freshen still more. We have 
used corn prepared in this way for two sea- 
sons, and it is excellent; very much re- 
sembling fresh corn from the stalk. — Ex. 

To Flavor Tobacco. — This is done by a 
mixture of one part each of lemon peel , or- 
ange peel, figs, coriander seed, and sassa- 
fras; one-half part each of elderberries, and 
cinnamon; two parts of saltpetre, three of 
salt, and four of sugar. This mixture must 
be digested in fifty parts of water, and, be- 
fore applying it, flavored with an alcoholic 
solution of gum benzoes, mastic, and myrrh. 
It is said that this decoction gives a flavor 
to common leaves resembling closely the 
Porto Rico; but to this end the leaves must 
be well dried, about ayear old, well perme- 
ated with the preparation, kept in a pile 
for eight days, turned daily, and finally 
dried. 



To Keep Milk Sweet.— A teaspoonful 
of fine salt or horse-radish, in a pan of milk 
will keep it sweet for several days. Milk 
can be kept a year or more as sweet as 
when taken from the cow by the following 
method: Procure bottles, which must be 
perfectly clean, sweet, and dry; draw the 
milk from the cow into the bottles, and as 
they are filled, immediately cork them well, 
and fasten the cork with pack-thread or 
wire. Then spread a little straw in the 
bottom of a boiler, on which place the bot- 
tles, with straw between them, until the 
boiler contains a suffcient quantity. Fill 
it up with cold water, and as soon as it be- 
gins to boil draw the fire and let the whole 
gradually cool. When quite cold, take out 
the bottles and pack them in sawdust in 
hampers, and stow them away in the cool- 
est part of the \io\xs,q.~ Southern Farmer. 

Pea-Satjsage— The Vallejo Chr-onicle says 
that a citizen of that town has on exhibi- 
tion a pea-sausage, which is a specimen of 
the condensed rations carried by the Prus- 
sian soldiers in their late campaigns. It 
is made of the condensed juices of beef and 
pea flour, and in that shape a soldier can 
carry enough for thirty days substance 
without inconvenience. Our own Govern- 
ment will test the new rations among the 
troups in Arizona. 

Mending Tin Pans.— A correspondent 
of the Mural New Yorker says: " Tell your 
lady readers to mend their tin pans with 
putty. It is very easily done, and is much 
better than to throw them away. Put it on 
the outside; let it thoroughly dry, and they 
will never have to mend that place again. 
I have them that I have used for twenty 
years." 

Tomatoes. — With meat, raw, should bo 
sliced up in vinegar, salt and pepper, like 
cucumbers. For tea, use sweet cream and 
sugar; they are almost as, good as straw- 
berries. 



Domestic Receipts. 

To Keep Tomatoes for Winter Use. — 
By the following method we may have to- 
matoes all the year round, which can 
scarcely be distinguished from those pick- 
ed fresh from the vine: Dissolve a teacup 
of salt in a gallon of water. Pick riije to- 
matoes, but not over-ripe, leaving a little 
of the stem on. The tomatoes must be 
kept well covered with the brine, and they 
will keeiJ till Spring or longer. 

Cale'o Head Soup. — Take a calf's head, 
and part of the liver and lights; boil in six 
vuarts of water, until you can take the 
bones out; jDut it on a dish and season with 
pej^per, salt, thyme, mace and cloves; skim 
the water, if there be any fat on it; j)ut all 
back in the same water, and let it boil un- 
til well done; just before dishing, add one 
glass of wine; brown with burnt sugar, 
and thicken with a little flour, butter and 
force-meat balls. 

Fried Chickens. — Cut up the chicken 
and lay tliem in cold water to extract the 
blood. Wipe them dry, season with pep- 
per, salt, and dredge with flour. Fry in 
lard to a rich brown; take them out and 
keep them near the fire ; skim the gravy 
carefully in which the chicken have been 
fried, mix with it half a pint of cream, sea- 
son with mace, pepi^er, salt and parsley. 

Ambrosia. — Slice oranges in a deep 
glass dish; sprinkle well with fine sugar; 
cover with grated cocoanut; sprinkle 
with sugar. Repeat until the dish is 
full. 

Salve for Chapped Hands, Etc. — Take 
equal weights of fresh unsalted butter, 
mutton tallow, beeswax and stoned raisins. 
Simmer until the raisins arc done to a 
crisp, but not burned. Strain and pour 
into cups to cool. Rub it on the hands or 
lips before going to bed, or going out in 
the wind. 

Hair Curling Liquid. — Take borax two 
ounces, gum arable one drachm, and hot 
water (not boiling) one quart; stir, and as 
soon as the ingredients are dissolved add 
three tablespoonsful of strong spirits of 
camphoi-. On retiring to rest, wet the 
hair with the above liquid and roll it in 
twist of paper as usual. 

To Remove Ink Spots. — Put the article 
stained over a warm flat-iron, stretch it 
well, then squeeze a few drops of lemon 
juice on it, and the spot will disappear at 
once. Wash immediately in cold water. 

Mechanical Hints. 

Smoky Chimneys. — Having had an olTer 
from my employer to move into a house 
built expressly for me, and built under my 
supervision, I had an open fire-place built 
in my kitchen , with good fire doors attached , 
and when my family moved in we found 
that the chimney had no draft, so I tried 
having it built three feet higher; but this 
did not make any change. So I got a tin- 
smith to put a pipe on, making it about 
nine feet higher than it first was, but all to 
no purpose. One of my neighbors sug- 
gested closing the chimney up tight just 
above the arch, so I had a board fitted in, 
and we found quite a change, but it was 
still defective. 

I then took a mortar and plastered up all 
the joints around the edges of the board. I 
then had one of the best chimneys in town. 
My wife could bake once more — something 
she could not do since we moved into the 
house, not being able to heat the stove 
sufficiently for that purpose. I then took 
off the six feet of sheet iron pipe to see if 
it would make any change, but it made 
none. 

Things went well for a few weeks. We 
were once more eating home-made bread, 
when all at once things changed; the oven 
of the stove would not get hot enough to 
bake, and we would have a tremendous 
smoke in the morning when we made the 
fire. On examining, I found that some 
sparks had got on the board, and burnt a 
hole in it about six inches in diameter. I 
immediately set to work and put in anoth- 
er and lined the top with zinc. This made 
the chimney as good as ever. — Cor. Scien- 
tijic American. 

Protection of Lead Water Pipes. — 
Dr. Schwarz of Breslau, notes a simple 
method af protecting lead pipes from the 
action of water, by forming on the inside 
surface of the pipes an insoluble sulijhide 
of lead. The operation, which is a very sim- 
ple one, consists in filling the pipes with a 
warm and concentrated solution of sulphide 
of potassium or sodium; the solution is 
left in contact with the lead for about fif- 
teen minutes. 

A London jeweler has been five years at 
work upon a watch, and it will be worth 
$10,000 when finished. 



LifE Tl|0ilql|7s. 



Chinese Proverbs.— The Chinese have 
many proverbs that will compare favorably 
with those of the most highly cultivated 
nations. We append a few, as follows: — 

" When mandarins are pure, the people 
are happy. 

"A MAN without money is a reptile; but 
with money, a dragon. 

"In learning, youth and agego fornoth- 
ing; the best informed take the precedence. 

"Those who respect themselves will be 
honorable; but he who thinks lightly of 
himself will be held cheap by the world. 

"Following virtue is like ascending an 
eminence; pursuing vice is like rushing 
down a j)recii3ice. 

"Let every man sweep the snow from his 
own door, and not trouble himself about 
the frost on his neighbor's tiles." 

In the hearts of others a manly self-reli- 
ance lays corner-stones of regard, esteem, 
lememberance, love. 

To brood over ills which may happen in 
the future, is to make of imagination an 
ever present reality. 

What we think we need is riches; our 
real desire is place, esteem, regard, appre- 
cation, love in the heart of humanity. 

Wit, humor, and badinage need to be 
kept under careful control. We endure 
and expect the playful scratch from our 
cat's paw, but not her savage bite. 

As in the silence of night, the ear catches 
the least sound, so, in the solitude of re- 
flection, the mind detects soft and delicate 
strains of thought, unheard in the bustle 
of the crowd. 

The doors of fictitious pleasure are often 
closed and barred agains us, that we may 
be forced to seek the approaches to real 
and substantial hajjijiness. 

While laboring for some great reward, 
we learn that we receive an infinite number 
of lesser ones; the lesser gems clustering 
about the dazzling brilliant. 

God gives to man; man's greatest happi- 
ness must consist in doing and giving to 
others. 



Action and Inaction. 



Men who have half a dozen irons in the 
fire are not the ones to go crazy. It is the 
man of voluntary or compelled leisure who 
mopes and pines and thinks himself in the 
madhouse or the grave. Motion is all na- 
ture's law. Action is man's salvation, phy- 
sical and mental; and yet nine out of ten 
are wistfully looking forward to tlie cov- 
eted hour when tliey shall have leisure to 
do nothing— the very siren that has lured 
to death many a "successful" man. He 
only is truly wise who lays himself out to 
work till life's latest hour, and that is tlie 
man who will live the longest, and will 
live to most purpose. 



The bright spots of a man's life are few 
enough without blotting any out; and 
since, for a moment of mirth, we have an 
hour of sadness, it were a sorry policy to 
diminish the few rays that illumine our 
sunshine and showers. The heart, like the 
earth, would cease to yield good fruit, 
were it not sometimes watered with tears of 
sensibility; and the fruit would be Avortli- 
less, but for the sunshine of smiles. 

Humanity.- — Each individual shut up 
within himself — shut up in reticence, se- 
crecy and selfishness — becomes as barren 
of true life and emotion as the dry sands 
of the sea shore. Humanity, honestly re- 
vealed one to another as to inmost thoughts, 
emotions and aspirations, becomes the 
closer knit together from its very sejjarate- 
ness. 

In the bitter contest with self, the best 
man may at times fall. The true liero will 
then set to work, and for himself build an- 
other pedestal, broader, stronger, and 
higher than the last. 

The intellect that bases all asi^iration and 
effort on the hope of winning some one ex- 
exclusive love, leaves the shrine of Infinite 
Nature, and bows to that of tlie inferior 
and finite. 

The growth of earth-experience seems 
like tliat of oak rooted in rock; hard and 
blind work is it forcing tlie way into the 
ledge crevices; yet the root must so first 
descend ere the trunk can in the sunlight 
rear itself— ere it can rejoice in leaf, bud, 
blossom, fruit. 

The cynic, while despising his follows, 
forgets tliat without them to hear and ap- 
])reciate his sarcasm, he would become, 
through insolation, the most miserable of 
mortals. 



44 



[July 22, 1871. 



Editorial Notes from Salt Lake. 

Agriculture in Utah. 

The first feature that strikes the Califor- 
nian, in traveling through the farming 
districts of Utah, is the small divisions into 
which the agricultural lauds are cut up 
and the small patches of land devoted to 
each of the different kinds of products by 
each cultivator. The farms range all the 
way from 20 to 100 acres, a greater propor- 
tion being less than fifty. These small 
holdings are in accordance -with a wise 
system adopted, and urgently and con- 
stautly recommended by Brigham Young 
and his associates in authority from the 
first settlement of the country by the 
Mormons to the present time. The en- 
forcement of this system has been the re- 
demption and su^jport of the country. 
Had the Mormons encouraged or even 
allowed their followers to api^ropriate large 
tracts of land to themselves and attempt 
to cultivate broad acres of the cereals at 
the expense of a diversified agriculture, as 
wo have done in California, their settle- 
ment must have i^roved a disastrous fail- 
ure from want of the actual necessaries of 
life. The wonderful success which has 
attended that i)eople as a colony, is attribu 
table more to the wise foresight in the 
management of the material industries 
thau to all other causes combined; and 
furnishes one of the strongest arguujents 
in favor of small farms and good cultiva- 
tion, it has ever been our lot to behold. 
As a consequence of the small farm system, 
the farm houses are comparatively close 
together, giving to the country the ajipear- 
ance of a continued and prosperous subur- 
ban village. The houses are generally 
built of a well formed and dried adobe, or 
unburned brick, of a light drab color, and 
in form and style they are patterned after 
the English Rural Cottage. They are al- 
most universally surrounded by fruit and 
shade trees in abundance, shielding them 
from the immediate rays of the scorching 
sun, and rendering the landscape at once 
inviting, picturesque and agreeable. The 
farmers are now just in the midst of their 
haying. The hay which is generally a 
mixture of red top Timothy and a wild 
clover, similar to the California wild 
clover, is of a most excellent character, 
and as it is being cured by the sun or be- 
ing raked together and removed to the 
barn it gives off a most pleasing and 
agreeable order, insensibly transporting 
the California observer who may chance 
to be from the Eastern or Middle States, 
to the scenes of his childhood when, as a 
child, he gamboled in the hay fields of his 
father. 

The meadows are mostly on the natiiral 
and unbroken or uncultivated surface of 
the soil. The Ilcdtop and Timothy have 
been introduced by sowing the seed upon 
the surface in the fall or in early spring, 
and cultivating the same, with a common 
harrow. The old English Red clover and 
Lucerne or Chile clover are also cultivated 
with success, and make most excellent 
hay. The latter, in some of the southern 
and warmer valleys of the Territory yields 
as many as seven crops a year, and is re- 
garded with much favor as an article of 
food for stock. 

The most advanced wheat fields are al- 
ready being cut, and we noticed that the 
straw is all bound up in bundles and 
placed in shocks after the old Eastern 
style. All the straw is carefully preserved 
and fed to the stock during the winter 
season which is quite severe in most 
portions of the Territory. 

Indeed one of the most noticeable fea- 
tures of the Utah agriculture, as contrasted 
with that of California is the, disposition 
everywhere manifest to save and utilize 
every product of the soil. This economy 
seems to be a principle which has been 
carefully and rigidly instilled into the 
minds of the people in every department 



of industry, and is thoroughly engrafted on 
the entire political and solid organization 
of the Territory. 

Original Poverty. 

Utah was originally settled and has to 
this day been peopled by a population 
poor in everything but faith in their relig- 
ion and determination to succeed in all 
their industrial undertakings. The pio- 
neers entered Salt Lake valley empty 
handed, and commenced their struggle 
for life by the cultivation of a soil natur- 
ally almost as barren and uni^roductive as 
the sage brush portion of the valley of the 
Humboldt or the most of the salt or alka- 
line belts that border the tule lands of the 
Sacramento and Sau Joaquin valleys in 
many places. They were even destitute of 
necessary tools for the cultivation of this 
sterile and rejiugnant soil. Their only 
capital was the labor of their own hands. 
Not only this, the immigrants that h.ave 
annually increased the population of the 
Territory from that day to the present have 
all been of the same character. The Mor- 
mon poj^ulation of the Territory is at jircs- 
ent about 150,000, and over half of that 
number, have upon their arrival in the 
settlement, not only been without any 
means to help themselves with, but have 
been indebted to the Centr.al Immigr-ation 
Association of the Territory for their en- 
tiro passage and supjjort while coming. 

To discharge this undebtedness they 
have been compelled to devote all their 
saving, over and above the support of 
themselves and families, for from four to 
five years after their arrival. And yet we 
are informed that 95 per cent, of all the 
people of the territory to-day own the land 
and houses in which they live. This pov- 
erty of the immigrants has been one of the 
strongest of circumstances in favor of and 
inducing a compliance with the policy and 
recommendations of Brigham to make 
small farms and to cultivate them well. 
Irrigation. 

The rain-fall in Utah is generally very 
light. Not sufiicient to ensure the suc- 
cessful production of any of the ordinary 
crops. Hence in addition to the disadvan- 
tages of a naturally jjoor and sterile soil 
the peojde have labored under the neces- 
.sity of digging ditches and bringing water 
from the mountain streams to irrigate al- 
most every foot of land now under cultiva- 
tion in the territory. We are assured by 
good authority that the average expense of 
this irrigation has not been less than from 
S5 to $10 per acre. 

This circumstance too has oijerated to 
induce small holdings and thorough culti- 
vation. No poor man could irrigate and 
cultivate a large farm and hence he was 
contented and compelled to own but a 
small one. To show the fertilizing efTects 
of irrigation upon these alkaline soils we 
are informed that lands which for the first 
few years of their cultivation would not 
produce over 15 bushels of wheat to the 
acre, are now annually turning ofi' fi-om 35 
to -to. Here is a practical lesson of great 
value to the farmers of California and es- 
pecially to those who own land impreg- 
nated with alkali. In our judgment the 
alkaline soils of California may, by irriga- 
tion, bo made the richest and most produc- 
tive lands of the State. They are natur- 
ally much richer and contain less alkali 
than much of the land in Utah that is now 
producing large crops of grain. 

"Wool Frauds. — It will be remembered 
that some time since a quantity of Oregon 
wool received by Messrs. Koshland Bros., 
was found to contain a large percentage of 
dirt, miich of it in solid lumps, and evi- 
dently intended to defraud the purchaser. 
The swindle has been followed up, and it 
seems that a Montana man is the perpetra- 
tor. He is said to have purchased the 
sheep in Walla Walla, sheared them, re- 
selling their fleece to the man who sold 
them to him, with the addition of the dirt 
into the bargain. 



Flour Packing and Weighing Machine. 

We have seen lately, at Wiester & Co.'s, 
on New Montgomery street, an invention 
designed for tilling sacks or barrels with 
flour or any fine material, and at the same 
time weighing the substance into equal 
quantities. We give herewith an illustra- 
tion of the machine, the operation of which 
may be described as follows: 

The barrel or sack into which the flour is to 
be packed, is first placed around the lower 
part of the drain or cylinder. A, and se- 
cured in place by hooks, when a gate at 
the bottom of the hopper, E, located at L, 
is opened and held thus by a spring, not 
shown, while the flour is conveyed by a 
spiral conveyor or packer into the sack at 
the bottom of the cylinder. This packer 
is worked horizontally within the cylinder, 
A, by the bevel gear, C, operated by a hand 
crank on the shaft, h; or power may be at- 
tached to the pulley on the o2>posite ex- 
tremity of the shaft. The flour, or other 
material to be packed, is fed in any proper 
manner from a convenient receptacle 
through the hopper, F. By the action of 
the sjural packer, the material is com- 
pressed, as fast as delivered into the sack, 
to any reasonable degree of closeness. 

The platform on which the sack is seen 




to rest is elevated by the pulley and weight, 
D, at the commencement of the operation, 
to near the bottom of the cylinder, A ; the 
sack at the same time being brought up 
around and upon the outside of the cylin- 
der. By this arrangement, the filling and 
packing commences in the bottom of the 
sack, and progresses griidually; the sack, 
with the i>latform on which it rests, drop- 
ping as fast as the filling goes on. This is 
so arranged by weights and springs, that 
when any desired amount of material has 
been placed in the sack, an automatic 
action closes the gate at the bottom of the 
hopper, and prevents the ingress of any 
more material. The machine can be ad- 
justed to any desired amount, from twenty- 
five pounds upwards to 200 or more; the 
whole process of filling, packing, weigh- 
ing and cutting off at the proper moment, 
being automatic in action, by the attendant 
merely turning the crank or shaft, b, or aji- 
plying power to the pulley upon the same. 
The only attendance required is to place 
and secure the sack on the cylinder, as 
seen in the engraving, and to remove the 
sameafter being filled. 

The invention appears to be a very use- 
ful and practical one. It is applicable to 
small grain, such aswheat,etc. , aswellas to 
flour and other pulverized material. It is 
extremely simple, light and does not ap- 
pear to be particularly liable to get out of 
order. A working model of the machine 
may be seen at Wiester & Co.'s, 17 New 
Montgomery street (Grand Hotel), and we 
recommend flour packers and others to ex- 
amine it. 



California Experience in Blackberry 
Culture. 

Eds. Press: — To-day I received a copy 
of the Pacific Rural Press, of the issue 
of May 27th, in which was an article on 
the cultivation of blackberry, and being 
interested in that culture, I will give you 
my exijcrience in California. In the arti- 
cle referred to, the writer states that the 
blackberry is of easy culture. My experi- 
ence is the reverse; — I find they require 
much time and attention. Our vines were 
originally planted six feet ap.art, each way, 
but they have shifted themselves by th« 
new canes springing vip each year, not in the 
center, but off to one side of the old vines, 
thus causing quite a divergence in a few 
years. 

They require much more than simply 
taking away the old wood. We begin and 
continue as follows: — This summer, wliile 
the berries are growing, the canes which 
are to produce the next year's crop sprout 
up aud grow rapidly. When these new 
canes reach the hight of three and a half to 
four feet, we clip off the end, which ren- 
ders the stalk stout and strong, while at 
the same time it causes the laterals to 
shoot out, which are in turn also cut back 
to about eighteen inches; this prevents the 
breaking down when loaded with fruit, 
which they would be certain to do if left to 
grow long. 

This labor of spring cannot all be done 
at one time; but as the canes and their lat- 
erals grow, they must be attended to, 
which of course necessit.ites repeated in- 
spections and pruning. After the fruit is 
gathered we clip off the old vines or canes 
close to the ground, reset the stakes and 
tie up the new canes. This work is any- 
thing but easy on account of the thorns 
which not only scratch but tear your cloth- 
ing, pull off your hat, etc. You must not 
loose your temper, however, for that will 
only make matters worse. 

As regards the grounds — we find the 
richer the soil the better the fruit; a rich, 
loose, porous soil, which will drain well, is 
what suits them the best with us. Our ex- ' 
perience is with the Lawtou, of which we 
have 3,000 hills or stands, and from which 
we gathered, in 1870, thirteen tons, and in 
1809, sixteen tons of berries from the 
same vines. We last year began picking 
on the 3d of July, and continued until the 
Gth of September. We irrigate by the use 
of hose, iron pipe and spouts, connecting 
with springs in the hills around the vine- 
yard. 

Our system of weighing differs so much 
from the eastern method of measure- 
ment that it is not very easy to com- 
pare the amount of products per acre, or 
per numljer of vines, which latter is the 
most proper way — more anon. 

R. M. Swain. 

Rockland Farm, Napa, July 15, 1871. 

Quick Work.— Mr. M. C. Ellis, a heavy 
rancher of Sutter county, cut, thrashed, 
ground into flour a sack of wheat and had 
biscuit for breakfast of it on the same 
morning. This is ahead of the Bidwell ox- 
l^loit, when it took until supper time of the 
day to efiect the same thing. 

Farm Laborers. — A contract for twenty 
five farm laborers, to be imported by 
Messrs. Yale & Warner direct from Scot- 
land, has been arranged. This comes from 
the difficulty of getting men to leave our 
city for the rural districts. 

The First Bale op Ramie ready for the 
market has been prepared by M. Adolphe 
Burchaid, of New Orleans, who is the in- 
ventor of a ramie machine of great value 
and importance. 

First of the Season. — The English ship 
Moosung has just sailed with wheat loaded 
at Vallejo. She is the first wheat vessel of 
the season from the Pacific coast. 



Something Worth Thinking Of. — More 
money is expened, in a single year in the 
United States, for tobacco and alcoholic 
drinks, than would suffice to pay ofi" the en- 
tire national debt of the union. 

Broom Corn.— Seven cents per jjound is 
offered for the crops of broom corn raised 
in Sutter County. Last year the article 
was worth only three or four cents. 



July 22, 1871.] 



45 



California Industrial Fairs for 1871. 

The State Fair bepins on the J8th, and ends oti the 23d of 
September, at Sacramento. 

The San Francisco Mechanics' Institute Fair begins on 
t he 8th of August, and continues four weeks. 

The S. F. Bay Horticultural Fair begins on the 8th of 
August and continues four weeks. 

The San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Fair begins on the 
12th, and ends on the I5th of September, at Stockton. 

The Upper Sacramento Valley Agricultural Society's 
Fair begins on the 26th of September, atChico. 

The Santa Clara Valley Agricultural Society's Fair begins 
August 28th, and ends September Ist, at San Jose. 

The Sonoma and Marin District Agricultural Fair will be 
held on the 2.'jth of September, and continue six days, at 
Petal uma. 

The times of the other Fairs will be inserted as received, 
and kept standing until the several Exhibitions shall take 
place. 



City 



{\KEJ 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE AT WHOLESALE. 

[Tho prices (fiven below are those for entire consignnittDts 
from first hands, unless otherwise ^pecilied.J 

San Fbancisco, Thurs., a. m., July 20th. 

FLOUR — There has been a fair demand for 
local consumption, with a better enquiry for 
export; The millers dropped another 25c. per 
barrel, on Monday for extra, holding to former 
figures for superfine, and the market still shows 
a downward tendency. 

Transactions embrace 3,000 bbls. California 
extra, 2,500 bbls. Oregon extra, and 6,000bbls. 
California superfine. The latter for export, 
and on private terms. 

We quote superfine, fC.12J.^@G.25; extra, in 
sacks, $G.75@G.87. Standard Oregon brands 
may be quoted $C.62@G.75. 

WHEAT — New crop is coming in slowly, 
and prices show a declining tendency with 
a quiet market. New wheat, can now be had 
for f 2.20@2.25. Old is selling at $2.25@2.30 
— a small decline from our last reference. 
Some fancy lots have been sold at higher rates. 
Sales of 15,000 sacks have been reported, 
during the week, at current rates. Exjiorters 
aflfirm that they cannot pay ovor $2 .00 under 
present Liverpool rates. 

The Liverpool market was telegraphed on 
Thursday at lis. 5d. — a decline since our last 
reference of 4d. New York rates, $1.65. 

BARLEY — The new crop is coming in freely 
and prices remain steady. Sales duiiuf; 
the week have aggregated about 13,000 sks. 
The range of new crop may be quoted at $1.72 
@1.75 — choice old brewing, at $1.'J7@2.05. 

OATS — Have been in fair demand at about 
former rates. Sales of 4,000 sacks are re- 
ported at from f 1.87(5),2.00 for light to good. 

CORN— The market may be quoted at $2.05 
@2.10, market inactive, with a fair suiiply. A 
sale of 450 sacks yellow is reported at the latter 
figure. 

CORNMEAL— Is quotable at $2.50@3.25. 
according to quality. 

BUCKWHEAT— Still quotable at $3. 

RYE— Nominal at $2.50 for choice. 

FEED— We quote: Straw, $8@9; Bkan, 
30.00 at mill; Middlings, 45.00; Oil Cake 
Meal $40. 

HAY — The receipts are fair with good de- 
mand. We quote ordinary to choice at $15.00 
@$19.00 '^ ton. A cargo of choice, new wild 
oat sold at $17. .50, and one of choice new 
wheat at $19.50. 

HONEY— We quote Los Angeles comb 13@ 
14c. Potter's in 2-lbcans. $4.50 per doz. 

POTATOES— The receips having been very 
free, and the demand somewhat limited; prices 
have declined, and we quote the range at 75c@ 
@1.10 for ordinarj' to choice. 

HOPS — Demand light — prices nominal at 9 
@12%c. for Cahfornia. 

HIDES — We quote Dry, slaughterer's stock, 
16@18c; Salted, 8@9c. Sales during the 
week 1,620 Gal. dry, and 1,720 salted. 

WOOL — There is a ready sale for all that 
comes to market. Receipts, however, are very 
small, as usual at this season of the year. We 
quote the range of fair to choice shipping 
grades at 30@35c for California, and 38@42c 
for Oregon. Sales of 55,000 pounds are re- 
ported for the week. 

As an indication of what the faU clip may 
be expected to bring, we note a lot of fall of 
1870 sold at 28c, and a lot of this season's 
lambs' at 35c. per lb. 

TALLOW — The extremes may be quoted 
from 8@9%c.— The latter extra choice. 

SEEDS— Flax 3@3>^c., Canary, 7@8c., Al- 
falfa, 16c. 

PROVISIONS— California Bacon 143^@15c; 
Oregon, 14@14%; Chicago 16c; California Hams 
14@15; Oregon do, 15@15%c; California 
Sugar-cured Hams, 16@17c; Oregon do, 17@ 
18c; Eastern do, 18@20c; California Smoked 
Beef,13@14o. 

BEANS.— Extremes of quotations— Bayo, 
$2.75@$3.00 Butter, small White and Pea, 
$2.00@$2.25; Pink, $1.75. 

ONIONS— We quote red at 80@90c, and yel- 
low at 90c@$l. 00. 

NUTS— Cahfornia Almonds, 10@,15c for 
hard and 20@25c for soft shell; Peanuts, 7@ 
8c; Hickory and Walnuts, 12%c; Pecan, 23(d), 
25c 1, ft). /-. . . v-y 

FRUIT— Tahitian Oranges, $12 50@$15; 
Limes, $15@$20 1*, 1,000. Sicily Lemons, $16 
^ box; California, do, $0@$6 50 ^ 100. Ba- 
nanas, $1 50@$2 50 f, bunch; Cocoanuts,$12,- 
60@15ii 100; Apples, 50c@$l 25: Pears, 75c@ 



$1 ^ box. Peaches, 35@75c, and Crawfords, 
$1 50@$2; Apricots, 50@75c; Nectarines, 75c@ 
$1 "^ basket. Cherries, 8(3'18c; Currants 5@ 
7c; Raspberries, 12%c f^ lb; Plums, 75c@$l 1^ 
basket. Strawberries, 8@9c; Blackberries, 4(n^ 
8o; Figs, (S(ai1c; Grapes, 3(S}8c "i^j Bj. 

VEGETABLES— Cabbage is selling at 1%@, 
l%u; Asparagus, 7c; Rhubard, 2(«i3c; Garhc, 1 
(nil J^^c; Green Peas, l}i(w,2c; String Beans, 2% 
@3c; Summer Squash, $1@1 25, Tomatoes, $1 
(w.$2, Cucumbers, $1@$1 25 '^ box; Green 
Corn, 20@35c "^ doz; Watermelons, 18@25c 
each, and Canteloupes $2(2(5 "^ doz; Egg 
Plant. 3%c; Okra, 6c '^j lb. Marrowfat Squash, 
$5(2j$8 '^ ton. 

FRESH MEAT— We quote slaughterer's rates, 
as follows: — 

BEEF— American, 1st quality, 8(rtllOc ^ lb. 
Do 2d quality 6@ 7c % lb. 

Do 3d do 4c@ 5c |l, lb. 

VEAL— Extremes, 7(S,10c. 

MUTTON— 4%(^5c ^ ft). 

LAMB— May be quoted at ivomG@6%c ^ ft). 

PORK — Undressed is quotable at 5(a).63^c. 
dressed, 8%(®9%c. 

POULTRY, ETC.— Is in limited demand 
Hens $5. (5i,6. 50; Roosters $5(^6. 50; Ducks, tame, 
$4.50(^5.50 1^ doz; geese, tame, $1.50(^1.75 fi, 
pair; live tiirkeys, i7(a}18c 1^ ft). 

WILD GAME— Hare, $1.50(i^$2.00; 

DAIRY PRODUCTS— Cahfornia Butter, 
fresh, in rolls, may be quoted at 27J/^(§.30c; 
California firkin butter, 25(g,30c. Eastern 
firkin 15(^25c. 

Cheese — In fair supply, California new, 10 
(g,14c., California Factory 10c. , Eastern, 15(^16c. 
for new. 

Eggs— California fresh, 38(^40c. 

LARD — California Lard, 11-lb tins, 14(^15c; 
Oregon in bbls. 14 %c.; Eastern do. 13 (^14%c. 
in bulk, and 14%(^15c in tins. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS— Busi- 
ness in this line still remains quiet. At the 
same time stocks of all kinds are said to be 
complete, which are sold at reasonable prices. 
BUILDING AND FENCING MATERIALS— 
In fair demand for export — local demand more 
quiet. Cargoes of Oregon sell as fol- 
lows: Rough, $14@14.50; Dressed, $24; Spruce, 
$16.50. The following cargo rates for Redwood 
Lumber have been established by the R. W. 
Lumber Association: 

Merchantable. Refuse. 

Rough $15 0() $11 00 

Surfaced 28 00 • 18 00 

Tongued and grooved 28 00 18 00 

Ton^ued and grooved, beaded 28 00 18 00 

KuBtic, worked 31 00 20 00 

Siding and battens, J<i-inch 20 00 14 00 

Surfaced, >4-inch 23 00 18 00 

Picket, rough U 00 

Picket, rough, poiuted 16 00 

Picket, drcBijed 22 50 

DRIED FRUITS— The market quiet. We 
quote prices as follows: Cal. Dried Apples, 
U)@V2c; Oregon do, — ; Languedoc Almonds; 
25c; Figs, Smyrna, 15(^20c; Prunes, German, 
lie '^ lb; Raisins, layer, $3.25(«),3.75 per box; 
Currants, Zaute, 10%. 



TABLE OF MISCELLANEOLb. 




Sugar, crsh'd. lb * 1494(*$ 1.^ 
Hawaiian, do. 9 (g^ 12 


Hemp Seed, ft.S 7 


® 9 


Castor Beans, tb. 4 


@ 4 


Coffee, Cos. R, Jb U'i ■» 16 


Ca.stoiOil, gal..l 75 


6:2 00 


Rio. do IB @ 


Linseed Oil, Ral 1 05 


wl 10 


Tea, Japan, ^ ft. 50 w «) 


Broom Corn,%* ft 3 


(S) 5 


(ireen, do .... 50 r*l UO 


Beeswax, W ft... 27 


® 30 


Rice, Haw'n,'# ft B'-;® 9 


Peanuts,^ ft — 5 


@ 7 


China, do d ® 'I'/i 


Corn Meal, cwt..2 M 


(aA 00 


Coal Oil, «Kal.. 50 @ CO 
Candles, ^ ft.... 15 ® 18 


Onions, cwt 1 SO 


®3 .W 







Leather Market Report. 

[Corrected weekly by Dolliver & Bro., No. 109 Poet St.] 
San Francisco, Tlmrsday. July 20. 

Sole Leather.— Eastern shipments still keep the mar- 
ket ti ni and the demand good. 

City Tanned Leather^^ ft 26:iS30 

Santa Cruz Leather, t^ ft 2ti(nj30 

Country Leather, %* ft 2.'JW,28 

'1 he French market remains the same. California kips 
are higher and in demand. 

Jodot, 8 Kil., per doz $62 00@ 

Jodot, 11 to 19 Kil.,perdoz 82 00(0)96 00 

Jodot, second choice. 11 to 15 Kil. 1{* doz 68 00(a) 88 00 

Lemoine, 18 to 19 Kil., TS doz 96 00(a) 

Levin, 12 and 13 Kil., per doz 68 00(a) 70 00 

Corncllian, 16 Kil., per doz 72 00(^ 

Cornellian, 12to 14 Kil., perdoz 68 00(0)70 

Ogerau Calf, ?* doz 54 OOio) 

MercierCalf, 16 Kil., per do7, 65 UO(g» 

Common French Calf Skins, %* doz 35 00{a» 75 00 

French Kips, B ft 1 i OS 130 

California Kip, « doz 60 00® 75 00 

Eastern Wheel Stuffed Calf, » ft 80® 1 25 

Eastern Bench Stuffed Calf, fi ft 110® 1 25 

EasternCalf for Backs, ^ ft 1 15(o) 1 2.t 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, ^ doz 8 50(o) 13 00 

Sheep Roans for Linings, W doz 5 .50® 10 .50 

California Russett Sheep Linings 1 7.>aJ 5 50 

Best Jodot Ca f Boot Legs, %» pair 5 25 

Good French Calf Boot Lees, ^ pair 4 .W® 5 00 

French Calf Boot Lecs,%( pair 4 00 

Harness Leather, "b4 ft 30i,^ 37,'^ 

Fair Bridle Leather, M doz 48 00® 72 00 

Skirting Leather, 1ft ft 34(o) 3'iii 

Welt Leather, « doz 30 00® 50 00 

Buft Leather, i* foot 20(2 24 

Wax Side Leather, ^ foot 18(5 20 



A Good Binder for $1.50. 

Subscribers for this paper can obtain Koch's Patent 
Elastic Newspaper File Holder and Binder for $1.50 — 
containing gilt title of the paper on the cover. It pre- 
serves tho papers completely and in such shape that 
they maybe quickly fastened and returned in book form 
at the end of the volume, and the binder (which is very 
durable) used continuously for subsequent volumes. 
Postage 35 ct8. extra. It can be used for Harper's 
Weekly and other papeiis of Bimilar size. 



$5 TO $20 PER Day and no Risk.— Do you want a situ- 
ation as salesman at or near home to introduce our new 
7 strand White Wire Clothes Lines, to last forever. 
Don't miss this chance. Sample Free. Address Hud- 
son River Wire Works, 76 William street, N. Y., or 16 
Dearborn street, Chicago, 111. 23vl-12mbp 



San Francisco Retail Market Rates. 



35 ® 45 
35 ® 40 



@,30 
@ 25 



Butter. Cal fr. ft 
Pickled. Cal. ft 
do Oregon, to.. 

Honey, %4 ft 25 

Cheese, 1? ft ... . 20 

Eggs, per doz... 35 

Lard, $* ft 18 ® 20 

Sugar, cr., 6'^ ft.l (10 @ 
Brown, do,'|l ft 10 (o) 13 

Beet, do I (W ® 

Sugar, Map. ft. 25 @ 30 

PluBls, dried, ft 

Peaches, dried. 



Friday, July 21, 1871. 
MISCELLANEOUS. 



Wool Sacks, new 40 ® 

Second-hnddo G7Vj® 

Wheat-Bks, '^2x36 15 



Potato G'y Bags. 22 @ 23 



Second-hnd do 15 ® 
Deer Skins, 1^ ft. 15 @ 
Sheep sks, wl on 50 ® 
Sheep sks, plain. 12W® 
(ioat skins, each. 25 ® 
Dry Cal. Hides.. 
SalttHl do.... 
Dry Mex. Hides 
Salted do... 



15 (a) 2.' 
15 (a) 

PRODUCE. ETC. 
Codfish, dry, ft. .6 00 @ I2lj Barley, cwt. 
Beans, cwt 



Weak 
9 (.<! 

15 (O) 
» (o» 



Flour, ex, f«bhl..7 00 

Superfine, do. 5 .W (36 00 

Corn Meal, 100 ft.3 00 ®3 25 

Wheat, «» 100 fts.2 35 &2 .tO 

Oats, %i 100 fts...l 90 @2 10 



..1 75 @1 R5 
..2 50 (ft3 00 



Potatoes, cwt... @1 00 

Potatoes, new.. . fiO fol 15 

Hay, V- ton 16 1)0 ®20 75 

Live Oak Wood. 9 00 @10 00 



FRUITS, VEGETABLES. ETC. 



3 (o) 
3 (a) 

6 



Pine Apples, +. ..5 00 @°i 00 
Bananas, %* ft . . . 3 00(gj5 00 

Cal. Walnnts, ft. (g) 20 

Cranberries, ^ g 75 i^\ 00 

Cranberries, O,! (g)l 00 

Apples, Early, hx 50 (ojl 25 

Red Astra-n,..l 50 (a2 ."iO 

Red June 2 00 (a;2 .W 

Pears, table,^?.bi 75 (ail 25 

Plums, Cherry,*. 6 (a) 8 

Juno, ^ ft 10 (g) 12; 

Apricots, Royal* 

Moorpark, "^ ft 

White, ^ to... 

Cherries, ft 

Currants, ft 

Gooseberries, ft. 
Raspberries, ft . , 
Strawberries, ft. 
Blackberries, ft.. 

Oranges, f. cwt.30 00 (^ 

Lemons, 1* cwt. .5 00 (a)7 00 

Limes, cwt 25 00 feSO 00 

Figs, dried, ^? ft. ® 

Asparagus, wh.* 6 to 10 

Apricots, ft 6 @ 10 

Artichokes, doz. 50 (o) 75 

Brussel's sprts, * (o) 15 

Beets, ¥ doz 20 (o) 25 

Potatoes, ?* ft, . . 2 fa) 3 

Potatoes, sweet,* @ 

Broccoli, ^ doz.. I .50 [wl 00 



(3» 10 
(3) 8 



(a) 8 
18 (g) 20 
(S) 



Cabbage,'^ doz.. 75 (S).l 50 
Carols, ift doz. . . 10 (oi 25 
Celery, 1ft doz ... 75 (g)l 00 
Cress, 1ft doz bun 20 (ai 25 
Dried Herbs, b'h 25 (o) .50 

Egg Plant 8 (g) "" 

Garlics 5 

Green Peas, ^ ft 
Green Corn, doz. 25 
Sugar Peas, %* ft 
Cucumbers, doz. 15 
Lettuce, %^ doz. . 12 
Mushrooms,^ to '25 
Horseradish,^ to 
Okra, dried, ^ ft ^ 

Okra, green, 1ft ft 25 @ 
Pumpkins. %« ft. 3 ® 
Parsnips, tbnchs to 

Parsley @ 

Pickles.^ gal... 50 (o) 
Rhubarb, ^ ft.. 6 fa) 
Radishes, t buns © 

Green Peppers, * ^ 

Red, do Ua 

Summer Squash 

Marrowfat, do. 

Hubbard, do. . 
String Beans, to . 
Dry Lima.shl... 
Spinage, 1ft bskt. 
Salsify, % bunch 12 
Turnips,^ doz.. 
New 'Tomatoes,* 8 



6 



25 



Snipe, ^ doz .. . 

English, do 

Venison, "Jft to . . 
Quails, %i aoz ... 
Pigeons, dom. do3 00 (Si3 .'iO 

Wild, do 1 iM (0)2 00 

Hares, each ... 40 to .W 
Rabbits, tame.. .50 fel 00 

Wild,do,"#dz.l 75 (0(2 00 



Squirrel, |« pair. 2.5 
Beef, tenii, f( to. '20 

Sirloin and rib 18 ® '20 

Corned, «* ft.. 10 («) 12 

Smoked, 1ft to 
Pork, rin, etc., lb 12'2® 

Chops, do, 1ft ft 1^ - 
Veal, li>, to ■ 

Cutlet, do... 
Mutton chops, __ 

Leg, ^ ft 12'2® 

Lamb, ^ ft ® 12'i; 

Tongues, beef, ea ® 75 

Tongues, pig, ea @ 15 



fa) 18 
15 
15 

15 % '20 

® '20 

12Va( 15 



Bacon, Cal., 1ft ft 18 ® 



Cauliflower, t . . 1 UU (0)1 50 

POULTRY. GAME, MEATS. ETC 
Chickens, apiece .'K) @ 75 
Turkeys, 1ft ft... '20 (3» '25 
Ducks, wild, f^ p 

Tame, do 1 50 @ 

Teal, 1ft doz.... 
Geese, wild, each (§ 

Tame, ** pair.. 2 50 (SjS 00 
From Chicago. ^ 

Hens, each 75 (^ 85 

- ■ - ■ (o) 

(3* 
W 



10 



Oregon, do 

Hams, Cal, 1ft ft. 18 % '20 

Hams, Cros.s' 3 c («) 25 

Choice Dtfield © '25 

Whittaker's .. @ 25 

Johnson's Or.. @ '25 

Salmon, "(ft to 10 @ 1^;^ 

Smoked, new,* 10 to 12 

Pickled, ■» to.. 6 (ol 8 

RockCod, 1ft to.. 10 to 12 

Kingfish, ^ ft .. 10 {.u) 15 

Perch, s water.to 10 ® 12'-.; 

Fresh water, to \'l^i<is 15" 

Lake Big. Trout* '20 ® '25 

Smelts,^ to 6 (a) 8 

Herring, fresh . . 

Sm'kd, per 100 ®1 00 

Tomcod, 1ft ft.... 15 (»> 20 

Terrapin Ift doz.3 00 @4 00 
Mackerel, p'k.ea 

Fresh, do 

Sea Bass, ^ ft.. . 25 ® 

Halibut 62 ® 75 

Sturgeon, 1ft ft.. 4 ® 5 

Oysters, 1ft 100... 1 00 ®I 25 



Chesp. ^ doz.. 

Turhot 

Crabs 1ft doz 

Soft Shell 

Shrimps 



®1 00 

@ 62'i 

®1 00 

37 @ 60 

10 (a 12 



Pompino, 1ft ft..l ;0 <B 



* Per lb. t Per dozen. ^ Per gallon. 



Good for Fruit Growers. — Messrs. 
Morgan & Co., have started a new Box 
Factory at 103 Washington street, this city, 
and are selling boxes at remarkably cheai) 
rates. Tboy are prepared to make con- 
tracts, and those interested should send for 
circulars, sami)les, etc. They are reliable 
and prompt business men. 



Our Printed Mail List. 

■ Subscribers will notice that their names are printed 
on colored paper and pasted upon each copy of the 
Press. This is done by machinery, to expedite the is- 
sue of our paper, the regular edition of which has be- 
come too large to be convenient to send out by the old 
method of writing the names. The figures found on the 
right of the pasted slips represent the date to which the 
subscriber has paid. For instance, 21 sp70 shows that 
our patron has paid his subscription up to the 21st of 
Stptember, 1870 ; 4jy72, that he has paid to the 4th of 
January, 1872; 4jlO, to the 4th of July, 1870. The in- 
verted letters occasionally used are marks of reference, 
simply for the convenience of the publishers. 

If errors in the names or accounts of subscribers oc- 
cur at any time an early notice will secure their imme- 
diate correction. 



Our Agents. 

OtjR Friends can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence and encouraging favors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

Travellnir Agents. 

W. H. MURRAT— Colorado Territory. 

M. W. Levy— Denver, Colorado. 

M. B. Starr — Pacific Coast. 

Thos. Poyzer -California. 

Wm. J. Clark — California. 

L. P. McCartt— California. 

E. P. Hicks— California and Oregon. 

A. C. Knox, City Soliciting and Collecting Agent. 

Haas Bros., of Napa, Cal.. are authorized to act af 
agents lor the Pacific Rcrai, Press in that place. 



Volume One of the Pacific B.ural Press 

can be had at this office for %'i. Bound, ?5. A few 
copies only for sale now. 



Four Months' StTB.scRiPTioN for $1. — Subscribers to 
the Press who remit dii'ect to this office $5 coin, in ad- 
vance, hereafter, will bo credited four months over a 
year for the extra dollar received above our regular 
rates. This will render it both convenient and profit 
able to enclose a $5 piece in a registered letter, in which 
case we will be responsible for its safety. 



A Florence Sewing Machine, but slightly used, and 
good as new, for sale at 10 per cent, less than its cost- 
SB? .50. Part of the money may be paid in installments 
by a person who gives good recommendations— in the 
city, or in the country near Sau Francisco. To be seen 
at this office. apl-bp-tf 

Ladies Debirino to Procure a Fihst-Class Sewing 
Machine against easy monthly installments may apply 
to No. 291 Bowery, 157 E. •26th, 477 9th Ave, New York 
Good work at high prices if desired. 2lYl-12mbp 



Go to the Best.— TouDg and middle-oged . 
should remember that the Pacific Business CoLLEOi; is 
the oldest and most popular and successful Business 
Training School on this coast. Upwards of Three 
Thousand Students have attended during the p.-ist six 
years, many of whom now hold prominent positions in 
the first banking and mercantile houses of this city. 
This is the model training school for business on this 
coast, having the giiat(st corps of Professors and 
Teachers, and the greatest number of students in at- 
tendance, of any institution of the kind. Young mtn 
flock to tills College from all parts of the Pacific States 
and Territories, British Columbia, Mexico, Sandwich 
Islands and South America. We shall bo phased to 
send our College Circular, giving lull information, to 
all who send us their address. When you write, mention 
that you saw this notice in the Pacific Rural Press. 
M. K. LAUDEN, President, San Francisco, Cal. 



Mathew Bridge, Mason and Builder, Residence S. W. 
corner Larkin and Jackson streets, San Francisco, 
would call the attention of .^11 parties intending lo erect 
buildings of any description, that he is prepared to 
build concrete buildings, where lime and clean gravel 
are convenient, cheaper than wooden buildings. Con- 
crete Buildings, properly built, are in many respects the 
most substantial, as well ascheapest, buildings that can 
be erected. For any further information, address as 
above. 19vl-3m 



Ttt« VIS A Wagner, 41 First St.-Mill Stones, Bolting Cloths 
and general Mill Furnishing. Portable Mills of all sizes from 
16to36in. Nonesuperior manf'd for farmers <fe ranchmen. 



Annual Election — Notice to Stockholders. 

The First Annual Election of S ockholders of 1 HE CAf.- 
IFORNIA CO ION GROWERS AND MANUFAC- 
TUREKS ASSOCIATION will take place at the office of 
the Association, in tli(^city of San Francisco, at 10 o'clock 
ifi the fore'-oon, on Saturdiiy, the 5th day of August, 1871. 

By order of the Board of Trustees. 

JAmES dale JOHNSTON, Secretary. 

San Francisco, July 1st, 1871. jun8-4t 



FRUIT BOXES ! FRUIT BOXES ! 

Good News for Fruit Growers. 

IN SHOCKS, MADE UP. 

Redwood 14 cents, 17 cents 1 Regular 

Pine 15 cents. 18 cents) sizes. 

Send for Circulars and Satuples. 

MORGAN & CO., 

3v2-Im 103 Washington st., near Drumm. 

HAY PRESS. 

Call and examine PRATT'S IMPROVED HAY 

FR£SS, 113 Commercial street, Sau Francisco. 

3v2-3m H. G. PRATT & CO. 

E. J. ERASER, M. D., 

SURGEON, 
JSO. 108 i^tocUton street, S, F., Cnl. 

CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



Pass'ger 
Sunday 


Express 
Train 


JULY », 

1871. 


Express 
Train 


Pass'ger 
.Sundays 


except'd 


Daily. 


Daily. 


excepted 


4.00 p M 


8.00 AM 


San Francisco — 


5.45 PW 


12.30 P M 


4.42 P M 


8.40 A M 


...Oakland 


5.12 PM 


1I..')H PM 


3..W P M 


7..'iO A M 


... San Jose 


,5.30 P M 


12.15 pm 


7..'« P M 


12.21 PM 


Stockton 


1.28 PM 


8.35 p M 


9.35 P M 


2.10 PM 


. .. Sacramento 


11.4 AM 


7.00 A M 




4.10 PM 


Marysville 


9.10 am 




W 1 7..5I1 p M 




.5.40 A M 


Q 


> 






K 


2.30 P M 


Sacramento 


11.45 AM 


H 


5.'25 p M 


Colfax 


8.45 A M 


^ 


> 


1.15 AM 
9.10 am 




1.00 AM 
4.05 p M 


Winnemucca 


^ 


12.00 M 


Battle Mountain. 


1.25 pm 


» 


D 


4.40 P M 
fi.'20 A M 


....Elko 


8.45 A M 
.5.20 P m 


^ 


. . . Ogden 



SAN JOSE BRANCH.-Leave San Francisco at 9 10 a. 
m. daily (except Sundays), and 3 p. M. daily. Returning 
leave .San Jose at 7 30 a. m., daily, and at 3 50 p. m., daily 
(except Sundays). 

OAKLAND BRANCH.-Leave San Francisco, •fi.lO, 
810, 9 11, 10 20 and 11 10, a. m. 12 00, I .50,3 00, 4 00. 5 l.'i,630, 8 30 
and*ll 30 p. m. (10 '20, II 10 and 3 00 to Oakland only). 

Leave Brooklyn, "5 1.5, «(> 30, 7 40, 8 .50 and 10 00 a. in., I 30, 
2 40, 4 .55, 8 10, and 10 10 p. m. 

Leave Oakland, *5 2.5, »6 40, 7 .'iO, 9 00, 10 10, II 00 and 11 50 
a, m., 1 40, 2 .'iO, 3 50, 5 05, 6 '20 and 10 20 p. m. 

ALAMEDA BRANCH.-Leave San Francisco, 7 20. 9 00, 
and 11 15 a.m., 130, 4 00, 5 30 and 7 00 p.m. (7 '20, 11 15 and 
5 30 to Fruit \'ale only). 

Leave Ha yw*rds, *4 30, 7 00 and 10 45 a. m., and 3 30 p. m. 

Leave Fruit Vale, »5 2.5, 7 3.5, 9 00 and 11 '20 a. m., 130, 
4 05 and 5 30 p. m. 



* Trains do not run Sundays. 
T. H. GOODMAN, 
Gen'l Pass'gr and Ticket Agt. 



A. N. TOWNE, 

Gen'l Supt. 



Eighth Industrial Exhibition 

— OF THE — 

MECHANICS' INSTITUTE 

WILL BE OPEN TO THE PUBLIC 

AT 11 A. M. TUESDAY, AUGUST 8, 1871, 

With the usual Ceremonies. 



HON. MILTON S. LATHAM 

Has consented to deliver the OPENING ADDRESS. 
The EXHIBITION BUILDING is situated on 

XJnion ^"qixare. 

In tho heart of the city of San Francisco, and on tho 
line of three street railroads. The building covers a 
ground area of 95,200 feet, and is complete in all its 
appointments. 

Steam power and water supply furnished free to 
exhibitors. 

All goods competing for premiums, or to bo cata- 
logued, must bo receipted for by the entry clerk before 
August 12th, 

Rules and Regulations can be obtained from any of 
the officers at tho Institute or Pavilion. 

In conjunction with the Industrial Exhibition, the 
BAY DISTRICT HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY will 
hold its first Exhibition of the Fruits and Flowers of 
California, occupying a space of 320x50 feet. 

PRICES OF ADMISSION: 
Season Tickets admitting gentleman and one lady $5 00 

Season Tii'kets admitting one jierson 3 00 

Season Tickets admitting juveniles under U years. 1 50 

IK7" The above Tickets are not Transferable. "%% 

Single Admission 60 cts. 

Children under 14 years 25 cts. 

Children must he in charge of guardians or parents. 

Tickets can be obtained from any of tho Managers, at 
the Mechanics' Institute, 27 Post street, at the Pavilion, 
Union Square, or from the principal Music or Drug 
Stores in the city. 

at?" No bills will be paid unless ordered by the 
proper Committees. By order 

A. S. HALUDIE, President. 

W, H. WiLLUMS, Secretary. 2v23-iep It 



46 



^A§IFIG 



[July 22, 1871. 



Wliat our Neighbors say of the Pacific 
Rural Press. 

It is ft beautiful and valuable sheet.— .'wtn Joae Ind. 

The first No. evinces marked editorial ability Fills up 

a vacancy that has been felt in our agricultural department. 

With ita publishers there is no such word as fail.— 

Mt. ittssfti;jer. 

Wo believe everj- subscriber will be satisfied with the in- 
vestment of the price of subscription, $4.— [ScJura Dem. 

It is a work which no farmer should be without.— [I'r^^d 
Union. 

An admirable specimen both as toexeculion and contents. 
. . . Contains a large amount and great variety 'of attractive 
reading matter and several excellent illustrations.- I.Srt»cA- 
ton Daily Jud. 

A large 16-page weekly. The Rural Kress will be to the 
Pacific coast what Moore'a Rural New Yorker is to theCMid- 
dle and Northern SiAtea.~{ Knrinnl Alam&Ut. 

Any intelligent farmer in the State will consider h s 
money well intested by subscribing for the new paptr. 
*' Honest, intelligent and correct information will be faith- 
fully given in behalf of and urging an improved cultivation 
of the soil, agreater diversity of products, better breeds of 
stock, bettor varieties of fruits, the culture of new products, 
the creation of new home industries, the adoption of im- 
proved implements, and happier and higher aims in life." 
—[Kttrinfti. 

They can,|if they will, makeit a creditable work. [We will 
that.] It opens well. 

Excellent paper and type-and « first-class agricultural 
journal.. .Its merits entitle it to a large circulation, which 
we apprehend it will speedily obtain,— I ValUjo li reorder. 

We announce with pleasure the new paper by Dewey A 
Co., proprietors of that peerless paper, the Scientific 

Press.- l^irisoiKi Miner. 

We think the rural people of the Pacific Coast will have 
an organ second to none in the country.- [/'/(tAo6"/uf^,wHon. 

Just the kind needed on this coast, and merits an extend- 
ed circulation.— t^ffii BluJ" Judrpendent. 

Pacific Ruit.\L Prkss, published by A, T. Dewey, W. B. 
Kwer, G. U. Strong and J. L. Boone. The paper is a suc- 
cess, and will supply a want long needed. 

It has already attAined to a large circulation — 

Is running over with entertaining and instructive reading 
matter, and embellished with numerous engravings. 

The heading is beautiful and appropriate.- l/'tijuroiiian. 

We cordially welcome it. The publishers, believing that 
the agricultural enterprises of this coast were sutficient to 
support a publication wholly devoted to its interests, deter- 
mined to confine the Scifntijic i'/YxA to mining and mechan- 
ical arts, and have therefore started the Panjie Hurat Preiii>. 

If the first number is to be taken as an earnest of whai 
will follow, each week, we can advisedly say to all interested 
in agricultural pursuits.. subscribe.— I Valt'jo Chronicle. 

Dewey A Co., publishers, have unusual facilities for pub- 
lishing a superior paper for the farming community, and 
they are men of energy to do ii.~[£rtin;/el, .S. F. 

Such a paper has been in demand on this coast for som 
tirae, andwe judge from the amount of agricultural in- 
formation which it contains, that it fills the bill. 

We notice that I. N. Hoag, of Yolo county, has been se- 
lected as one of the contributors to its pages. 

It is the duty of the farmers to sustain it. and try and 
make it a success, which we believe will be done.— t^Vu 
Mail. 

We have received this new home and farm journal, and 
like it well. 

The publishers seem determined to make a popular, first- 
class rural home journal, well filled with interesting and 
elevating reading, with no unchasteness in either reading 
or advertising matter. 

Ha\'inK the countenance and encouragement of the prom- 
inent and most active tigriculturists in California, and long 
experience in the publication of the "Scientific Press"- 
which will be continued entirely independent of the " Rural 
Press"- the public have ample assurance that the neweftort 
to establish a first-class farm journal on this coast will prove 
a success. 

Dewey A Co.. San Francisco, are the publishers, and the 
price is low— $4 a year; or to a club of 10 or more, $3. 
Sample o6pies sent on receipt of a postage stamp.— ["Alpine 
Miner." 

The "Rural Press" will supply a want long felt in Califor- 
nia, and we predict that it will acquire a large circulation 
among our agric Itural population. 

Uultke many so-called "agricultural" papers, it will not be 
exclusively devoted to horse-racing, prize-fighting, yacht- 
ing, etc., but will be a respectable family journal.— [Demo- 
crat, Downieville. 

We judge that it will meet the requirements of agricuU 
turists. As publishers of the "Scientific Press." the name 
of Dewey & Co. is a guarantee that this new publication will 
meet with favor.— [Alpine Chronicle. 

The farmer, horticulturist, the home circle and the house- 
wife will find in it just the articles that will be pleasing and 
profitable to them.— [Christian Advocate, S. K. 

It will represent the agricultural interests of California 
and the Pacitic Slope. » • • With so much ability as to 
command a wide circulation and iniluence.— [Helena, (M. 
T.) Goz. 

Will be found worthy the patronage of the people of this 
State,— [Argus, Snelling. 

We heartily welcome the new publication. 

The interests of our own county are about equally divided 
between mining and farming. 

Not a farmer in it, however well informed, but may learn 
something of value pertaining to his business, from an ably 
conducted paper, specially devoted to the consideration of 
the peculiar conditions of soil, climate and seasons of the 
Pacific Coast. 

From the well known ability and energy of the publishers, 
we doubt not that the "Rural Press" will fulfill all these 
conditions.— [Inyo Independent. 

Fr M A COERESPONDENT.— I have seen your "Pacific Ru 
al," and I never tire of looking at and studying its "head 
and front." It is a taking picture, and will induce many to 
take the paper. The contents are No. 1, also, w. h. m. 



Sen'd in your subscriptions at once to DEWEY 
k CO., publishers, No. 414 Clay street, San 
Francisco. 



1871, 



SUBSCRIBE FOR THE 



187I. 



Oyerland Monthly 

The only Literary Magazine 

PUBLISHED ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 



Tlie Sixth Volume of this popu- 
lar California Magazine will com- 
mence with the January Number 
for 1S71. We promise our read- 
ers rich things during the coming 
year. 




Terms : — $4 . oo per annum, 
payable in advatue. 

Club Ratss:— Two copies, %TMa\ 
Five copies. $16.00; Ten copies. I30.00; 
and each additional copy, l3.oo. For 
every Club of Twenty Subccrikers, as 
extra copy will b* furnished CKATIS. 



PUBLISHED BY 

John H. Carmany & Co., No. 409 Washington Street, 

SAN' PRANCISCO, CAL. 



Bound Volumes. — Six Numbers — from January to June, and July to December- 
tute a volume. Bound volumes will be sent, post-paid, for $3.00, paid in advance. 



Farmers and Teamsters, 

.S.A.VE ^'OUR ]>X01VEY! 

BI CSIKO THE 

Patent Wood Horse Collars and Hames 

Combined, 

Which haB many advantag«8 over the Leather Stuffed 

with Ktraw. 

let. DtntABiLrrr, lasting at least ten times ae long. 

2d. Convenience. Opening below, can be laid on and 
off the Uoriie, having one fastening in place of two or 
three. 

3d. Is one-third lighter than leather collar and hamc. 

4th. Can be easily fitted, as it is bo coiibtructed that 
the length and width can be changed in a few minutes. 

5th. AB there are no stitches to break, or stuffing to 
press out, ir never loses its shape, always bearing 
upon the muscular part of the shoulder, near the neck— 
the proper place for draft. 

6th. Its smooth, hard surface, giving equal pressure 
on the whole line of draft, neveb sweats or bvbb orF 
the haib. 

7th. It has an important advantage in the stationary 
curved arch, keeping the collar fbom setting tight 
abound the top of the nkck when heavy tongues have 
to be carried (as in Boiue machines) , thus keei ino the 
neck cool, and free from bores in the hottest 
weather. Leather Collars will tiohten over the top 
of the neck, and heat and gall the animal. 

8th. Wood being a nou-condiit tor of beat the soreness 
caused by Leather Collars becoming wet by perf^piration 
is avoided. It has many otheradvantages which cannot 
he known without atrial. ThisCollar is W.\KRANTED 
to Cure Horses with Sore Shoulders in Three Weeks, 
Working Every Day. Give them a trial. 

For Circulars price of Collars, and all other particu- 
lars, apply to or address 

WILDMAN & BLARBLE, 
No. 30 California street, San Francisco, Cal. 
Sole Manufacturers and Dealers for the Pacihc Coast. 

Agents wanted. I9vl-3m 



THE t;RE.\T 

ENGLISH AND SCOTCH QUARTERLIES, 

AND 

Blackwood's Magazine, 

reprinted in new YORK BT 

The Leonard Scott Fablishiiig Company. 

QUARTERLY. 



The Edinburgh Review, 
British Quarterly 



Lond n Quarterly Review, 
WestmlnBter Review. 



CHOICE POULTRY. 

The tmderBigned, Importer and Breeder of 

Light and Dark Brahmas, 

Partridg-e and Buff Cochins, 
Houdans, 

Black Red Game Bantams, 

Black A&ican Bantams, and 
Aylesbury Ducks. 

OFFERS FOB SALE BOTH 

IMPORTED .\.ND CALIFORNIA BRED STOCK. 

ALSO, 

Eggs for Hatolilng, 

No orders filled C. O. D. 
For further particulars address 

C. M. NICHOLS. 

Fruit Vale Avenue, 
Brooklyn, 

Alami^da Co., 
21vl-tf Cal. 



"WM. M. LANDRUM, 

eheeder and IMPOKTER OF 
Long-Wool "Varieties 'and Southdown 

SHEEP AND ANGORA GOATS. 



OfferB a fine lot of all grades of RAMS for sale. 

WM. M. LANDRUM, 
MYl-6m WatsonvlUe, Santa Cruz County, Cal. 



'i'OSEMITE HOUSE, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 
ALEX McBEAN, Proprietor. 

THE LARGEST AND 

Best Furnished House in this city. 

•January 28.-4Tl-3inp 



MO\THLV. 

Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine. 

These periodicals are the medium through which the 
grcatoBt mindB, not only of Great Britain ami Ireland, 
but also of Continental Europe, are constantly brought 
into more or less intimate communication with the 
world of readers. History, Biography Science, Phi- 
losophy. Art, Religion, the great political questions of 
the past and of tivday, arc treated in their pages as the 
learned alone < an treat them. No one who would keep 
pace with the times can afford to do without these peri- 
odicals. 

Of all the monthlies Blackwood holds the foremost 
place. 



TERMS. 

Per annum. 

For any one of the Reviews $4 00 

For any two of the Reviews 7 00 

For any three of the Reviews 10 Oo 

For all lour of the Reviews 12 00 

For Blackwood's Magazine 4 0<i 

For Blackwood and one Review 7 00 

For Blackwood and any two of the Reviews 10 00 

For Blackwood and any three of the Reviews 13 00 

For Blackwood and the four Reviews 15 00 

Single numbers of a Review, $1 ; single numbers of 
Blackwood, thirty-five cents. Postage, two cents a 
number. 

Circulars with further particulars may be had on ap- 
plication. 

THE LEONARD SCOTT PCBLISHING CO . 
140 Fulton street. New York. 

PostmaBters and others disposed to canvass, liberally 
dealt with. 



The Leonard Scott Publishing Co. also publish 
THE FARMER'S GXTIDE 

To Scientific and Practical Agriculture, 

By Henri Stephens F.R. S., Edinburgh, and the late 
J. P. Norton, Professor of Scientific Agriculture in Yale 
College New Haven. 

Two vols.. Royal Octavo, 1500 pages and numerous 
engravings. Price, $7; by mail, post-paid, $8. lam-6m 




FIRST PREMIUM AWARDED at the State Fair. 1870, 
for the best Farm Wagon: also for the best improvid 
Thimble Skein. All kinds of Wagons on hand and 
made to order, of the Best Eastern Material, and War- 
ranted to give satisfaction. 

E. SOULE. 



sp22-3m 



Comer Eleventh and I streets, 
Sacramento. Cal. 



BAKER & HAMILTON, 



IMroRTERS OF 



Hardware, Farming Implements, 

MA.CHINES, ETC. 




THE EXCELSIOR UOWER. 

Arc Sole Agents for 
EXCELSIOR MOWER AND REAPER, 
CHAMPION MOWER AND REAPER, 

BIRKE S EAGLE MOWER AND REAPER, 

NEW YORK MOWER AND REAPER, 

Haines' Genuine Illinois Harvester, 

Pitts' Improved California Thresher, 

Portable Steam Engines, Etc., 

With a full stock of all kinds of implements needed in 
Farming. 

Send for Ust of Prices. 



THE 

ASPHALTUM PRESSURE PIPE 
c o m: jp A. IV Y , 

IIA'VI'VO EREfTEn .4 M .*>r F.ICTOKT' 

of sufficient capacity to supply their Asphaltum Pipe in 
large quantities, 

Are now Prepared to Take Oraers 

A.\» MAKE CO.MTBACTS. 

This Company will manufartnre Pipe and guarantee 
it to stand any pressure required; itis lighter than iron 
pipe and more durable, it is nut affected by chemical 
action, cannot corrode, and being glazed imparts no dis- 
agreeable taste to water. To miners and farmers it is 
invaluable; any body can put it down; it Is twenty per 
cent cheaper than iron pipe and ten times more durable. 
Fur further particulars, apply at the office of the Com- 
pany, Room No. 2, G15 Market street. 

•y" Circulars sent on application. 16v21-tf 




THE CHAMPION SELE-RAKE REAPER. 

B, 11, 13 and 15 J street, SACRAMENTO. 
13, 15, 17 and 19 Front Street, SAN FRANCISCO. 
17-vl-3m 



I. O._0. F. 
THE IV E TT ./IlOE, 

A Weeilt Joi-BMAL Or SnCTTZN Pages, 

The "OiBclal Organ" of the I. O. O. F. on 

the Pacific Coast. 

Is devoted to Odd FeUowship, the Arts ahd Schscib 
and Oeneral Litebaturc ; and as a famil} paper is not 
surpassed by any journal in the United Statea. Subscrip- 
tion price per year by mall, $S. Delivered In the city, 
per month, 60 cents. Office, Odd Fellows' Hall, 3'i« 
Uontgomery street, San Francisco. 19t1> 



EGGftS! EGG»^! EGGS I 

STEVENS BROS' 

Patent Egg Boxes. 

We would respectfully call the attention of all persons 
who ship or handle Eggs, to the advantage to be derived 
from using Stevens' Bn>s. Pat<'nt Egg Cases. 

These cases hold thirty dozen Eggs each, self count- 
ing, and can 1x! packed with ease and facility. EggH 
shipped in the above caucs Bell quicker and give more 
satisfaction to buyers than any other package in use. as 
the contents are not damaged, and buyers subjected to 
no troxible as regards the count. 

NO BROKEN EGGS ! NO HEATED EGGS! 
NO PACKING REaUIREB: 

To the Trade. 

We offer these Egg Cases at the following rates : 
SCALE OF PRICES : 

100 cases or over, cash price $3 00 each 

50 cases or under, cash price 3 SO each 

CAUTION! 
Stevesb" Patent Eoo Boxes, patented Feb. 26, 1867. 
All persons are hereby cautioned against mannfactur- 
ing. selling and using any cases fur packing and trans- 
porting eggs, constructed with compartments, by 
placing a siparate diaphragm horizontally between each 
tier, from the bottom to the top of each case, and any 
and all infringements upon said patent, either for man- 
ufacturing, selling or using without authority from the 
undersigned, will be prosecuted. Parties desiring in- 
formation will apply to the owners. 

STEVENS * GRAY, 
Union Market. Howard street, 
18-Tl-3m Between Third and Fourth streets. 

sitss H. OBAT. juras a. batbv. 

G-RAY & HAVEN, 

ATTORNEYS AND COUNSELORS AT LAW, 

In Building of Pacific Inanrance Co.. N. K. corner Cali- 
fornia and Leideadorfl streets, 

ITtK SAN rRANOIKCO. 



July 22, 1871.] 

THE PATENT 

Novelty Mill and Grain Separator 




Is one of the greatest Improvements of the age for 
cleaning and fieparating Grain, while it combines all the 
eBsential qualities of a nrst-olass Fanning Mill. It also 
far excels anything that has been iuvfnted for the sepa- 
ration of Grain. It has been thoroughly tested on all 
the different kinds of mixed Grain. It takes out Mus- 
tard, Grass Seeds. Barley and Oats, and makes two dis- 
tinct qualities of wheat if desired. 

For further information apply to R. STONE, 
25vl-Sm 422 Battery street, San Francisco. 

Important to Wool Growers. 




PURE BLOODED 

FRENCH MERINO RAMS 

FOR SALE HY 

ROBERT BliACOW, 
Of Centerville, Alameda County, Cal. 



These Rams are guaranteed to be pure blooded 
French Merino, and I would respectfully call attention 
to them from those who desire to see or purchase the 
best and purest of stock. Iv2-8t 



THE STUDEBAKER 




THE BEST FABM WAGON; 

THE BEST BANCH WAGON J 

THE BEST TKCCK WAGON; 

THE BEST TEAM WAGON; 

THE BEST HEABEE WAGON; 

The Best Thimble Skein and Iron Axle 

W ^ O O IV s. 

Sold for $100 to $175. 

AMES & WOOLVERTON, 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast. 
5vl-3mr 217 & 210 K St., SACRAMENTO, CAL. 



. CUMMINGS. 
1868. 




WIESTER & CO., 

No. 17 New Montgomery Street (G-rand Hotel), San Francisco. 
I»^\.TE]>fT!9i BOXJOHT A.1ST> SOLD OIV COIMEMIISSIOIV. 

Patent Sand-Caps for HtiV>8 of Vclilcles. 

The invention consists of a ring of metal which Is made 
conical in form and has its smaller end attached to the axle 
near the collar. The edge of the larger end projects into a 
groove, nhich is formed inth' inner end of the hub, and 
thus effectually protects the collar and the axle-box from 
sand and dust. In the illustration, A is the hub of the 
wheel, B the axle, which may be fitted in any of the ordi- 
nary ways, C the collar, and E a ring of wood or metal, 
which may be put on by removing C. In the case of axles 

already made, or in new work, the ring may be slipped on before the axle is welded up. Town, County, Shop and 

State Rights for Sale. 

A. IVeTT Patent jVtmospherlo Attachnxent to I>ental Plates. 

Can be applied to both New and Old Plates, so as to retain them firmly in the mouth while eating or talking; 
STipcrior to any thing ever before invented, cost of applying it small, and the greatest improvement immediately 
felt by ihe wearer. 

All who have badly-fitting plates can, by the application of this Attachment, wear them with perfect comfort 
and usefulness while eating, talking, etc. State, County and Office Rights for Sale. 

Hill's Grate I5ar. 

This Bar will withstand 800 degrees more heat than any other Bar now in use. It is unequalled in durability. 
It generates more steam from the same quantity of coal, making a saving of from 10 to 1.5 per cent, in fuel. It has 
been examined and used by some of the most scientific Engineers in the Unit d States, and pronounced the best 
Grate Bar extant for marine or land boilers. The Patent Right to the Pacific Coast is placed in oiu: hands for sale. 
A complete model can be seen at our office, or a descriptive circular will be sent on application. 

A. Nov Potato l>ig:ger. 

County Rights for Sale and one Digger free. 
A. IVe-w Pa.tent Stencil Plate tliat -will 3Iarl«; any Pf ame or ;Pf imiTjcr. 

A. Complete Self-acting Nut Roaster. 

Thie Best Horse Hay Hake e^vcr Invented. County Rights for Sale. 

IVe-w Oas Light. 

This Lipht takes the place of the Candle, the Kerosene Lamp and Coal Gas. Each Lamp is a perfect Gas 
Factory, making its own gas as fu«t as it is required. It is a safe, cheap and beautiful light. Circulars and full 
particulars sent on application. 

Tlie Trliimph "Wasliing BTaoliine. 

He who finds a good wife finds a " good thing "— so we have heard it said - and he who finds a Washing Ma- 
chine such as the one invented by Mr. Hockabout, finds a thing that will do to talk about. The fact is, this 
Machine is beginning to be talked about a great deal, and the more it is talked about tlie mi're fully reople are 
becoming convinced that there is at least one Washing Machine that is not a humbug. It is simple in con- 
struction, and Eftore simple in its operation. All that is required is to feed it with clothes and turn the crank. It 
is provided with a heating chamber which keeps the water hot and steams the clothes. While in operation there 
are three rollers which pass over the clothes very rajiidly yet so gently as not to break the buttons or injure ihe 
garments. It would be difficult to enumerate in a brief advertisement all the superior merits of this novel in- 
vention. It can be built by any ordinary mechanic at a moderate cost and allow a handsome profit. State and 
County Rights for sale. A complete working model and large machine can be seen at our office. 
Ijiislier's "Veuetaljle Cutter. 

There are few inventions for which there is a more general want than a good, cheap and rapid Vegetable Cut- 
ter. We think the one recently patented by John Lusher, of Indiana, fully meets this want. It costs but a trifle, 
never colors or rusts, will last many years and always keep tharp. It operates equally well on Potatoes. Cabbage, 
Turnips, Beets, Cucumbers, etc.. cutting six slices at each mov ment of the hand. It can be made by any Tin- 
smith, and at a trifling cost. Stata, County or Shop Rights for Sale. Circulars sent on application. A sample 
can be seen at our office. 



CALIFORNIA CHE^IICAL PAINT CO^IPAW, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

CHEMICAL PAINT, 



AVERILL'S 



OF THE 



Purest White, and 100 Different Shades, 

MIXED READY FOR APPLICATION-ANY ONE CAN APPLY IT. 

This is the ONLY PAINT OF COMMERCE manufactured, being always held in solution by its peoiliar 
chemical combination, and sold by the gallon. It is warranted not to peel, crack, nor chalk off ; has a greater 
body and covering property, and will last twice as long as the best of other Paints, with a fine, hard, glossy sur- 
face, impel vious to the atmosphere, and extremely durable 

Oflice. 40S Ca^lifornia t'iti'GGt. 

MANUFACTORY, Corner Fourth and Townsend Streets. 

G. "W. OSBORN, 1 .„„„,^„ 
C. F. BROWN, } Agents. 



ap8-3m 




3. M. MAXWELL 
1871. 



HENRY K. CTJMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale rruit and Produce Commission 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 1858. 
41.5 and 417 Davis street, cor. of Oregon, San Francisco. 

Our business being exclusively Commission, we have 
no interests that will conflict with that of the producer. 
17 vl-tf 



THOS. BUTTERFIELD & SON, 

Breeders and Importers of the 

Cotswold, liincoln, lieioester, Texel and 

South Down Sheep ; 

ALSO, THE ANGORA GOAT. 

Now offer for sale the Pure Bred and High Grades. 
We have a good lot o' crosses between the Cotswold and 
South Down, between the Lincoln and Leicester. 

THOS. BUTTERFIELD & SON, 

24vl-llw HoUister, Monterey County, Cal. 



PURE BERKSHIRE SWINE. 

R. S. THOMPSON, 

Iraporter and Breeder of 

Improved Berkshire Hogs, 

NAPA, CALIFORNIA. 

Orders BoUcited. 

19-Tl-lm B. 8. THOMPSON. 



To Merchants, Manufacturers, 
Farmers and Nurserymen. 



Tenders will be received to the 25th of September 
next for the following supplies for the service of the 

California Cotton Growers and Manu- 
facturers Association. 

Twenty tons Cotton Seed, 12 Farm Wagons. 30 Plows, 
15 Harrows, 15 Cultivators, 100 Hoes, 36 Spades, 36 
Shovels, 12 Road Scrapers, 12 Wheelbarrows, 12 Stoves, 
12 Axes, 12 Hatchets, 12 Hammers, 12 Picks, 12 Haud- 
Saws, 4 CrosR-Cut Saws, 4 Augers, 4 Brace and Bits, 4 
Complete Sets Carpenters Tools, 4 Sets Light Harnei-s, 
4 Saddles and Bridles, 60 Sets Draft Harness, 250,000 feet 
Lumber, dressed and iindressed, 100 Doors, 200 Butt 
Hinges, 100 Locks and Keys, 300 Sash, glazed or un- 
glazed, 100 Kegs Nails 1,000 poimds paint, 60 gallons 
Oil, 500 000 Mulberry Tree=. 500,000 Grape Vines. 5,000 
Friiit Trees in Variety, 200 Sacks Flour, 400 Bushels Po- 
tatoes, 300 Bushels Indian Corn, 60 Draft Horses, 30 
Cows and 20 Hogs. 

Address Tenders to 

JAMES DALE JOHNSTON, 
Secretary and General Agent Cal. Cotton Growers and 

Manufacturers Association, San Francisco. 19vl-3m 



SACRAMENTO SEMINARY, 

I street, between Tenth and Eleventh, 
SACRAMENTO, CAL. 

The Sevknteenth Semi-Annual Session of this Semi- 
nary for Young Ladies, owned and conducted by Mr. and 
Mrs. Hermon Perry, assisted by a full and eflicieut corps 
of Professors and Teachers, will commence on MON- 
DAY, AUGUST 7TH, 1871. 

For particulars address 



24vl.2in 



HERMON PERRY, A. M., 

Sacramento, Cal, 



NASH & CUTTS' 
FANNING MILL AND GRAIN SEPARATOR 



FULL BLOODED SHEEP! 

For Sale, at Fair Prices, 40 Rams and 20 
Ewes, of 

Full Blooded ©illslaii Stoclc, 

from the celebrated "Electoral" Flock of William 
Chamberlain, Esq., of Red Hook, Duchess County, New 
York. These are the purest and best bred Silesian Sheep 
in the United States, If not in the world, and have 
carried off the 

FIRST PREMIUMS 

in Fine Wool Classes at the State and National Fairs 
since 1854. 

ALSO FOR SALE, * 

Full Blooded Cotswold and Full Blooded 
Leicestershire Rams and Ewes, 

just selected from the Best Flocks in England by one of 
the best of judges, Wm. T Wilson, Esq., and imported 
by him especially for this market. 

Also, California Bred, Full Blooded 
COTSWOLD AND SOUTHDOWNS, 

and M and other crosses between these Breeds and be- 
tween each of these Breeds and Full Blooded 
Spanish Merinos. 

Also, Full Blooded Berkshire Pig's, 

selected and imported by the same party above named. 

HIGHEST PRICES PAID FOR WOOL, 

and Wool Pressed and Shipped for Exporters, with Care 
and on Reasonable Terms. Also good Farming and 
Grazing Land, well located and in quantities to suit, by 

ROBERT BECK, 

At the OiBce of the Secretary of the Cal. State Agricul- 
tural Society, Sacramento, Cal. 
20vl-3m 



STEINWAY & SONS' 
Patent Agpra, il'e Pianos, 

GRAND, SaUARE AND XIPRIOHT. 

Pianos to Let. 





FIRST PREMIUM at the California State Fair of 1870 
over iiU other Mills in the State, alter a Thorough Prac- 
tical Trial by the Committee of Farms, with all kinds 
OF GKAIN. It is the Cheapest and Best Mill in use, and 
the only one that will completely separate Barley, Oats, 
Smut, Chess, and all kindsof Grass and Weed Seed, from 
Wheat, and at the same time sepai ate perfectly the dif- 
ferent qualities of Wheat. Also separates Oats and all 
foul seed from Barley, or Barley and Wheat from Oats. 
It will clean Beans, Peas, Corn, and all kinds of grain, 
perfectly, and more rapidly than any otlifr Mill ever 
built. For sale by NASH, KING, MILLER & CO., at 
Manufactory, comer K and T'entli streets, Sacramento, 
Cal. 26vl-3m 



Holhrook's Patent Svvivei PlowSt 

For Level Land and Side Hill. 




Send Stamp for Circular. 



WON THE 

HIGHEST PRIZE 

at N.Y. State Trial, 
1870, for Plowing 

Sod & Stubbla 



They leave no dead furrows nor ridges, but an even 
surface for the lieaper. Mower, Rake, and Irrigation; 
turu deep flat furrow-slices on level land; clear and p\il- 
verize thoroughly; are of easy draft, strong and durable. 
Have self adjusting, self-clearing hinged steel Cutters. 
Changeable Mould-boards for sod and stubble. 

They are particularly well adapted for reclaiming 
Bog Meadows, with the Patent Steel-Edged Swivel Share 
and Side Draft Clevis. 

Manufactiu'ed and sold by 

F. F. HOLBROOK & CO., 

19vl-7Min Boston, Massachusetts 



F. A. ROULEAU, 

SEARCHER OF RECORDS, 

No. 620 Washington Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

2v2-2m 




msl8-tf 



A. HEYMAN, 

I street, between Sixth and Seventh, 
Opposite old Capitol, Sa^auento. 



THE MASONIC MIRROR, 
A QUARTO-MEDIUM SIXTEEN PAGE 

Literary and Family Newspaper, 



Orgiin orihe Mawnic Fi*ntei*nlly on the 
I'aelflc <:oa»<t. 

Subscription Reduced to $2.50 per Year. 

endorsement of the grand lodge. 

The following resolution was unanimously adopted by 
the M.-. W.-. Grand Lodge, F. . A '. M. . of the State of 
California, at its Annual Communication, October, 1870. 

Whereas, In the opinion of this Graud Lodge, a well 
conducted Masonic Journal is of great benefit to the 
craft, in disseminating Masonic iuformation among the 
fraternity, as well as furnishing a medium for general 
Masonic intelligence. Therefore, 

Resolved, That this Grand Lodge, recognizing in the 
Masonic Miiuior, edited by Broth'-rs Amasa W. Bishop 
and Edwin A Sherman, and published by the Masonic 
Publishing Company of San Francisco, a Masonic .Jour- 
nal of the character above set forth, do hen by recom- 
mend the said Masonic Mibbok to the craft generally, 
as worthy of their most favorable consideration and 
support. 

endorsement of the grand lodge of NEVADA. 

At the Annual Communication o^the Grand Lodge of 
the State of Nevada, held October. 1870. the following 
endorsement was unanimously adoi)ted: 

Jicsolved, That we recommend the Masonic Miruor, 
published in San Francisco, to the support of the Craft 
at large. 

ENDORSEMENT OF THE GRAND COVSISTORT. 

At the communication of the M •. P.-. Grand Consis- 
tory, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemason- 
ry in and for the State of California, held October, 1870 
at San Francisco, the following resolution was unani- 
mously adopted: Resolved, That the Masonic Mirror, 
published in this city be the oflicial organ of this Grand 
Consistory. 

TO AnVEKTISERS. 
The Mirror presents the best Advertising medium on 
the Pacilic Coast, as it circulates in every town and 
hamlet, and among a class of citizens that it will be of 
advantage to advertisers to reach. 

BISHOP & SHERMAN, 
608 Market Street, San Francisco. 



48 



S^AOIf 10 SaWBJ.^ SP^ESS. 



[July 22, 187] 







Is issued weekly on Saturdays, contaiuiug 
sixteen pages devoted to 

As:i-le«lt«re, ITortlonlturo, Stocli 

lt.aisliij^, Domestic IScoiioiiiy, 

Home ]\Ia.iiiilact\ii*es IVIe- 

oliaiiics, IiiicluMtx-]c»!i. oto. 

Witli an able and ample corps of editors, spe- 
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well as instructive, which not only make the 
Rqral Press an able assistant to its patrons, 
but an attractive and welcome visitor to every 
/eader in every intelligent 

Home Circle ; 

for few there are — male or female — who will not 
find pleasure and ennoblement in the study of 
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Honest, intelligent and correct information 
is faithfully given, in behalf of, and urging 

An improved Cultivation of the Soil; 
A greater Diversity of Products; 
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Valuable and Timely Hints, 

are given weekly to lessen the labors the of 
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the healtli, the wealth and the wisdom of every 
patron of industry. 

How to Farm in the Pacific 
States. 

As the conditions and circtmistances of soil 
aud climate and seasons on this coast are so pe- 
culiar that many of the approved methods of 
eastern agriculture are not at all apphcable on 
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The following are among the specialties upon 
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A select variety of advertisements only will be insert- 
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population, the P. U. P. will be the cheapest and 
most effective medium for a large rauye of ttrst class 
advertisements in the Pacific states. 

Correspondence is respectfully solicited from 
everj' worthy source. 

Local Canv.asskrs Wanted for every town, 
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Ten copies or more, first year, each $3,00 

[A. free copy or premium sent to getter vj ot club.j 

r>ii:wEY & Co., 

Publishers, Patent Agents and Engravers, No . 
4U Ckv St., San Francisco. Nov. 21, 1870. 



A CHEAP A.]Vr> r>ESITtABLE BOOK. 



,^S'C0N7f/)£NJ; 




It contains a complete colored 

:map of the world, 

worth double its cost. 



"■£; -'-'^ pages. In pamphlet, 75 cts. 
^^ cloth bound, $1.00. 

FOR SALE BY 

Dewey & Co., of this office. 
Postage free. 



The Pacific Rural Press 
is meeting with Popular Success. 
New correspondents are coining 
to its aid and its patrons are in- 
creasing from various sections at 
home and abroad. Testimonials 
of the great value of its timely 
and fresh information are daily 
received, and we now know that 
we can and shall publish and 
maintain a first-class agricultural 
journal of great profit to every 
reader and of essential benefit and 
importance to the community of 
the Pacific Coast. 



w. H. <iORniLL, Pres't. F. MALOON, Secy. 

Pacific Bridge Company 

Are prepared to build Wooden and Iron Bridges on 
.S.MI I US PATENT TRUSS PLAN. 
Plans and speciftcations furnished to counties or per- 
sons desiring to build. Lithographs and prices sent on 
a])plication. 

Smith's Cast Iron Pier, durable as stone, and 
adapted to resist rapid currents, put in at low rates. 

Address PACIFIC BKIDOE CO., 

3v2-3m-eow Oakland Cal. 



ACTIVE MEN ! 

WITH EXPERIENCE IN CANVASSING 

business, cau now obtuiu lucrative aud pcrnr-aiRnt em- 
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RAL PRESS, No. 414 Clay street, S. F. 



GEO. B. BAYLEY, 

Corner Sixteenth and Castro Streets, OAKLAND. 





4i 
Second St, 



LELAN3 STANFORD 

J?resitlont. 
H. F. HASTINGS, Vice President 
JOS. CRACKBON, - Secretarj 

o) clvtelucl/ 0) «livLoii>etui 

^e/nelal ^gerUi-, ^fu-me 0lJict 

3v2-3m 137 Montgomery street, San Francisco. 




SELTZER 




Importer and Breeder of 
CHOICE POXJLTR^Sr. 

Every variety of Fancy Poultry constantly on ban d 
and for sale. 
Address, vith stamp, P. 0. Box 659, Ban Francisco. 



DA.NA BICKFORD'S 

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KIVIXXING ]>XA.Cm]XE. 

$ljOOO ^° $5)000 can make in almost 
any section of the coiiiiirv. selling Dana Bickford's new 
and improved FAMILY KNITTER. This Machine is 
guarant<-ed (in its prfs<-iit completeness) to meet every 
want of the household for either domestic or fancy work. 
Price $25. Send stauiped envelope with lull directions 
foi an illustrated book. Address 

DANA BICKFORD, 
Vice-President and General Agent, 689 Broadway, N. Y. 
3vJ3-tfbp 



HOOKER'S 

Improved 

DEEP-WELL 



Thebeatandcheai>ret Domestic Pump in the market. 
UEIIIIT <Si PI.AIK. 

Wholesale Agents, 112 California Bt. San Francisco. 




Sects and Creeds differ, but there are no dissent. 
ers from tlie general principle, that a great medicine is 
a great blessing. We have many of these blessings, but 
among them all, in the province to which it belongs, no 
greater than 

Tarrant'i Effervesoent Seltxer Ap«rient. 
A column would not suffice to enumerate the ailments 
for which it is prescribed by physicians of the highest 
standing. It does not belong to the class derisively 
termed patent medicines, but is an article based on 
scientific analysis, and will stand the test of the sharp- 
est and most rigid medical criticism as » cathartic, a 
stomachic, an anti-febrile preparation, and an admirable 
remedy for all bilious complaints. L>rr thebk be no 

MISTAKE. SeCITBE THE OKNUINE ABTICLE ONLY. 

SOLD BY ALL DRUGGISTS. 




SEETZER 




ARTIFICIAL LIMBS. 

A. MARKS, No. 575 Broadway, N. Y. City, 



FISH CULTURE. 

FOR SALE. AT THE TAHOE FISH- 
ERY, situated five miles from Truckee 
City. C. P. R. R., 

One Hundred Thousand Mountain Trout, 

one year old, and Five Hundred Thousand just 

hatched, suitable for stocking Springs, Ponds, Lakes 

and Rivers. 

Orders solicited by COMER BROS. * CO., 

2Vi-16p^w Truckea. 



the inventor and author- 
ized United States Govern 
mcnt manufacturer of the 
celebrated first premium 
Artificial Limbs with Rub- 
ber Hands and Feet, has 
published a new and enlarged edition of his Illustra u-a 
Pamphlet, of importance to all who have suffered am- 
putations, especially to officers and soldiers who lost 
their limos in service. Copies sent free to applicants 
21vl-13t6]Jtr 



1. 



SWEET CHESTNUT TREES. 

ONE-HALF MILLION, besides a large general Nursery 
Stock. A Sixti'en-page Circular Free. Also a Trade 
List for Nurserymen and Dealers. Can send safely to 
California. Small Trees by mail; large ones by freight 
or express. Address STORU8, HARRISON & CO., 

Iv2-6iu PaincBVille, Lake Co., Ohio. 



Designing 



and 



Engraving 




By the Best of Artists, 
At this Office. 

FOREIGN PATENTS 

For Pacific States Inventors 
ARE SECURED IN MUCH LESS TIME, 

— BT — 

DEWEY & CO., 

Propriitors of the 

SCIENTIFIC PRESS, 

Than through any other Agency. 
ESTABLISHED IN ISeO, 

This Firm can be Relied Upon 

—AS- 
HONEST, COMPETENT, PERMANENT, 

All of which points are imperatively requisite in 

Attorneys, for the Interests of their Appliauts 

tor Patents in distant lands. 



Onr Associates and Corresponden' s are the Best 
Practitioners in every coimtry where Patents are 
granti:d. 

For Foreign Patents no model is required except in 
Cana'la. The Specifications aud Drawingsi.f the Ameri- 
can Patent, if complete and perfect, will suffice for us 
to prepare the case. In Great Britain and other coun- 
tries we apply for patents in the inventors' own names, 
thus avoiding their tx-ing published to the world in the 
name of a foreign agent, as is usual through other and 
less puiiistHkiug ageiicii-s. 

Frequently sev ral inventions, covered by different 
patents in the United States, on the same subject, can 
l>e skillfully combined in one patent in foreign coun- 
tries when well understood by intelligent attorneys. 

As tlie privileges of our inventors are cut off in mmt 
countries, and curtailed in others, if not applied for 
so<)n after the issue of the U. S. patent, we advise in- 
ventors whose patents will be valuable in various popu- 
lous civilized countries, to lose no time in applying for 
patents whenever they intend to obtain them for them- 
selves i>r the benefit of others— with their own means or 
through the resources of those who are permitted to 
share the benefits. It must be remembered that the 
Knglish (and some other important nations) invite the 
early introduction of inventions intt* their realms, by 
offering patents to the first inirtiducn- (which means the 
first applicant), without regard to the rights of the 
actual inventor, who has no after recourse. 

For important inventions it is l>est to apply for foreign 
patents at the time of application (or or before the issue 
of the U. S. patent. 



Term of Patents in Foreign Countries. 




Countries. 


Period of years crranted, etc. 


AcsTiiALiAN Colonies: 


U yra. in Boccewive periods, 

i, 4 and 7 yeare. 
Uyrs. in succetisive periodfl, 
3, 4 and 7 years. 
7 to U years. 
7 to 14 years. 
Full term. 14 yearn. 


Tas-W.vnia 

New South Wales 

oueensi.and 

New Zealand 


AnoENTiNB Republic 


'25 years or more, determined 
byKcvenunent. 






Bka/.ils 

Bkitish Colotibia 

Canada 


5 to *JW years. 
Full term, 14 years. 
14 years. 
2A years or more, determined 


Cuba 


by Kovernmont. 
MO and IS ycarB. 
S to a) years, at the option 
of government. 
14 years, in succeRRire peri- 
ods, 3, 4 and 7 years. 
la years, by annuities. 


England 

Prance 








14 years. 5 copies specifica- 
tion ref^iuired. 




Nob WAY 


5 to 10 years, at the option 
of Rovernment. 


Prussia 

Peru 


years. 
I'sually 5 years. 
2S years or more, determined 

by government. 


Russia 

Saxony 

Spain 


Importation 1 to fi yeani. In- 
vention 3, Y 10 years. 
.S years, with prolongation 
to 10. 

Importation 5 years. Inven- 
tion 5, 10 and lA years. 

3 to S years, at-the option of 


SWFDEN 


WuRTEMBrRO 


government. 
S to 10 years. 



The Pbu'Eb for foreign patents range in some coun- 
tries according to the term for which they are taken. 
We will furnish the price for any particular cuuntrieB 
on application to us. 

We have the Foreign Patent Laws, Foreign Patent Be- 
portfi, and other valuable aud assisting documents, for 
ready reference in our Si*ientific Press Patent Agency 
Library- the most complete Patent Librarj' on this aide 
of the Continent. 

Any further information regarding the time within 
which patents must be worked in any fonigu country, 
time of payment and amount of annuities fur patents in 
any of the above countries, will be cheerfully given on 
application. 

Full particulars regarding any countries not named 
abt)ve, will also be given when desired. 

OEWKY & CO.f 

Patent A^cnttit. 

Publishers of the BciEyrinr Prebu and the Pacific 
BxTBAi< PaEAS, San i>YanciHco. 




Volume II.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 29, 1871. 



[Number 4. 



Modes of Growing Rioe in South 
Carolina. 

A knowledge of the mode of cultivating 
rice in South Carolina may be of use in the 
culture of a different variety of the grain 
in another climate, on a different soil, and 
with another kind of labor. But it may be 
totally inajjplicable. 

I know of no essay or article in i>rint, on 
this subject, which does not presuppose 
some knowledge of themattor, in order that 
the reader should understand it. All that 
I have seen embrace only parts of the sub- 
ject, and are full of technical terms 25ecu- 
liar to rice planters, or rather rice growers. 

I will endeavor to give such an explana- 
tion of the mode of preparing lands for the 
culture of rice, and of the process of culti- 
vation, as may be iinderstood by one to 
whom the whole matter is new. I have to 
do it on short notice, and must be necessa- 
rily brief, and can furnish but rude draw- 
ings and diagi-ams to assist in explaining 
what I here write. 

The variety of rice cultivated in South 
Carolina, for market, is called "Gold seed," 
from the bright golden or yellow color of 
the husk or chaff, which encloses the ker- 
nel or grain, which is of itself a pearly 
color. Another variety, called "White 
Eice," differing from the former in the pale 
straw color of its chaff, and in a greater 
tendency of the grain to break off from the 
ear when it is being cut and removed from 
the field, is also cultivated to a small ex- 
tent. The White rice is said to have been 
introduced from Madagascar, and was su- 
perseded by the Gold Seed, which is said 
to have been brought from India. 

The rice lands in South Carolina are 
either tide swamp or inland swamp. My 
experience is confined to the former. 

Eice is chiefly and most successfully cul- 
tivated on what are called "tide swamp 
lands," that is, alluvial lands situated on a 
river, and so near to its mouth as to afford 
a rise and fall of the tide not less than three 
and a half feet at spring tides, and so far 
from the sea that the water is usually fresh 
at high water tide, at least during the 
spring and summer. Batween these two 
points all the alhivial tide lands worth 
planting in rice are to be found, and the 
extent of this region iip and down this 
stream, and also its breadth from highland 
to highland on each side or the alluvial 
valley of the river, varies with each partic- 
lar river. The soil.* of these alluvions 
also vary greatly. The best have a large 
proportion of bluish or brownish clay in- 
termixed with and underlying the vegeta- 
ble mold. That which is black in color, 
and peaty in its appearance is generally 
bad, though there arestrikingexceptionsto 
this remark. A shallow mold with sand un- 
derlying it near the surface is always bad. 

The croi^s sown highest ujj the river are 
liable to be injured by inundations or 
freshets; those lowest down the river 
by the want of fresh water during a 
drouth, at a season when the plant needs 
■water. Lands situated between these two 
extremes are the safest and most valuable. 
A rise and fall of six feet in the tide is ad- 
vantageous — say at high water on the spring 
tide, one and a half feet above the level of 
the alluvial land, that gives hight enough 
to flow the fields, and four and a half feet, 
at low water, below the level of the land, 
will allow of good drainage. 

To convert such lauds from a state of na- 
ture into a rice plantation, or a number of 
rice fields, requires some skill and much la- 
bor, as will be seen by the illustration ac- 
companying this article. 

As these lands are subject to be overflowed 
at high water, at spring tides at least, you 
must be able to control this overflow, that 
is permit or prevent it at your pleasure. 
To do this, the land must be surrounded 



by a dike or embankment, except where it 
abuts against adjacenthighland. In South 
Carolina, few rice fields are three feet be- 
low the level of the spring tides, and the 
best are not two below them, so tlaat banks 
four feet or four and a half feet are sufii- 
ciently high. 

The dike or bank is made thiis: The 
space it is to occupy is laid out 12 feet wide 
along the land near the river, leaving a 
margin of at least 20 feet between it and 



o 
c 

30 




No. 1— Eice Field, 20 acres. 

No. 2— Rice Field, 20 acres (with two trunks) 
Field has a lo-wer level than the others. 

No. 8— Kice Field, 16 acres. 

No. 4— Rice Field, 12 acres. 

T T r-Trunks and tnink-docks. 

li iJ— River. 

L — Highland along the bank of the river. 

The double lines are the banks along the river, and 
those dividing the fields from each other. The single 
lines are the ditches running parallel with the banks. 
The light par'.llel lines across the fields are the quarter- 
drains. This is not the plan of any particular held or 
by any scale, but merely by the eye to explain what is 
written. 

the river at the j^oints where it approaches 
it nearest. Along, and in the middle of 
this space laid out for the bank, a ditch is 
then excavated three feet wide and three 
feet deeji, tbe earth being heaj^ed on the 
side toward the river. This is called a cen- 
ter ditch, and its object is effectually to 
prevent leaks in and under the future bank 
in making which the center ditch is filled 
uj), the earth being well packed and 
rammed into it. Then you lay out another 
ditch parallel with the course of the bank 
at about 15 or 20 feet from the inner edge 
of the bank being next the river. This 
ditch must be excavated six feet wide at 
the top, three or four at the bottom, and 
five feet deep — all the earth being thrown 
out on the side towards the bank. With this 
earth and that which came out of the center 
ditch the bank is made in and on the center 
ditch ; as this will probably be insufficient 
to make the land high and wide enough, 
you ciit another ditch on the margin be- 
tween the river and the bank to complete 
it. It should be cut at least 10 or 15 feet 
from the bank. It should not be a con- 
tinuous ditch so that a stream of water can 
run through it, but rather a succession of 
short ditches separated by several feet of 



keep the water out of the field, but also to 
have the means of letting it in at high tide 
or of letting it out at low tide, at your op- 
tion. For this purpose, a kind of small 
tibod-gate (subterranean flood-gate) is used, 
called a "trunk." Thus: 



when the trunk doors close them, the wa- 
ter will flow from the river into tbe field 
during flood tide, and out of the field into 
the river on ebb tide. At each end of the 
trunk are two posts, one on each side se- 
cured to the trunk by a frame work. At- 
tached to the ujjper end of each pair of 
these posts by a rod which serves as a pivot 
are two slighter posts or arms. The low- 
er end of these arms (each pair of them) , 
are firmly fastened to a wooden valve or 





c 








at 


I 






i 


1 1 1 


&■ 






J Li 




Trunk— Front View. 

a a — Ratchet pins. 
6— Brace to posts. 
c — Pivot rod. 
d— Water way. 




a 



A Rice Field Trunk— Side View. 




Profile of Cross Section of Rice Field, 

n— Bank four and a half feet high. 6- Center Ditch filled up. t 
not continuous. /—The river at highest tide, p— Low water. 

unbroken soil between their ends, that 
they may in time be filled up with soil. 
The bank and inner ditch run all around 
the field and inclose it. 
But it is necessary not only to be able to 



The trunk is a large tube made of wood, 
put down horizontally under the bank (at 
some convenient point for draining and flow- 
ing) at right angles with the course of the 
bank. The bottom of this tube, which is 
the water way of the trench, is about four 
and a half feet below the level of the sur- 
face of the alluvial land, or field. A short 



J. — j^.^i^ 



•—Outer Ditch, 




Bank and Ditclies. 

-Inner margin, d— Ditch. 



but wide and deep ditch called the trunk 
duck connects the outer end of the trunk 
with the river, and a similar ditch connects 
the inner end with the ditch in the field. 
The trunk being open at both ends, except 



Trunk Door— Detached 
from Trunk. 

a— Door. 

6— Brace to the arms, 
c c — Pivot rod holes. 
d d— Ratchets. 



door, which is made to cover and close the 
open mouth of the trunk. The door and 
its arms swing freely on the invot rod 
which passes through the tops of the arms 
also. The ratchet bar attached to the door- 
arms may be caught on its pin so as to 
keep the door open, that is, one, two or 
more feet from the trunk. The water on 
flood-tide runs into the trunk, the inner 
door yields easily to the pressure, the ditch 
is soon filled and the field soon begins to . 
be covered with water. But on the ebb 
tide, as the water falls in the river, the 
water in the field attempts to flow out, but 
the smallest ijressure of the returning- 
water shuts the inner door of the trunk and 
the water is kept in the field. The next 
flood tide will put more water in the field 
if it is wanted. As both 
ends of the trunk and both 
doors are exactly alike, you 
can reverse the process, 
and keep the field flowed 
or drained, at your option. 
The trunk is usually put 
down while you are making 
the bank, as it is almost 
immediately useful in keep- 
ing the land drained and 
so facilitating work on it. 
Description of Trunk. 
This trunk consists of 
two timber sides, each 25 
feet long, 18 inches wide 
and 4 inches thick. They 
are placed jiarallel to each 
other, four feet apart, and 
are secured to each other by a number of 
plank 4 feet 8 inches long, fastened to each 
end by stout wooden pins, to one of the 
sides, and jointed so as to get closely up to 
each other; the whole making a strong 
wooden box 25 feet long, 4 feet wide and 
18 inches deep in interior cai^acity, but 
open at the ends. Over each end of this 
box, a frame made of 8x4 scantling is 
Qlosely fitted as seen in the drawing 
of the front view of the trunk — the per- 
pendicular parts of the frame being 11 
feet long, and forming the posts or uprights 
on which the trunk and doors are hung. 
The frame is strongly pinned on to the 
trunk and over hangs the length of the 
trunk a Yt inch, that the trunk door may 
shut flush or level against the frame and be 
almost water-tight Avhen closed. 

With a good rise and fall of tide, such a 
trunk will serve a level rice field of from 
12 to 20 acres, flowing in two tides, and 
draining in the interval. 

[Concluded next week.] 




a— Water way, length ir> feet. 
b 6— Doors. 

c c— Ratchets to keep the doors 
open at any required width, 
d— Bank. 



50 



sfe^®^ W*L «fe J* W »fe\* y J»U sQa i«i (st^^ sfcv» •£* © O •) 



[July 29, 1871. 



ECHANICAL ^ROGRESS. 



Steam Type-Composing Machine. — The 
Mechanics' Magaziiie, July 1st, says tliat 
A. Maekio,of the Warringlon Guardian, lias 
invented a machine -which really Joes elH- 
ciently the work of the compositor. It 
consists of a perforating and a type-set- 
ting machine. The former is a small ap- 
paratus with IG finger keys, which pre- 
pares strips of paper which govern the 
type-setter. The strips are about 2 in. 
wide, perforated with a central, continu- 
ous row of equidistant holes, on each side 
of which are eight other rows, not continu- 
ous but intermittent. Tliese strips are to 
the type-setter what the Jacquard cards are 
to the loom. The rate of production with 
one perforating machine is about 10,000 
letters per hour. The composing ma- 
chine is a circular metal framing, hav- 
ing around its perijjhery 29 boxes or 
" pockets," each divided into 8 compart- 
ments, 7 for letters and 1 for spaces. A 
lip at the bottom prevents the type from 
falling out, but room is left for the inser- 
tion of the "pickpocket." Inside the cir- 
cle of pockets another wheel revolves, car- 
rying a number of type-extractors, or 
" pickpockets," arranged around its peri- 
phery. Each pickpocket has a receiving 
table, in which are formed 8 holes tlirough 
which pins are caused to rise. These ta- 
bles are hinged and can be lowered so that 
any type on them will clear the pockets, or 
they can bo raised horizontally to ])as8 
close under the pockets. If when tlius 
raised any of the pins project above the 
face of the table, each pin, passing under a 
pocket, will draw out a type from that di- 
vision under which it passes. Such types 
fall on the receiving table, which is then 
depressed and carries the types to the 
point of delivery. The perforated paper 
strip is fed into the machine and fed for- 
ward by pins fitting the central row of 
holes. Sixteen leverswith pegsare always 
seeking to enter the other perforations. 
Two of the first eight levers find the perfo- 
rations which set the pickijockets, so that 
they will act on the proper i^ocket. The 
second eight levers find holes according to 
the word wanted, so that a pickpocket can 
take type out of all the 8 divisions of any 
pocket simultaneously, when necessary. 
A certain method of arrangement is ob- 
served in placing the types in the pockets, 
and thus 5lr. Mackie has been able to pro- 
duce combinations by which ho can with- 
draw from the pockets, each at a single 
operation, about 700 words or jjarts of 
words. We have thus a machine possess- 
ing the almost wonderful power of com- 
posing complete words at one operation. 
The types are discharged from the receiv- 
ing tables, by proper devices, in a continu- 
ousstream into lengths of brass rule. Then 
manual labor removes them at times, di- 
vides them into lines, and justifies. The 
distribution of the letters into duplicates 
of the packets is done by boys. The com- 
posing power of the machine is stated to 
be 12,000 letters per hour, equal to a col- 
umn of the Times in minion, or small type. 
The machine has been operating for nearly 
a year for the Guardian, and is now used 
for the GrajJiic, and is highly praised. 

BalIiOOn Compass. — The French astron- 
omer, Jansenn, has invented a compass for 
determining the course and speed of bal- 
loons. It is described in the Comptes Reii- 
dnx of last February. It consists of a 
cylindrical metal case. 3^j to 4% inches in 
diameter, and the samo in hight, with a 
glass bottom and open at the top. Two 
small arms on branches rise from the up- 
per end of the case and support between 
them a little metallic disk 10 to 12 in. above 
the glass bottom. Tliis disk serves as an 
eye piece, having a small hole in it in the 
line of axis of the cylinder. Upon the 
glass bottom are engraved a number of 
concentric graduated circles, whose radii 
are so calculated as to be visible througbthe 
eye piece under angles of 1", 2", 8\ and 
10'. Four diametrical lines divide the 
largest circle (the "great circle") at equal 
distances. The instrument is hung by a 
Cardan apparatus so as to insure verticali- 
ty during observation. A compass needle 
is fitted to the glass bottom, a little eccen- 
trically (to leave the vision unimpeded) 
and is provided with a small gratluated 
circle, of which the needle's pivot is the 
center, so divided that the cord of 180^ may 
be parallel to the line 0" — 180' of the great 
circle. By looking at points on the earth 
through the eye piece, and by the aid of 
calculations, the course and speed of the 
b^loon can be ascertained. 



Automatic or Fast-Speed Telegraph. — 
Prof. "Wheatstone's apparatus consists of a 
perforator, a transmitter and a receptor. 
The perforator is an iron case with three 
keys struck down by the operator. These 
keys work with three punches which pro- 
duce holes coi-responding to dots, dashes 
and spaces in the strip. The transmitter 
consists of a clockwork which draws the 
prepared paper continuously forwai-d by 
the teeth on the periphery of a spurwheel 
entering the central line of holes of the 
paper. The holes on tlie one side or the 
other represent the positions of positive or 
negative currents. Twosmall vertical pins 
more up and down underneath the paper 
strip, one under each row of holes. Wlien 
a hole occurs, the pin rises through it and, 
by a connecting lever, suitable contact is 
made with the battery. When no hole oc- 
curs, the i)in stops against the paper and 
no contact is given. The receptor is simi- 
lar to the ink-recording Morse apparatus, 
but of somewhat finer arrangement and 
very light, thus allowing great sensibility 
and fast working. 

The Siemen's sj'stem differs principally 
in providing the paper strip with a continu- 
ous line of holes previous to punching it 
with holes for giving currents, and in the 
current-holes being provided in the requi- 
site groups by punches worked by a key- 
board, so that the operator has only to 
press one key for each letter, instead of 
composing the letters of the elementary 
signals. The keyboard has as many keys 
as there are letters, figures and punctuation 
marks. The momentary touch of a key 
punches properly and advances the strip 
for the next punch. The transmitter is 
arranged either for magneto-electric or for 
galvanic currents, For the latter the con- 
tacts with the alternate holes are given by 
a special commutator of the form of a 
roller cut in halves, which come togetlier 
in saw-teeth and fit into one another with- 
out touching. The halves connect with 
the two poles of a battery, and as the holes 
in the paper strips occur at intervals cor- 
responding to the breadth of the teeth, the 
contact spring or brush falling through a 
hole makes contacts with the alternate 
holes as the grouping of the signal re- 
quires. The receiving apparatus is a very 
delicate inkwriter, the cores of its electro- 
magnets being made of rolls of sheet iron. 
Mechanics' Magazine. 

Febrie's Self-Cokino Blast Furnace. — 
Tlie one at the Monkland Iron Works is 
illustrated in Evgineerivr/ of June 16. It 
is 8:! ft. high, 18 ft. in diameter at the 
boshes and*2% ft. at the top. The upper 
part for 20 ft. below the bell and cone 
space is divided into 4 compartments by 
vertical walls, resting on arches and radiat- 
ing from the center. These walls and the 
circumferential walls are pierced with 
flues, into which is received a portion of 
the gases taken from the top. These gases 
are here ignited, receiving a supply of air 
through gratings in the external wall of the 
furnace. The temperature in the flues 
ranges from 1500' to 1700' This effects a 
coking of the coal in the compartments, a 
driving off of all moisture in the ore, etc., 
and the expulsion of the carbonic acid out 
of the limestone. The materials fall from 
these compartments into the smelting zone. 
Very good results are reported. Mr. 
Ferrie claims a saving of nearly 1 ton coal 
to 1 ton of iron produced, and a saving of 
'lYt cwt. ore per ton of iron, at least in 
certain districts. The furnace runs regu- 
larly and produces good iron. 

The Burden Horse Shoe patent has 
been extended. The machine turns out a 
shoe each second, of an average weight of 
1 th. One machine often uses 10 J^ tons 
of bar iron in 12 hours, equal to the work 
of at least 600 men. The average cost of 
making a horse shoe by hand is estimated at 
16 to 20 cts. (exclusive of material); the 
average cost of the Burden shoe is ^Yt to 5 
cts. Since the introduction of the ma- 
chine, 82,000 tons of iron have been used 
by it, and the sales have amounted to 
$9,000,000,— a saving of $18,000,000 to the 
\)\\h\ic.—Ex. 

Slate fob Enobating. — The use of 
slate, instead of box-wood, for engraving 
is said to have been found both economi- 
cal and efficient. The blocks are easily 
cut, will wear as well as electrotypes, 
furnish over 100,000 impressions without 
loss of detail, are not affected by oil or 
water, do not vary with the temperature, and 
do not warp. 

The Suez Canal is regarded as definite- 
ly completed, having a dejith of 26 ft. 8 in. 
throughout. M. de Lesseps is stated to have 
been negotiating with the Duke of Suther- 
land for additional capital. The financial 
results of the enterprise are not favoi'able. 



iCiENTiFic Progress. 



Metals Precipitated from Solutions 
BY Sulphides— Gold and Sil^ter Depos- 
its. — Mr. Daintree had observed that gold, 
when placed in a solution of its chloride 
undergoing decomposition by contact with 
organic matter, acts as a nucleus for the 
liberated gold. Copper, iron and arseni- 
cal pyrites, galena, zincblende, stibnite, 
wolfram and molybdenite also act thus as 
nuclei, but brown iron ore and quartz do 
not. Mr. Wm. Skey, of the New Zealand 
(leological Survey, has been seeking an ex- 
planation of this. His results were given 
in a paper which has been published by 
the Chemical Nexcs. We condense: That 
gold should act as a nucleus for gold lib- 
erated from solution, is similar to the action 
of numerous other substances. The pro- 
toxide of iron in wolfram explains its ac- 
tion, as soluble proto-salts of iron reduce 
gold salts. The other cases are those of 
sulphides and arsenides. Experiments 
show that these have a reducing power on 
gold chloride. The presence of organic 
matter is no help, but rather a hindrance. 
Gold chloride was found to be reduced by 
contact with proto- and bi-sulphide of iron, 
ferro-sulphide and sub-sulphide of copper, 
sulphides of zinc, tin, molybdenum, lead, 
mercury, silver, antimony, bismutli, ar- 
senic, platinum and gold; also by mis- 
pickel (Fe As- + Fe S- ) and arsenide of 
silver. Cubical iron pyrites is rather slow 
in its action; antimony sulphide scarcely 
affects it at first, but rapidly after some 
hours. All these effects occur at common 
temperature, except with sulphide of bis- 
muth. There is no reason to suppose that 
light has been concerned in these reac- 
tions. 

The mode in which these effects were 
produced was by the oxidation of the metal 
and of the sulphur (arsenic) of the nu- 
clei. Silver and platinum also, and pos- 
sibly most or all of the metals of the pla- 
tinum series, are found reducible in this 
way from their solutions in acids by 
metallic sulphides and arsenides. Tlius, 
silver is reduced from its nitrate and 
acetate very readily by galena, copper py- 
rites and the inferior sulphides of iron and 
copper. From ammoniacal solutions, how- 
ever, it is not reduced by any of these 
sulphides, not even when heated with 
tliem, except by sub-suliihido of copper. 
As deposited by galena, wire-silver was 
formed just as found in nature. Cubic 
iron pyrites and stibnite has little or no 
effect on silver salts, even when heated 
with them; ar.senide of silver has a feeble 
effect. Platinum is reduced slowly from 
its bi-chloride solution by galena and grej- 
copper ore, and still more slowly by iron 
pyrites. These were the only sulphides 
tried. None of the sulphides enumerated 
appear to reduce metallic mercury from its 
bichloride solution, but most of them re- 
duce it to sub-chloride. Sulphide of gold 
ev(n thus effects this mercurial salt, the 
sulphur being oxidized, and the gold set 
free. Neither sulphate nor acetate of cop- 
j)er are affected by these sulphides. Per- 
chloride of iron is reduced to protochloride 
by galena and grey copper ore. 

Now, when, in place of the chloride used 
in the above experiments, the o.ride of gold 
was used in solution of either potash, bi- 
carbonate of soda, or an alkaline silicate, 
the same reduction of the metal followed — 
at least, this occurred with galena and the 
inferior sulphides of iron and copper. 
With the oxide dissolved in ammonia, to 
produce this result, the solution must bi 
heated to about 200 F. The sulphide of 
gold, however, dissolved in any of the.se 
salts or alkalies, could not be reduced by 
contact with any of these sulphides, even 
by boiling or adding strong deoxidizing 
agents, as tannic or gallic acids. This 
tends to show that in the case where Mr. 
Newberry obtained the reduction of gold 
upon iron pyrites from a solution of its 
sulphide in bicarbonate of soda mixed with 
organic matter, the gold ha<l, prior to its 
reduction, in some way lost its sulphur and 
taken up oxygen, thus becoming a salt 
readily reducible by deoxidizing agents. 
Anyway, it is inconceivable how organic 
matter and metallic sulphides, alone or to- 
gether, can desulphurize. a good sulphide. 
Organic matter by its decay would rather 
generate than decompose sulphides. Gold 
has far more affinity for sulphur than for 
oxygen, and therefore a chemical inter- 
change effected by the mere addition of 
bicarbonate of soda to gold sulphide is 
hardly supposable. Besides, if it were, 
the reduction should hare proceeded as 



well with this kind of solution as witli gold 
oxide in solution of bicarbonate of soda, 
whicli I found it did not. Further experi- 
ments in this direction are, however, abso- 
lutely necessitated by the importance of 
a.scertaining positively whether there is 
any solution of gold (likely to occur nat- 
urally) ) able to resist the reducing power 
of either metallic sulphides or decaying or- 
ganic matter. 

Microscopic Character of Iron and 
Steel. — According to Mr. Schott, the dif- 
ferent qualities of iron and steel can read- 
ily be distinguished l)y means of the mi- 
croscope. Thus, the crystals of iron are 
double pyramids, in which the proportion 
of axes to the bases varies with the quality 
of the iron. The smallness of the crystals 
and the hight of the pyramids composing 
each element, are in proportion to the 
quality and density of the metal, which 
are seen also in the fineness of the surface. 
As the proportion of carbon diminishes in 
the steel, the pyramids have so much the 
less hight. In pig iron, and the lower 
qualities of hard steel, the crj-stals ap- 
proach more closely the cubic form. 
Forged iron has its pyramids flattened 
and reduced to superposed parallel leaves, 
whose structure constitutes what is called 
the nerve of the steel. The best quality 
of steel has all its crystals disposed to 
parallel lines, each crystal filling the in- 
terstices between the angles of those ad- 
joining. These crystals have their axes 
in the direction of the percussion they un- 
dergo in the working. Practically, good 
steel examined under the mi<Toscope has 
the appearance of large groups of beauti- 
ful crystals, similar to points of needles, 
all jiarallel and disposed in the same di- 
rection. — Van Nontrand's Magazine. 

Wyoming Fossils.— Prof. Marsh has 
described several new fossil land lizards, 
discovered in the tertiary deposits of Wyo- 
ming. Some of these are as large as any 
now living in tropical America, but all are 
quite distinct from any hitherto found. 
They represent a new genus, called Gh/pto- 
saiiriis, because the head and parts of the 
body are covered with highly ornamented 
bony plates. Four species are described, 
readily distinguished by the form and 
ornamentation of the shields on the head: 
The largest, ('. Ki/lre.itris, was about 4 feet 
long; the smallest, (r. ancepx, about 2 feet; 
the others are called G. vodosus and G. 
ocellatiix. They will bo fully described in 
the Ajner. Jour, of Science. 

Extraordinary Railboad Iron. — The 
Montreal Gazette states [that the Canada 
Grand Trunk Railway has received from 
England samples of steel for rails and 
axles which will challenge comparison 
with any material ever made for these pur- 
poses. " A rail was twisted cold 13 times 
before fracturing, in the shape of a spiral 
spring; and the fracture indicated that the 
metal still retained its hardness, toughness 
and malleability. An axle was bent cold in 
a testing machine, with a pressure of 2 
tons at 3 ft. 6 in. bearings, into a complete 
knot without any fracture whatever." 
Other remarkable samf)les are also reported. 

Aqueous Solvent for Sulphur. — Vari- 
ous experiments have been made for the 
purpose of finding an aqueous solvent for 
sulphur, a great desideratum in facilitating 
the use of this substance in medicine. 
Dr. Pole announces that if flowers of sul- 
phiir, previously well washed and dried at 
212\ F., are mixed with an aqueous solu- 
tion of pure carbonate of soda and the 
whole digested at 212 for 10 hours, con- 
siderable sulphur will be taken up. Lin- 
seed-oil is another solvent for sulphur, 
the amount increasing with the tempera- 
ture. — Harper's for Auguxt. 

Stbuctube of Mosasaubus. — The creta- 
ceous fossils of the Rocky Mts., discov- 
ered by Prof. Marsh {Amm-. Journal of 
Science for June) , prove conclusively that 
the mosasauroid reptiles had a well devel- 
oped pelvic arch and posterior limbs, a 
fact hitherto considered very doubtful. 
Some of the species were more attenuated 
than any before described. One, CUdasles 
Wi/mani, was about 30 feet long, and had 
the terminal caudal vertebra) less than 
l-12th inch in transverse diameter. 



Knot-Tyino Machine.— p. A. Perry, of 
Perth Amboy, N. J., has patented a device 
which is said to tie a square knot precisely 
like that made by hand. The nearest ap- 
proach previously to tying by machinery 
has consisted in twisting the ends of the 
string or wire together and tucking them 
under the band. 



I 



July 29, ig;!'] 



^A©i^l© 



bi 



Correspondence. 



A Trip to Colorado.— No. 3. 

By OtTK Own Travelek. 

Golden City. 

Leaving Denver on the Colorado Central 
R. R., we have a beautihil ride to Golden 
City, situated on the Vusquez Fork of the 
South Platte. This place has an exceed- 
ingly pretty site, and the natural resources 
of coal, fire-clay, building stone, iron ore, 
copper, etc., together •with a good water- 
power, seem to indicate that the city must 
assume a very imj)ortant position as a man- 
facturing center. 

Already it has a large number of facto- 
ries of various kinds, flour mills, paper 
mill, saw mills, tannery, brick works, etc., 
etc. It has also churches, a college, free 
schools, the Territorial School of Mines, 
etc. 

The Golden City Mineral and Land 
Company has a capital of $500,000, and 
owns much valuable property in the shape 
of coal and iron beds, deposits of " glass 
silica," etc. It manufactures fire-brick, 
tiles, drain pipes, etc. It has leased its 
coal lands to the Hazelton Coal M. Co., of 
which I shall have more to say. The effi- 
cient agent of the M. and L. Co. is Mr. M. 
C. Kirby. 

Manufactures. 

One of the first places I visited Avas 
Bell's Fire Brick Works. These have been 
leased by Weibel & Co., and have a capac- 
ity of some 6,000 fire bricks weekly of ex- 
cellent quality. Their bricks are used at 
Hill's smelting works at Black Hawk, and 
elsewhere. They furnish these at Golden 
City at the rate of |100 per thousand. 
They also manufacture crockery. 

The Golden City Paper Mill is a credit 
to the place and is ably managed by the 
superintendent, Mr. R. C. Wells. This 
mill supplies the daily and weekly papers 
of the Territory with a very good article of 
printing paper, and turns out also manilla 
and wrapping paper. Its full capacity is 
one ton in 2-4 hours, but at present it man- 
ufactures only about 10 hundredweight 
daily. It is run by water-power, employs 
9 hands, and has a 36-inch cylinder ma- 
chine. 

The Rock Flouring Mill is owned by 
Mr. O. F. Barber, has three run of stones, 
is run by water-power, and has, I believe, 
an excellent reputation. I noticed two 
other flour mills here which were not riin- 
ning, however, at the time of my visit. 

Large smelting works are to be erected 
here, I am told, wit"hin a short time. 

Schools— Papers— Hotels . 

Jarvis Hall is a prominent institution 
here. It is intended to give a thorough 
course of studies, fitting boys for business 
and professional pursuits. The name is 
given in honor of Mr. Geo. Jarvis, of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., who donated the money 
for erecting the building. It is located 
very pleasantly about a mile out of tha city 
on rising ground, and is a fine edifice. The 
Rt. Rev. Geo. M. Randall is rector. To 
Mr. Geo. W. Davies, the Vice-Princiiaal, 
and to Mr. E. L. Berthoud, instructor in 
Civil Engineering, Botany and Geology, 
both gentlemen of fine attainments, I am 
indebted for several acts of kindness and 
valuable facts concerning the locality. 

I visited the School of Mines, for which 
the Territory has given $.3,280, and much 
more has been raised by subscription. 
The building, at present unfinished, is of 
brick, three stories high, with a bell tower 
80 feet in hight, and has already cost near- 
ly $5,000. In this institution, Colorado 
has set an example which others of our 
Pacific States and Territories would do 
well to follow. 

The Weekli/ Transcript, edited and pub- 
lished by Mr. Geo. West, looks carefully 
after the interests of the place. The Jar- 
vis Hall Record and Chvrch Monthly is an 
excellent publication, well edited by 
Messrs. G. W. Davies and C. H. Marshall. 

The largest and most commodious hotel 
here, with good bath rooms and otter con- 
veniences, is the Golden House, C. S. Ab- 
bott, proprietor. There are other hotels 
here, as the Overland and the Astor. 

Coal Beds. 
The Hazelton Coal M. Co. has leased 
the coal veins in this district for a space of 
20 years, and has been working for some 
time under the superintendence of Mr. E. 
B. Maltby, They have a shaft down 160 feet 



on the vein and are now drifting to the 
west, working three shifts. The vein they 
are on averages 8 feet in width. They are 
now erecting large hoisting works. They 
have contracted to supply the smelting 
works with 100 tons daily, furnish the 
railroad with fuel, and produce a coal 
which is used by blacksmiths, containing 
but little sulphur. The comi^any has a 
capital of half a million, and is developing 
the coal treasures of the Territory. It 
controls over 4,000 acres of coal land at 
Canon City. It was originally formed in 
Kansas. 

Coal was discovered here some 11 years 
ago. The formation is cretaceous, and the 
strata have been tilted iip, having a dip of 
about 80^ to the west. In order to give 
your readers a better idea of the veins, I 
send you a section of the mining locality, 
whence are obtained all the supplies for 
manufacturing, as coal, fire clay, potter's 
clay, building stone, iron ore and glass 
sand. For the original drawing I am in- 
debted to Mr. E. L. Berthoud. The draw- 
ing is on a horizontal scale of 100 feet, 
and a vertical scale of 20 feet, to the inch. 
[Reduced in the engraving to a scale of 
270 and .54 feet, respectively, to the inch. 
Ed.] The following is the explanation of 
the letters in the drawing: 

^ is a bed of iron conglomerate; B, lay- 
ers of potter's clay; C, fire clay; /, bog 



ner of preparing the land and cultivating 
crops, I will give you a few such items 
which have come under my observation. 
On the north side of the county, along 
what is known as the Georgetown Ridge, 
there is some most excellent farming land, 
as well as quartz and placer mines. 
"A IVIountaIn Farm." 

High up among the mammoth sugar 
pines and spruce trees, some twenty years 
ago, E. C. Day, from the old Granite 
State, concluded to settle, and make for 
himself and family a home. Who but a 
live Yankee or a German would have con- 
ceived such an idea at that time? Day 
knew his business, felled trees, and cleared 
land, planted fruit trees and vines, 
and now has one of the loveliest homes 
in the mountains. Five or six years 
ago Day and sons purchased a piece of 
land which had been cropped for some ten 
years, and was considered worn out and 
valueles.s. They summer-fallowed it two 
years ago, and sowed wheat. The yield was 
most excellent, producing from 35 to 40 
biishels per acre. 

Success having followed their first ex- 
periment at summer fallowing they con- 
cluded to continue that mode of cultiva- 
tion, and last year they had 75 acres ready 
for seeding in September, and as a reward 





A B 



iii'!li'ii''ii''ii!'iii'ii'i!i'iii;;i'^^^ 

i'!!"^'!'!>!>!'"^."^'!>'i">:!"!''! 



jMM 



SANDSTONE 

I'liCLAYdll 



'''WMi 




-B C 1 D C JE C .FC (i H 

SECTION THROUGH CRETACEOUS COAL BEDS AT GOLDEN CITY. COLORADO. 



ore; K, glass sand; D, coal vein 5 feet 
thick; E, coal vein 9 to 12 feet thick; F, 
coal vein 3 feet tliick; (?, coal vein 2% feet 
thick; H, coal vein 2 feet thick. Between 
the.se sti'ata mentioned occur sandstone 
and clay or sandstone as denoted by the 
shading. 
Colorado Central R. R.—Proposed Extension. 

The Colorado Central is built as far as 
this place, and two trains are run daily to 
and from Denver. The road passes through 
a good country for farming and stock 
raising. It is under good management. 
Mr. J. B. Shepherd is superintendent. 

The Colorado Centi-al R. R. Co. was or- 
ganized to build a road from the eastern 
to the western boundary of the Territory, 
and was granted a charter in 1865. The 
road is in running order from its junction 
with the Kansas Pacific and the Denver 
Pacific, 3 miles north of Denver, to 
Golden, 15 miles, and is under construc- 
tion and location to Central City, 22 miles 
further. 

It is j)roposed to prolong the line ulti- 
mately, via Clear Creek Valley, to George- 
town (the center of the silver mines of 
Colorado), and over the main Rocky 
Mountain range, 12 miles N. W. of that 
town, into Middle Park, near the Hot 
Springs, thence via Gove's Pass north- 
westerly to the head of either the White 
or the Yampa river. Thence, by one of 
these valleys, to Green river, near the 
mouth of the Uintah river, up the Uintah 
to Duchesne River, up Duchesne Fork to 
Strawberry Valley which it ascends to 
the summit of the Wahsatch mountains. 
It will then follow down Daniel's Creek, 
and Timpanogas river to Provo City, to 
meet the Cal. Central Pacific, if extended 
eastward, or else to join the Utah Central 
at Salt Lake City. 

Farming in the Mountains. 

Benefits of Deep Plowing and Summer Fallowing. 
Eds. Press:— Another hot and dry sum- 
mer is full upon us. Complaints through 
the papers have, from time to time, reached 
us, of the short crops of the valleys and 
plains, causing the destruction of stock 
and ^eat loss to farmers. Although, like 
mo.st mortals, we have many ills to com- 
plain of, yet we here in the foothills have 
this year, an abundance of hay and grain 
(where it has been sown for the seed) , 
fruit and vegetables. Knowing the Pbess 
takes a great interest in the mode and man- 



for their lab(n'S, they have g.ithered some 
two thousand bushels of first-class wheat. 

A. J. Bailey, near Pilot Hill, on the 
same ridge, has experimented and found it 
to pay for wheat and barley. Bailey, Love- 
joy, Brown, and many other farmers in that 
vicinity make farming pay by properly 
cultivating their lands. Mr. Bailey in- 
formed me that, wishing to test the experi- 
ment of deep and shallow, or common 
plowing, he prepared a field in this wise: 

The alternate lands — being each some 
300 yards wide, and a hundred rods long — 
we plowed one the usual way with two 
horses, and on the adjoining one or alter- 
nate, he used a subsoil plow in addition to 
the usual mode, stirring the ground some 
eight inches deeper by that means; and so 
continued until a field containing some 20 
acres had been prepared. He then sowed 
barley, carefully harrowed it in, and in 
every way seeded and did the work alike 
on the whole — with the exception of sub- 
soiling — and the result was one-third more 
of grain, and nearly one-half more of straw 
on the land subsoiled. For Mr. Bailey, 
this experiment settled the question of 
deep plowing, and when he cannot sum- 
mer fallow, he will resort to subsoiling. 
believing that mode to be the next best 
thing to summer fallowing. 

I could go on, ad infinitum, citing cases 
where good crops have resulted from sum- 
fallowing; while alongside of the same 
fields the usual modes of cultivating have 
proved a failure. 

The Georgetown Ridge commences at 
Mormon Island, lying between the Middle 
and South Forks of the American river, 
and runs east to the Sierra mountains, in- 
cluding a part of Salmon Falls, and the 
whole of Greenwood, Kelsey, and George- 
town townships — a total of some 1,000 
square miles. The largest portion of this 
ridge is suited to all varieties of farming. 
That along the head of the streams that 
conduct the water from the molting snows 
in summer, high up under the granite 
clilfs of the mountains, is iised for grazing 
cattle and sheep, and is the home of the 
dairyman, from the foothills and the val- 
ley of the Sacramento and San Joaquin, 
for five or six months in the year. Large 
quantities of butter and cheese are manu- 
factured here every season. One-third of 
this ridge is covered with the finest tim- 
ber in the State, comprising sugar pine, 
common pine, spruce, oak, cedar and 
laurel. When facilities for cheap trans- 
portation are had, large manufactures for 
lumber will be established here. 
Limestone IMines, etc. 

On this ridge ia lime rock in abundance, 



more than 25,000 barrels per year being 
manufactured at Cave valley, most of 
which is carted to Auburn, and shipped 
per rail to Sacramento and other localities. 
Excellent placer, gravel and hill or hy- 
draulic mines are also found here; water 
only being required to work and develop 
them. 

In Greenwood, Georgetown and Kelsey 
townships are located some of the best 
quartz mines in the State. Many of these 
have paid from the commencement, while 
others would have done likewise, had they 
been properly managed. Artificial means 
for conveying water from the mountain 
streams to the lower hills and valleys along 
this fertile ridge has been much needed. 
The miners and agriculturists have in part 
been supplied from the Pilot Creek Canal. 

A new day is about to dawn upon them. 
A company of capitalists in San Francisco 
have purchased certain surveys and water 
rights, and now have their engineer sur- 
veying for a large canal to take up the 
water of unclaimed streams and lakes. 
Already they have filed their location and 
claims in the County Clerk's office. They 
claim many lakes, among which is Loon 
lake, near the summit of the Sierra, on the 
trail leading from Georgetown to Sugar 
Pine Point, on Lake Tahoe. A dam will 
be thrown across the outlet of Loon lake 
so as to raise the water of this lake some 
twenty five feet, and cover a surface of 
from six to eight square miles, to an aver- 
age depth of fifteen feet. This, with other 
lakes, will serve for catchment basins, and 
be let into the canal in summer when the 
other feeders have failed in Georgetown 
and vicinity. e. n s 

Placerville, July 15th, 1871. 

Notes from Oregon. 

Eds. Press:— The country from Portland 
to Hillsboro is rough timber land, and the 
road of "corduroy." At this place you are 
in the county seat of Washington— eight- 
een miles from Portland— a town contain- 
ing some 300 inhabitants, who are pa- 
tiently waiting to be buried, unless Ben 
Holladay sees fit to bring them in line of 
his West Side R. R. The country as you 
bear south, opens out into very pretty 
farm land, diversified" with small growth of 
oak, and fir timber. Some eight miles fur- 
ther brings us to Forest Grove, a sweet 
little place, high and airy, where the 
fruit and the forest trees blend together to 
sing the songs of a village, where no saloon 
poisons the atmosphere (an exception as 
far as I know upon the Pacific coast) . The 
town sustains one of the best public 
schools in the State. 

Some dozen miles more and we halt at 
North Yamhil, a place of some 100 inhabi- 
tants, with mechanic shops, stores, etc., in 
the midst of a fine farming country. We 
then drive some 12 miles to Lafayette, the 
county seat of Yamhil, a dilapidated, moss- 
gi own looking place as you approach it. It 
is located near the Yamhil river, which is 
navigable during the winter. This place 
contains some 400 inhabitants— waiting to 
see where the railroad will run. 

The next place we visit is McMinville, 
some five miles further southwest, also 
upon the Yamhil, which meets its shipping 
wants in high water. It contains some 
500 inhabitants, several mechanic shops, 
a fine planing mill, stores. West Side 
new.spaper, and a good public school, 
with a tine country around it. They don't 
incline to " wait for the [railroad] wagon." 

The fall-sowed wheat looks remarkably 
well, but the spring-sowed will not make 
half as much as that sowed in the fall. 
Oats and hay Avill also be short in conse- 
quence of drouth and the "scratching" 
plan of farming. 

The orchards look pitiful— untrimmed 
uncultivated, worm-eaten, dead limbs, and 
bodies covered with moss is the universal 
condition. The reasons offered are that 
they bear themselves to death soon, if cul- 
tivated. If that is true, they are much in 
the same condition as those persons were 
who were charged with witchcraft at Sa- 
lem. The result will bo a rapid increase 
in the value of apples in this State soon. 

The price of farm lands seems to range 
from $12 to $30 per acre, quite plenty 
of living water, and general good health 
prevails. 

WUen the farmers in the Willamette Val- 
ley generally get to taking the Rural 
Press, they will undoubtedly learn to 
change many of their present modes of 
farm practice. e. p. h. 



1 



52 



. JSSiiJ^ «(g/ tsirCp Jei> O Q^ 



[July 29, 1871. 



^Q[!iE \H0 f\B^. 



Santa Cruz Farmers' Club. 

Club met July 15tb, 71. President Mat- 
tison in the chair. Secretary read extracts 
from the Practical Farmer — one giving a 
novel feature in Fanners' Clubs. They 
meet in succession at the houses of mem- 
bers — view ■whatever is of interest on each 
farm, counsel and advise, praise or cen- 
sure, as each case in their oi)inion may de- 
serve. 

If fences are poor, gates off hinges, stock 
badly sheltered, manure going to waste, 
etc., etc., the deliu(iuent will find a note 
made of it by the faithful Secretary. Other 
extracts were read tending to prove that 
there is more profit in a winter than a 
summer dairy. 

Mr. Cahoon. — How will goats do in a 
brushy pasture ? "Will they clean off the 
brush? 

Mr. Humphrey. — Mr. Parish, of Soquel, 
kept goats in such a pasture, and they 
cleaned it all off. 

Thistles.— iVr. Sawin. — Seven years ago 
there were scarcely any thistles here. Now 
they are quite plenty, and unless some- 
thing is done to prevent their further 
spreading, they will become a terrible 
pest. 

Seeding Pastures. — ^fr. Locke. — It is 
well known that very nearly all our pas- 
ture grasses must grow from the seed each 
spring; hence it follows that if seed is 
short — from over stocking, drouth or any 
other cause — pasturage is also short. 
Stock are always seeking the varieties most 
inviting, and thus preventing them from 
seeding; while those rejected— many of 
them noxious weeds — scatter their profu- 
sion of seed broadcast over the whole land. 
Thus it has happened that pastures, once 
valuable, are now nearly worthless, and 
this from no lack of fertility in the soil ; 
but simx)h' lack of seed. Now would it 
not be good i)olicy for every owner of such 
pasture to sow (about the time of first 
rains) some kind of .seed — perhaps a vari- 
ety, as wild oats, burr-clover, rye-grass, 
etc., tlius supplying the only thing needed 
to restore such lands to their former value. 

Mr. Saicin. — The best seed to sow is lame 
wild oats. 

Mr. Lakea. — Tamo and wild oats grown 
together produce what we call "tame wild 
oats" on the same principle, I suppose, as 
different varieties of the same species of 
many other crops mix ; and this hybrid I 
regard as better than either of the original. 
In many of our pastures wire grass ia the 
main seeding element. 

Mr. MaUison. — Buy bur-clover bay, feed 
libarally to your stock, and they will seed 
the pastures. 

Mr. Humphrej/. — Divide your pastures, 
and take care that the different lots have a 
chance to seed themselves. 

The growth after once mowing, or close 
feeding, will generally produce an abund- 
ance of seed. Bur-clover and filareo will 
generally seed themselves, however closely 
fed. 

Mr. Locke. — That kind of seeding is ob- 
jectionable, as you get more seed from vile 
weeds than anything else. 

Mr. Matlisnn. — I notice that the dande- 
lion, among many other weeds, is rapidly 
sprea<ling on our farms. 

A Member. — While tho thistle spurs us 
on, and the mustard makes us shed tears — 
the turnii), wherever we turn-up the soil, 
is always ready with the radish — it would 
bo some satisfaction were it not for the 
tar-wceds and stickers, to reflect that the 
bur-clover always slicks to us. 

Mr. Cahoon. — I know that where wild 
oats used to grow abundantlj', there are 
now none; and where are we to get these 
seeds to sow ? 

Mr. Locke. — Raise them, as the farmers 
East raise their own timothy and clover 
seeds. 

The Secretary was ordered to purchase 
for tho Library the books selected at the 
last meeting. 

Adjourned. d. m. l. 

Iekigation in Capay Valley. — The 
Yolo Democrat aajs: Several prominent citi- 
zens of the county have commenced the 
project of an irrigating canal for Capaj' 
Valley, the preliminary survey for which 
has already been completed. From the 
head to the lower end of the Valley theye 
is a fall of som.e 200 feet. The intention 
is to make a canal some 20 feet wide and 
2% feet deep, which will convey water 
enough to abundantly irrigate tlie whole 
of Capay Valley. The estimated cost is 
$50,000, the principal outlay being for 
timber. The canal is to be finished this 
fall. 



Celebrated Trotters.— No. 4. 

Lady Thorne. 
In continuing our notices of celebrated 
trotting horses, wo come, to-day, to Lady 
Thorne, who, according to a writer in 
Moore's Rural, — to which journal we are 
indebted for our illustrations, — was a large 
and powerful bay mare, very high-bred, 
and very game and resolute. She was got 
by Mambrino Chief, a horse bought in this 
State for the late James B. Clay of Ken- 
tucky, and was out of a mare by Gano, a 
son of American Eclipse. Thus she has 
two crosses of the blood of imported 
Messenger, and the cross through Eclip.se 
must be esteemed of uncommon value, for 
he was not only a wonderful race-horse 
himself, but his dam. Miller's Damsel by 
Messenger, was out of the imported mare 
by Pot-8-os, son of English Eclijise, when 
young Lady Thorne was called Ashland 
Maid. She was always noted for speed 
and bottom, but she often ran away, and 
those who first handled her in Kentucky 
were afraid of her. By care, patience 
and jjerseverance Dr. Herr of Lexington, 
Ky., got her to be more calm and quiet, 
and made her a fine trotter. Of the public 



Musqult Grass. 

Hon. J. M. H>idspeth, of Green Valley, 
Sonoma county, was the fii'st to put this 
seed in the California market. By some it 
is still regarded as an experiment. If it 
meets the exijectations of Mr. H., and 
some other sanguine experimentors, it will 
bo a grand aC(iuisition to the stock of 
grasses on this coast. To fully appreciate 
its value, it well be necessary to call on 
Mr. H., as I did, and see the grass grow- 
ing on all conditions of soil. 

Many people think that no vegetation 
can grow in California without irrigation, 
or a strong root that goes down to living 
water. But this is a mistake. Wo saw 
acres of musquit growing on light adobe 
land, and on gravely hill sides and bottom 
land, hard and dry as a brick. A patch of 
this grass, is standing two or three feet 
high in the bottom of a creek, and on an 
old hard trodden road near by. It adapts 
itself to circumstances, where all other 
grasses fail, and will produce a crop on 
poor soil three times the weight of natural 
grass, and on richer, moist soils in rela- 
tively increased proportion. It is the 
opinion of many in this quarter that the 
musquit will run out all other grasses, 
weeds and even sorrel, in a few years. 




LADY THORNE. 



horses of the day she was second only to 
Dexter. She trotted a mile to wagon in 2m. 
24s., and a mile in harness in 2m. 18J4s. 
She once beat Dexter, but it was in his 
green and salad daj-s; and some years af- 
terwards when they trotted a series of 
races together it plainly appeared that 
she could not live with him. A lamenta- 
ble accident recently disabled her, tempo- 
rarily only it is to be ho2)cd. 

How TO Utilize oxir Squirrel Skins.— 
The Alta, which fir.st, through a Contra 
Costa correspondent, gave currency to the 
report that a Frenchman was paying fifteen 
cents each for squirrel skins to ship to 
Paris, to be there manufactured into gloves, 
suggests that these skins should be con- 
verted into gloves here. Some very good 
kid gloves are made in this State now, 
and wo see no reason why all we need may 
not be made here. This would be a very 
proper matter to come before our Indus- 
trial Fair Associations, for special premi- 
ums, and other encouragement. These 
associations give many thousands of dol 
lars every year for things in which we 
know there will be no improvement, while 
those branches in which improvement is 
needed are too ai>t to be neglected. 

Dressing Buckskin. — A correspondent, 
" F. B. C," of San Diego, desires to ascer- 
tain, through some reader of the Rural, 
the most efficient mode of dressing and 
tanning buckskins. Is there not some 
chemical which may be applied so as to 
facilitate the removal of the grain, and 
thus lesson the dependence placed upon 
"Elbow Grease?" 



I saw it growing finely on hill and low- 
lands, without cultivation. To make good 
hay, it should be sown early in the fall, 
and cut in the blossom. After a crop is 
cut, a second growth usually springs up 
on the dryest soil, that makes fresh pasture 
for stock when no other can be obtained. 

There were complaints from some par- 
ties, la.st year, that the seed contained 
some sorrel. That was owing to imper- 
fect gathering, without much thought, at 
the time, of selling it. This year the 
entire crop will be cut with a heatler, and 
elevated to avoid all foreign seeds. Mr. 
Hudspeth will have about 8,000 Ihs. for 
sale this fall. m. u. s. 



Two Thousand Acbes op Cotton.— 
James Dale Johnston, General Agent and 
Secretary of the California Cotton Growers 
and Manufacturers' Association, and of the 
California Silk Manufacturing Co., has re- 
signed his positions in these companies, 
to take charge of a 2000-acre cotton plan- 
tation, on the extensive farm of Julius 
Chester, of Bakersfield, Kern county, who 
has sold to the Cotton Growers' Associa- 
tion .'5,000 acres of land for stock in that 
company. Mr. Johnston, at the request of 
the Directors, will continue at his present 
post until November, when his personal 
presence will be required at the plantation. 

Cutting Wheat for Hay. — The Placer- 
ville Repuhlican says that large , fields of 
wheat that will yield from thirty to forty 
bushels to the acre are being cut for grain 
for want of milling advantages ! Cutting 
wheat for hay that will yield thirty or 
forty bushels to the acre, when wheat is 
selling in this city at $2.25 per cental, 
sounds vei-y strange. Is the Republican 
rightly informed? 



Cranberries on Upland. 

There has been considerable enquiry of 
late with regard to the cultivation of cran- 
berries on upland, and the following ex- 
periment in this direction will be read with 
interest by all cranberry cultivators: 

Three or four years ago I transplanted 
cranberry vines from my meadow to one of 
my gardens, which is pine plain land. 
They have grown well, and they are now 
loaded with fruit. I had compromised 
with them; that if thoy would come and 
live with me on my land, I would bring 
them their native soil, so that they would 
not suffer by emigration. I dug channels 
two feet wide, twenty inches deep, and 
three feet apart. I removed the gravel, 
and filled the channels with muck from 
whence they were to bo taken. I took up 
the cranberry plants in small clusters, and 
set them deep in their natural element. 
They appeared to be perfectly contented 
with their new locality. They now occu- 
py one square rod of ground, and they are 
beginning to enlarge their borders. I keep 
this patch clear of weeds. The expense of 
this cranberry square rod was about two 
days' labor of one man, and one day's labor 
of one horse. The prospect now is that 
the cranberries will yearly pay expenses of 
their new settlement. Muck and experi- 
ments well directed will prove successful. 
Journal of Agriculture. 

Cranberry Culture. 

The Annual Report of the Middlesex 
Mass. Agricultural Society for 1855 con- 
tains a very interesting account af some ex- 
periments in Cranberry Culture, made l)y 
Mr. Addison Flint of North Reatling. The 
paper was prepared by Mr. Flint himself, 
the details of his practical experience will 
be found of special value to new beginners 
in the business, as his mode of culture em- 
braces the planting of the seeds, the trans- 
planting of the vines, and the cultivation 
of the wild plants spontaneously growing 
in his swamp. 

He first erected a dam across his 
grounds, by which he raised a pond, and 
left in that state for three years. In Au- 
gust, 1840, he let off the water, and tho 
October following burned over the swamp 
preparatory to its cultivation. After let- 
ting off the water he found a few native 
vines, and these he let remain as they 
stood. Ho i)lanted about half an acre of 
the swamp in October, the same fall, with 
tho seed, or rather tho cranberries, crush- 
ing each berry as he planted it, and plac- 
ing it just under the mud, one in a hill, 
three feet and a half apart. The following 
spring he sowed several bushels broadcast. 
On the part thus planted and sowed, but 
few vines appeared first, and it was not till 
1853, or six years afterward, that they be- 
gan to produce fruits In the remainder of 
the swamp Mr. F. set plants from a neigh- 
boring swamp, cut up with a sharp hoe or 
shovel, in bunches about the size of a 
quart measure, jjlacing them in hills, three 
and a half feet apart. The result was in 
1852, he gathered about one hundred bush- 
els, sixty from transplanted vines, and 
forty from the native plants. In 1855 he 
gathered fifty barrels, and " the increase 
was principalh) from the transplanted vine*." 

Profits of Market Gardening. 

Mr. J. J. H. Gregory delivered three 
lectures, recently, at Cornell University, 
on " Market Gardening and Market Farm- 
ing," in which he gave some common sense 
ideas about the cost and profit of garden- 
ing. The expense of raising an acre of 
cabbage, including manure, time, labor, 
etc., in the vicinity of Now York, is $150; 
market value of the crop, $300; gain, $150. 
An acre of onions cost $260; price $500; 
gain, $240. Squashes cost per acre, $140; 
price $180; gain, $40. " Market farming 
must bo can-ied on within twenty miles of 
the city. Ten acres is enough for a farm, 
five for a gardener. More is gained by 
cultivating one acre well, than two acres 
half as well. He must carry his own pro- 
duce to market in his own wagon. The 
ground must be fairly stuffed with manure. 
Two crops must be cropped off; that is un- 
avoidable. It is a business that requires 
capital, energy and hard work, both early 
and late. Small gardeners will often make 
their laud pay $500 to $1,000 per acre an- 
nual income; but the average farmer can 
hardly hope to get more than $lt)0 to $150. 

Rain in Wasiiok. — The Independent of 
July 22d, published at Eureka, in Lander 
county, Nevada, says that every day for 
the previous week they had been visited 
with slight showers of rain, which matle it 
comfortable and cool, laid the dust, and 
proved a decided improvement upon tlio 
excessive beat of the few days previous. 



July 29, 1871.] 



'SMOtG 



53 



4<QPiicilLX^^^i. fl©TEs. 



CALIFORNIA. 

While the cereal crops of the present 
season have not been so large as the area 
sown seemed to justify us in expecting, 
and while in many islaces grain has been a 
total failure on unfallowed and shallow 
jjlowed lands, other sections have been ex- 
ceedingly fruitful. The fruit crop is 
the best ever known. There is no curled 
leaf in the peach; while plums, pears and 
figs are coming in bountifully. The vine- 
yards never held out hopes of a richer re- 
ward, while small fruits and berries, hav 
iiig escajjed all mishaps, gladden and 
refresh us with their luscious plenty. 

Even the partial failure of our great 
stai>le will not be without its reward, in 
the important lessons it will teach us in 
the way of improved farming — by more 
thorough tillage, by a more general resort 
to irrigation, by the introduction of a 
greater diversity in our farm products, and 
by the proper reclamation and improve- 
ment of the immense area of our tide and 
tule lands. Due attention to these things 
will place us comparatively indei^endent of 
drouths and all other peculiarities of our 
climate and seasons. We subjoin our usual 
weekly summary as follows: 

The Chintz Bug in Bctte Co. — The 
editor of the Chico Enterprise recently vis- 
ited the farm of Mr. Bay, for the purpose 
of seeing the chintz bug among the wheat. 
It was a wonderful sight. Millions upon 
millions of these bugs wei-e making their 
way from the wheat fields towards the 
fences and roads, literally covering the in- 
tervening space loetween the wheat and the 
fences and along the line of the fences. 
They are the same kind of chintz bugs 
which of late years have done so much 
damage to the wheat crops of Missouri and 
Illinois. 

He also paid a visit to the Henshaw farm. 
The splendid orchard on the premises 
never yielded a larger crop. The trees are 
so laden with fruit that the limbs have 
hardly strength to support their weight. 
The crop of grain is among the best grown 
in the county. 

A Ramie Field. — The same paper says 
of this Held, that it presents a lovely ap- 
pearance. The jjlauts are up eight inches 
in bight, scarcely one planted having 
failed. They look green and promising, 
and Nourse says he is now satisfied there 
is nothing to be feared. No matter how 
warm or dry the season, they are so hardy 
that they can resist all influences toward 
injury, and will, beyond jjeradventure, 
live and flourish. He will realize as much 
from his two acres of ramie as from his 
fields of grain. 

The Harvest in Colusa. — The Sun of 
July 22d, says: — A. J. Scoggins has been 
threshing grain at the upper end of the 
county, and he informs us that many i^er- 
sons up there have better crops than they 
have had for years before. Some fields he 
has thrashed have averaged forty bushels 
to the acre. He estimates that the Walsh 
ranch alone will produce this year nearly 
100,000 bushels. The county will harvest 
between three and four hundred thousand 
bushels. Besides this, in most of the 
fields called failures, there was enough 
for seed, and many farmers are now har- 
rowing in their fields for another crop. 
So the county will have a considerable sur- 
plus. 

Solano. — Henry G. Whetmore has the 
"banner crop" of Solano county this year. 
On his ranch near Wooden Valley, he has 
raised forty-five and three-quarter bushels 
of wheat to the acre. 

The Napa Wheat Crops. — The new 
wheat crop, says the Napa Register of 
June 22, is beginning to arrive freely. 
Every train from up valley brings several 
car loads, which is safely stored in our 
huge store-houses. The quality of the 
new crop was never better, while in quan- 
tity the yield is nearly equal to the average 
for several years past. We have heard of 
but few sales of the new croj). Farmers 
manifest a disposition to hold on for an ad- 
vance. 

Crops in Sonoma. — The Petaluma Jonr- 
ttal of July 22d, says: Many of our farm- 
ers in this county are at jiresent busy 
threshing their grain. Several steam and 
horse-power machines are kept busy, and 
it will take two months and over to do 
the threshing of the county. The yield of 



cereal in this section of the State this year 
is large, and the grain appears to be of the 
best quality. The farmers of Sonoma may 
well say that their lines have fallen in pleas- 
ant places. Their granaries will be overflow- 
ing, and their purses heavy. 

The Nevada Fruit Crop. — We believe, 
says the Grass Valley Union, that within 
the township of Grass Valley there is fruit 
enough to supply half the State of Cali- 
fornia. All know that the mountain fruit 
is much better than that of the valley. 
What is to become of this superabundant 
croj) of most excellent fruit ? Most of it 
will rot and will do no good except to en- 
rich the ground. The home market 
amounts to but very little, and transpor- 
tation is so high that foreign markets can 
not be reached. We have heai'd of some 
few cases of enterprise in the way of jjut- 
ting fruit in cans for future use. In that 
shape transportation becomes practicable 
in a paying sense. Yet these enterprises 
in putting up fruit are not numerous 
enough. With all the abundance around 
us and with the cheapness of tinware 
which now exists the grocery and provi- 
sion stores of this part of the country will, 
next winter, be filled as to shelves with 
eastern fruit. Stich shif tlessness and waste- 
fulness should be avoided. 

Wheat, Fruit, Etc., in El Dorado. -The 
Placerville Republican says the grain east 
of that city for a distance of ten or fifteen 
miles is very fine. Large fields of the 
best kind of wheat are being cut for hay, 
just for the want of milling advantages. 
Mr. George Myers, at the Five-Mile House, 
says he has a field of wheat that he is con- 
fident would yield thirty to forty bushels 
to the acre. Orchards and vineyards in 
the vicinity of Smith's Flat look remarka- 
bly well and ijromise a large yield. The 
ranch of Wm. Crosby looks fine; trees of 
all kinds are loaded with fruit. Apricots 
aie now very plentiful, raised thereabouts, 
and are very fine. Pears are also making 
their appearance. 

Overloaded Vines. — The Folsom ye/e- 
graph is informed that some of the vine- 
yard men in El Dorado say that many of 
the grape vines are too heavily loaded this 
season. Brighton township claims the 
first ripe grapes in the country this season ; 
R. S. Locket having fine grapes of the 
White Cluster variety now rip)e in his 
vineyard. 

Splendid Wheat. — The same paper 
says that Alfred Hill, near Saulsbury Sta- 
tion, has a splended wheat crop; one hun- 
dred and forty acres, it is believed, will 
average forty bushels to the acre. 

Sherman Island Crops. — The Antioch 
Ledger of July 22d says: We made a fly- 
ing visit to Sherman Island this week, and 
found everything in a highly flourishing 
condition. Going from the ranch of the 
Boggs Bros, on this side to Emmaton, we 
found a good road, and on either side, ripe 
waving grain as far as the eye could reach. 
Emmaton is a thriving little village, with 
a good hotel, kept by Mr. Upton, a large 
store, blacksmith shoj), etc., with several 
new dwellings in process of erection. A 
substantial wharf has been built and the 
Sacramento steamers stop daily. The 
greatest present improvement is the build- 
ing of a good wagon road around the 
Island, following the levee. Work has al- 
ready been commenced, and in a few 
months one can have the i^leasure of driv- 
ing on a perfectly level road along the 
banks of the Sacramento on one side, and 
the San Joaquin on the other, around the 
largest and most productive Island in the 
State. The richness of the soil causes the 
grain at present to grow too rank, but with 
continued culture this will be obviated. 
For vegetables and fruit, Sherman Island 
challenges comparison with the world. 
A little labor and experience in setting out 
fruit trees now, will, in ten years make 
this the garden spot of California. 

Onions in El Dorado. — The Placerville 
Democrat of July 22d has the following: 
We were shown by H. D. Dingman, of 
the Spring Garden Ranch, three miles east 
of Placerville, in this county, three onions 
produced from the seed, this season, the 
aggregate weight of which was seven 
pounds, or two and a third pounds each — 
they had been several days out of ground. 
On the same spot of ground, Mr. D. in- 
forms us he produced three years ago, to 
tliree-fourths of an acre, eight tons of 
onions. He also cut from his ranch this 
season, two and a half tons of alfalfa and 
grain to the acre. Eight years ago, from 
one kernel of rye, was jiroduced 133 heads 
— as many as fifty kernels producing sixty 
heads each. How's that for lofty? 

TuE Opium Crop. — We have several 
times noticed the opium crop of Mr. Ap- 
pleby, at San Jose. A correspondent of 
the Alia of Monday, says of this crop. 



that Mr. A. sowed the same, about a quar- 
ter of an acre in extent, in February, and 
has not irrigated, although the rains were 
not sufficient to develope the crop fully. 
The Chinamen pronounced the growth 
and yield good. Mr. Appleby is now in 
correspondence with parties at San Fran- 
cisco, who are desirous of gaining particu- 
lars of the kinds of seed used, etc., with 
reference to the introduction of the cul- 
ture upon a large scale, for the purisose 
of manufacturing opium. 

Tobacco Plant.— In the garden of the 
Jesuit Pastorate, at San Jose, is a magnifi- 
cent tobacco plant, brought there by a 
priest, from the Island of Corsica. 

Monterey Crop Reports. — This week, 
says the Castroville Argus of the 23d inst., 
the following crop reports have been fur- 
nished: On the Castro Grant, A Ranie's 
crop of some fifty acres, part barley and 
part wheat, about 22 bushels to the acre. 
Fretis' crop of forty acres, wheat and bar 
ley, averaged between 28 and 29 bushels 
per acre. A great deal of grain on this 
grant is cut but not thrashed yet. On the 
Cooper ranch, Gallier's barley crop of over 
fifty acres, went over 60 bushels to the 
acre, a few acres going over 90 bushels. 
B. O. Walker's crop of barley, close by 
Gallier's, we heard yielded over 70 bushels 
per acre, to the owner's great and very 
agreeable surprise. A mustard crop, put 
in by Brawley & Forbes, is turning out 
poorly, being badly effected by the 
drouth. There are other mustard crops 
on the same ranch that promise well so far. 

The Wheat Crop in Santa Barbara. — 
The wheat croji in this county, says the 
frwarf/ia;), is very nearly all gathered in. 
Threshing machines are busy at work in 
all parts of the valley, and we are told by 
those who are well informed in the matter, 
that the crop will turn out far exceeding 
what was anticipated it would two or thi-ee 
months ago. 

Oranges in Tulare.— We have often 
wondered, says the Visalia Delta of July 
13th, why more orange trees have not been 
planted in this portion of the State, where 
they seem to flourish in perfection. A 
live orange from the tree is worth a bushel 
of the vapid yellow things sold in the mar- 
kets of our cities after transportation from 
the tropics. We have a little orange tree 
in our front yard, the trunk of which is 
not larger than a man's wrist, which has 
upon it some sixty half-grown oranges, 
which seem to be filling out nearly as fast 
as apples. This tree has had but a poor 
show, standing on the north side of the 
house, and much shaded by larger trees. 
It was originally set there as an ornamen- 
tal shrub, and has become the most inter- 
esting tree on the premises. 

Irrigation in Los Angeles. — Many of 
our farmers, says the Los Angeles Star, 
assert that next winter tliey intend, rain or 
no rain, to irrigate land intended for culti- 
vation, believing that land well soaked 
during the winter will retain sufficient 
moisture to make crops without irrigation 
during the summer months. 

NEVADA. 

Hay in the Valley of the Humboldt, 
Nevada, is very scarce and high this sum- 
mer. In the neighborhood of Winnemuc- 
ca it is now soiling at $40, with a fair 
prospect of going up to $50. The amount 
of old stock on hand is quite small; while 
this year's growth will be less than half 
the usual average. J. B. Fairbanks who 
owns a ranch ten miles east of Winnemuc- 
ca, who has heretofore generally cut 200 
tons, will not cut any the present season. 
The mountain ranches, however, there as in 
this State, will yield about their average 
crof)s. 

Grain and Grass. — It is stated that 
throughout the region of country extend- 
ing from Belmont, Nye county, to the Hum- 
boldt river, in Elko county, the growing 
grain is healthy but not very abundant — 
perhaps not an average. 

The grass also, is not so abundant as in 
former years, although the yield will be 
fair, and perhai^s of finer quality than here- 
tofore. 

Crickets. — The Eureka Sentinel says: 
There appears to be two droves or herds, of 
the large l)lack cricket, crossing the State, 
one via South Fork river, the other via old 
Fort Ruby and Diamond Si^rings. These 
"bugs," though numerous, are not out in 
sufficient force to materially injure the 
crops. Perhaps they are crickets and per- 
haps not. They seem to be a compromise 
between a seven year old locust and a grass 
hopper, having no wings, chirruping like 
a cricket, not spitting like a grass-hopjier, 
though having the gait of both. They are 
perhaps the bald-headed locust, so highly 
commended in the Jev.ish Leviticus, as a 
clean article of diet. Try them. 



OREGON. 

Crops of theDalles. — The Mountaineer 
regrets to learn that in many parts of that 
county the crops are likely to prove a fail- 
ure. In some localities the sand has been 
so hot as to burn the grain hard and dry. 

In Grant County, the prospects are good 
for an abundant harvest. 

Jacksonville. — The Times says the 
crops in that county never looked better 
than now. A severe hail storm had done 
much damage. The storm was one of un- 
precedented fury. Hailstones are said to 
have been picked up which measured nine 
inches in circumference, and which pene- 
trated the ground four inches ! 

Polk and Yamhill. — The latest sown 
grain in the foothills of these counties re- 
ceived much injury from the hot weather 
of the early part of July; but the early 
sown grain in the valley i^roper has not been 
thus affected. 

"WASHING-TON. 

Harvesting. — The Walla Walla Union 
of July 15th says the farmers in that vicin- 
ity were then very busily engaged in reap- 
ing their grain. The editor is informed by 
a gentleman who is running a reaper, that 
the fall, winter and early spring grain is 
generally very good, but that some of the 
late spring sowing has been considerably 
damaged by the late spell of hot weather; 
yet the portion that is damaged is small 
compared with that which is uninjured. 
Taking into consideration the great amount 
sown, the grain crofj, and especially wheat, 
will be very heavy. All that is now needed 
for the prosperity of the farmer, is a rail- 
road upon which to send their grain to mar- 
ket. 

The Wheat Market on the Touchet. — 
The same i^ajier alluding to the report that 
there is no market for wheat on the 
Touchet, says it is because there is no 
wheat there —a very good reason. 

There were parties at Walla Walla on 
the 15th inst, from Portland, for the pur- 
pose of engaging 100,000 bushels for that 
market, Sixty cents per bushel was offered 
for the new crop. This looks like a small 
price for wheat, but it will be remembered 
that at this time of year, as a general thing, 
the market opens at not more than fifty 
cents. With sixty cents as a " starter," 
the prospects of a rise of fifteen or twenty 
cents by fall are good. 

ATLANTIC. 

The Wheat Crop. — The July report of 
the Agricultural Bureau,at Washington says 
the condition of winter wheat on the 1st of 
July was rather above the average; but the 
spring vaiiety was presented a very un- 
promising appearance. The winter wheat 
was a full week earlier than usual and the 
harvest had already commenced at that 
date. 

The prevalence of insects and local 
drouths have been the principal draw- 
backs. The chinch bug has been very de- 
structive. Notwithstanding the increased 
acreage, the general average will fall some- 
what, though not largely, below the aver- 
age yield. 

It may be here remarked that there is 
a large fluctuation in our annual wheat 
crops, amounting to many millions of 
bushels. The largest crop recorded was 
that of 1869 — variously estimated at from 
220,000,000 to 225,000,000 of bushels. 

The corn crop shows a decided increase, 
nearly all of which, however, comes from 
the cotton States, which are this year .sup- 
plying themselves with corn. Iowa, alone, 
will raise 100,000,000 bushels. 

The hay crop will be comparatively a 
small one. 

The potato crop promises a full average 
yield, notwithstanding the prevalence of 
the "bug." 

Wool. — The Michigan Farmer thinks 
the supply of wool, this season, will be 
short, and that prices will continue to rule 
high. 

Buckwheat.— Of the 17,000,000 bushels 
of buckwheat raised in the United States, 
12,000,000 are produced in New York and 
Pennsylvania. 

Great Britain. — Late telegraphic ad- 
vices report that the crop prospects in 
Great Britain have improved under the re- 
cent favorable weather, and the English 
markets have felt the influence of the 
change; the depression being reflected on 
this side, also, by a weakening in the grain 
market. 

Kindness to Cattle. — The celebrated 
Miss Burdett Coutts recently made an ex- 
cellent speech from a London platform, 
while giving away the prizes to drovers 
who had been remarkable for kindness to 
cattle. 



54 



w^sMwm wmuM^w^ w^mm. 



[July 29, 1871. 



PoflQLOqiCi^L. 



The Coloring of Fruit. 

The coloring of fruit is duo mainly to 
sunlight— modified of course, by the char- 
acter of the leaf in which the juices are 
elaborated. Whatever the characteristic 
color of any particular fruit may be that is 
sought for which presents a fine, rich 
shade. "We have already stated in these 
columns that it is usually on the outside 
limbs that the richest color and choicest 
fruit is found — a fact due to allowing the 
branches to grow too close within the 
body of the tree; hence a tree should be so 
trimmed that the direct rays of the sun 
may find their way, during the middle 
hours of the day, at least, into the center of 
the branches. Care, however, should be 
taken, especially in the dry atmosphere of 
this climate that the fruit is not exposed 
to such an excess of heat and light, as to 
urge the evaporation so rapidly that the 
secretive princiiile cannot be kept fully 
supplied with the needed moisture. In 
such a case the same result will ensue 
which follows too great an absence of sun- 
light — a pale, sickly color to the apple, in- 
stead of the rich blush or golden yellow, 
which is always regarded as the criterion 
in judging of the excellence of fruit by 
sight. There is a certain degree of moist- 
ure as well as sunlight required in the 
atmosphere for the proper ripening of fruit, 
and the happy medium can be very well se- 
cured by regulating the shade by a judi- 
cious use of the pruning knife. 

Salt fob Pear Blight. — The nursery- 
men in Geneva, N. Y., are using salt 
freely in their pear orchards. From two 
to four hundred pounds per acre are put 
upon the land yearly. It seems to have a 
good effect in preserving the vigor of the 
trees. It is said that a marked difference 
is found between those orchards where it is 
used, and those which have not used it. 



Selling Fruit by Weight. — The West- 
ern Pomologinl comments favorably upon 
the California practice of selling fruit by 
weight, instead of by measure, and recom- 
mends its adoption everywhere. By meas- 
ure great injustice is often done to retail 
purchasers, as it is no difficult matter for 
the retailer to make nearly three pints of 
strawberries, raspberries, etc., from one le- 
gitimate quart. The same is true with re- 
gard to larger fruit, and with vegetables 
and grain. 

Effects of Sulphur on Wine. 

In a late issue we gave Prof. Weiden- 
man's opinion of what became of the sul- 
phur used upon the grapevine — that it was 
converted into sulphate of lime (gypsum) 
by uniting with the lime in the soil, and 
thus continued its beneficial action as a 
manurial agent. But it appears from De 
laVergne's " Practical Instructions" in the 
manufacture of wine, that all the sulphur 
does not find its way to the soil. That au- 
thor says : — 

A bad flavor is sometimes communicated 
to wine from the remains of sulphur on 
the grapes, and serious objections to the 
use of the remedy were at one time raised 
on this account. This taste it has, how- 
ever, been found easy to got rid of by 
drawing off. If one operation does not 
suffice, a second in the manner described 
below will be sure to succeed. 

Rinse carefully your empty cask, first 
with cold and then with warm water, then 
again with cold, for every forty gallons it 
will hold, pour in a quart of clean water, 
and leave it there. Burn within the cask, 
for every forty gallons it will hold, one 
square inch of rag or wick incrustcd with 
sulphur by beingdipped in it while melted; 
close the bung tightly, and roll and shake 
the cask to let the water within it absor)) 
well the vapors of sulphurous acid pro- 
duced by the burning. Into the cask thus 
prepared, draw your wine, doing this by 
means of buckets, and not by any of the 
modes contrived to exclude the air, since 



contact with it helps to disinfect the wine. 

But be careful to leave all lees behind; 
therefore do not tip the cask. The thicker 
wine remaining with the lees must be set- 
tled by putting it in a smaller vessel, and 
then drawing off by itself in the same way 
as the other. Any portion of the lees car- 
ried into the fresh cask under the influ- 
ence of a slight subsequent fermentation 
will again form sulpliureted hydrogen, 
which constitues the bad taste in question. 

To the above the editor of the Western 
Pomologist adds as follows : — 

This sulphuretod hydrogen decomposes 
when brought in contact with the sulphur- 
coated rag or wick, and thus the objection- 
able flavor passes off. But it will be slight 
enough to go away in tlie ordinary draw- 
ing off which must necessarily bo per- 
formed for other purposes, unless sulphur 
has been applied to the vines late in the 
season, and in needlessly large quantities, 
and no heavy rain has come to wash it ofl', 
nor sufficient heat intervened to vaporize it 
away. But the slightest inconvenience of 
this sulphur flavor, so easily got rid of, is 
an inconsiderable evil compared with what 
results when, in absence of the projjer 
remedy, the mildew, or its remains, passes 
into the wine. For which reason it is al- 
waj's well to sulphur vines whenever anj- 
considerable attack of the disease occurs 
late in the season, even though it comes too 
late to injure the fruit; for by fastening on 
such parts of the fruit-stems as yet remain 
green, it can maintain a foothold until 
vintage, and so find entrance into the ijress 
or vat. 

M. Mares thinks the small quantity of 
sulpliureted gas that will ordinarily be 
found in the new wine is valuable to pre- 
serve it, and thinks, too, the wine made of 
sulphureted grapes is more even in qnalitj% 
has a brighter color— very important in 
red wine — and keeps better than any other 
wine. 

De la Vergne thinks the time will come 
when those who buy wine of the producer 
will be glad to hear him say: — "' My vines 
were thoroughly sulphured;" and we all 
know that in commerce it has long been 
the custom to fumigate wine casks, 
without complaints being made of any bad 
ert'ect resulting therefrom. 



Economizing the Fruit Crop. 

The Grass Valley Union says that most 
of the fruit crop of that place will rot upon 
the ground for lack of a market. A few 
will put up some in cans; but the Union 
fears there will not be sufficient enterprise 
in that direction todrive eastern can fruits 
even from the shelves of the traders there. 

AVe agree with the Union in its remark 
that such shiftlessness and wastefulness 
should be avoided. Besides canning, the 
drying of fruit should receive more attention 
in California than it heretofore has done. In- 
stead of importing, as wo now do, largely 
of both canned and dried fruits, we ought 
to certainly supply the full home demand for 
both, and export, with profit, large quanti- 
ties of the latter. No other part of the conti- 
nent ought to bo able to compete with us 
in producing raisins, and dried figs, plums, 
prunes, pears, peaches, apples and apri- 
cots. In seasons of such abundance as the 
present, in our delightful climate, and 
with labor almost or quite as cheap as at 
the East, there ought not to be a bushel of 
good choice fruit of any kind wasted on 
this coast, and there would not be if our 
people ijossessed the right kind of energy 
and economy. 

Water Sprouts and Suckers. — During 
the season of growth, orchard trees should 
be looked over at regular intervals of two 
or three weeks, and all water sprouts and 
suckers rubbed oft'. If too large and firm 
to be thus removed without mutilating the 
bark of the tree, cut them off close up, and 
smooth^not leaving the slightest stub. 
Nothing gives to a tree or an orchard, an 
aspect so slovenish and forsaken, as does 
a crop of water sprouts and suckers, to say 
nothing of their exhaustive effects upon 
the legitimate growth of the trees. — Pomo- 
logist. 

Pr.TTNixG Pear Trees. — The English 
Journal of Hori.icidture says that with re- 
gard to pruning very j'ouug pear trees, the 
object should be to encourage the growth 
of wood in proper directions, rather than 
the production of a few fruits at the ex- 
pense of retarding the development of the 
trees. 



PoilLXf^Y flojES. 



History of the Brahraas. 

The Brahma Pootra fowl was first brought 
to this country by a ship which arrived at 
New York in Sept. 1846. They were 
brought from Luckipocr, a shii^ping port 
some distance* up the Brahma Pootra river, 
in India. 

The first brood from this shipment 
came out in May, 1847, the most of which 
was purchased by Virgil Cornish, of New 
Britain, Conn. The first public exhibi- 
tion of these fowls was made at Boston, in 
1850, by Mr. Hatch, of Hampton, Conn., 
under the name of Grey Chittagongs, 
with which breed they were supposed to 
be identical; but a committee was ap- 
pointed at that exhibition, which reported 
that they difi'ered from the Chittagongs 
and should have a distinct apiiellation. 
They were accordingly named Brahma 
Pootra, after the name of the great river, 
from the banks of which they came, 
and have ever since been thus known. 

The "pea comb" on the first birds was 
generally, but not in every instance, small. 
The comb differed essentially from that of 
the Chittagongs. There has been no de- 
generacy in the character of those fowls 
since their first importation. Specimens 
have been produced larger than the origi- 
nals, which weighed as follows: — Cocks, 
full grown, 12 to 14 pounds — six to seven 
months of 9 to 10 pounds. Hens, full 
grown, 9 to 10 pounds. 

The first specimens sold by Mr. Cornish, 
(December 1850) brought :gl2 per pair; 
but, as the fowls became better known, 
and generally recognized as a distinct 
species, the price went up to §15, §25, and 
even as high as §50 per jjair. 

Mr. C. continued to breed these fowls 
for eight years, and noticed a tendency 
to variation in color, sometimes darker than 
the originals, but more often lighter — 
but never white like the Dorkins. 

All breeds of fowls having dark and 
light feathers can be varied either way, 
to darker cr lighter, by always choosing 
the darkest or lightest for breeders. If a 
stock of Brahmas are pure, and they are 
allowed to breed together promiscuously, 
the variation in color will be quite noticea- 
ble, but slight. 

We have gathered the above from a let- 
ter addressed by Mr. Cornish to Col. Weld, 
corresponding secretary of the N. Y. Poul- 
try Society. 

Mammoth Bronze Turkeys are adver- 
tised for sale by Mrs. Loose, Sprinfield, 
Illinois. She says that the original pair 
weighed 75 pounds! and that the young 
brood is also gigantic. We ought to have 
this breed in California, the native home 
of large growths. — Ex. 

It may be i>ardonable, perhaijs, to ques- 
tion the above reported weight, especially 
when, at the late "World's Poultry Show" 
in England, Mr. Simpson, of New York 
took the first jirize for a gobbler which 
"kicked the beam" at only 39 lbs. 4 oz. 

How to Make Hens Lay. 

People would better understand this 
matter if they considered for a moment a 
hen to be, as she is, a small steam engine, 
with an egg-laying attachment, and thus 
there must be a constant supply of good 
feed and pure water to keep the engine 
and its attatchnient up to its work. In ad- 
dition to keeping before hens, who have 
complete liberty, a constant supply of 
pure water, summer and winter, I have 
found that during the cool and cold 
weather of fall, winter and spring, a dough, 
compounded as follows, fed one day and then 
intermitted for two days, to produce excel- 
lent results: 

To three gallons of boiling water add 
half an ounce of common salt, a teaspoonfulof 
cayenne popper and four ounces of lard. Stir 
the mixture until the pepper has imparted 
considerable of its strength to the water. 
Meantime the salt will have been dissolved 
and the lard melted. Then, while yet boil- 
ing hot, stir in a meal, made of oats and 
corn, ground together in e(iual proportions. 



until a stiff mush is formed. Set away to 
cool down to a milk warmth. Before feed- 
ing, taste to see that you have an overdose 
neither of salt nor pepj^er, and to warrant 
the hens not being imposed on with a mix- 
ture not fit to be oaten. The hen mush 
should not be Salter than to suit your own 
taste; nor so hot with pepper that you 
could not swallow it, were so much in 
j'our broth. Beware of too much salt, too 
much lard and too much pepper; and bo- 
ware, too, where the seasoning is not too 
high, of feeding this dough too long at a 
time. Let the hens be fed one day fully 
with it, then let it be omitted and the ordin- 
ary feed given two days, and so on, 
and the result will be found satis- 
factoiy. Tul-e notice.— Hens fed this way 
will be a good deal less inclined to set than 
when fed in the ordinary manner. — Coun- 
tni Gentleman, 



Heavy Duclis, Geese and Turkeys. 

At the late grand poultry show at Bir- 
mingham, England, the first prize pair of 
Aylesbury ducks weighed 18tt)8. Ooz., se- 
cond ditto, 18lt.s. lOoz. third ditto, 17ltjs. 
lOoz.; fourth ditto, 18ft)s. 4oz. Eouen — 
First prize pen, 19ttjs. 4oz.; second ditto, 
18lt)8, 60Z.; third ditto, 18Jbs. 2oz.; fourth 
ditto, 17l)js. lloz. 

The following are the weights of geese: 
Gander and goose exceeding one year old, 
first prize, 58tbs. 12oz.; secondditto. 55fts. 
5oz. Gander and goose, birds of 1870, 
first prize, 49tbs. 4oz; second ditto, 49tb8. 
Gray and mottled — gander and goose ex- 
ceeding one year old, first prize C2ttj8. 6oz.; 
second ditto, 54 tt)8. Goz. Gander and goose, 
birds of 1870, first prize, 53 lbs. 6oz.; se- 
cond ditto, 49tt)S. loz. 

Mr. Wm. Simpson, the well-known Now 
York breeder of fancy poultry, was a com- 
Iietitor at this exhibition and won, ogain.st 
" all England," the first prize on turkies; 
the gobbler he sent weighed 39ttis. 4oz. 

Mr. Simpson ulso sent to this exhibition, 
a pen of Dominiques, but though acknowl- 
edged fine birds, did not find favor in the 
eyes of the judges. They were the only 
specimens on exhibition, and were i)ut in 
class "Miscellaneous," with Scotch Dum- 
pies, Cuckoo CorkingB, etc. 

GiJ^SE. — No more than three geese to one 
gander ought to be kept for breeding, and 
they require a wide range, affording plenty 
of gra.ss and still water. A goose house for 
four should not be less than eight feet long 
by six feet wide, and high enough for a 
man to stapd in upright. A smooth floor 
and good ventilation are necessary. Over 
the floor a little clean straw should be 
spread every second day, after removeing 
that previously used. A comi)artment 
about two and a half feet square should be 
assigned to each goose for laying and set- 
ting, and when one is hatching, the gander 
and other geese must bo shut out from her. 
Wherever a-Tolouse goose lays her first 
egg, she is very pertinacious in there de- 
positing the remainder. The Toulouse 
goose is a very good layer, but rarely de- 
siics to set, and if she does, is a very 
bad mother. When laying geese are kept 
together, and they are liable to interrupt 
each other, remove the eggs daily, and 
mark on ench the day it was laid. They 
will continue for three weeks, but the 
freshest eggs should be set upon. If geese 
keep well to their separate nests, let the 
eggs remain. 

Variations in Blooded Fowls. — There 
has been some trouble among the fancy 
poultry breeders in New York. There were 
two varieties,of Brahmas — one havinga sin- 
gle comb, and the other a double comb. 
Which was the true breed'? A convention 
settled the matter. It decided that a jiure- 
Ijlooded chicken may have a single or dou- 
ble comb. One peculiarity was insisted 
on, that the true breed should have clean 
legs — that is, legs without feathers. 

Soft Shelled Ecios. — When soft eggs 
ai"e laid by fowls they intimate, usually, 
th.it the egg organs are inflamed, which is 
occasioned by the birds being over fed or 
too fat. Spare diet, and plenty of green 
food, esiJeeially lettuce leaves, is the best 
treatment for fowls in that condition. 



Color op Ego Shells. — Fowls to which 
a portion of chalk is given with their food, 
lay eggs the shells of which are remarkable 
for their whiteness. By substituting for 
chalk a calcareous earth rich in oxide of 
iron, the shells become a light cinnamon 
color. 

A Good Layer.— A farmer of Scipio, 
N. Y., has a turkey that has laid 100 eggs in 
100 days, never missing a day on account 
of sickness, or a circus in town, or any- 
thing. 



July 29, 1871.] 



55 



New Publications. 

Sorghum and its Pisoducts. — An account 

of Hecent Investigations concerning tlie Value of 
Sorghum in Sugar Production, together with a De- 
Bcnption of a Now Method of Making Suyur and 
Kenned Syrup from ihis Plant. Adapted to Ccmmon 
Use By i'. L. Stewart. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippin- 
cott & Co.. I8G7. 8vo., pp. 240. For sale by Dewey 
& Co., S F. 

The sui^ply of Southern cane sugar has 
been gradually decreasing of late years, 
while the demand for sugar is continually 
increasing. As the sugar cane caonot be 
grown except on a limited belt of territory 
along the shore of the Gulf of Mexico, 
other sources of supply have been sought. 
The Northern sugar maple is utterly in- 
adequate. The manufacture of beet sugar 
has not been fully tested throughout* the 
United States, although we have great 
hopes in California of its success, and we 
may here allude to articles in the Press 
on melon sugar. But the greatest atten- 
tion of tho country generally has beau 
called to a plant which seems as adequate 
to supply us in futvire with sugar, as, in 
the few years since its introduction, it has 
proved itself capable of providing half the 
tables in the land with a rich and palateable 
syrup. This plant is the sorglium. It is 
called by botanists the sorffhum sacchm-atian , 
all the different kinds being recognized as 
varieties of one species. 

The publication of this volume comes 
therefore most opportunely. It is written 
for the benefit chiefly of tho farmers and 
planters who foster this branch of indus- 
try, and it is written in such a manner that 
they can understand and use its contents. 
It is comprehensive in its scope, treating 
of the method of planting and cultivation, 
Avith full instructions at every stage of the 
process, of manures, soils, effects of cli- 
mates, harvesting and storing the cane, the 
lirocess of manufacture, de-scrijition of 
mills, re-agents and processes, etc., etc. 
It treats also of other sugar producing 
plants. 
The Illustrated Horse Doctor. — Being 

an accurate and detailed account of the various dis- 
eases to which the Equine Race are subjected, to- 
gether with the Latest Mode of Treatment, and all 
tho Requisite Prescriptions. Writteu iu Plain EnglL-ih. 
With over 400 Pictorial Representations By Edward 
Mayhew M. R. C. V. S., Philadelphia: J. B. Lippin- 
cott & Co. 1871. 8vo., pp. 52'2. For Bale by Dewey & 
Co. 

In this book, which is lavishly illus- 
trated, Mr. Mayhew has sought to give to 
the reader directions which will direct the 
uninitiated in the jirimary measures neces- 
sary to meet tho progress of disease, and 
Avhich, when i^rofessioual assistance could 
not be obtained, might even instruct the 
novice how to treat equine disorders in 
such a manner as would afford a reason- 
able i^rospect of success. He has also 
sought to show that cruelty is an extrava- 
gant indulgence. He says: 

In tho writer's conviction, Immanity 
toward animals should be more commonly 
practiced — if not from any higher motive, 
because it is certainly the truest economy. 
To make this fact plain is the intention of 
the present publication. To prove that 
horses are gifted with something beyond 
the mere sensation which is common to all 
moving things, is the object of the present 
work. To convince the public, by appeal- 
ing to the eye and to the understanding 
through the means of engravings and of 
letter-press, that the equine race inherit 
hicher feelings than the vast majority of 
mankind are prepared to admit, is the pur- 
pose of the book now in the hands of the 
I'eader. To demonstrate how closely nature 
has associated man and horse in their lia- 
bilities and in their diseases — to induce 
men, by informing their sympathies, to 
treat more tenderly the timid life which is 
disposed to serve and is also willing to 
love them — is the highest reward the au- 
thor of the following images can picture to 
himself. 

Crofott's Traus-Coutiuental Tourist's Guide, 
containing a full and autht ntic description of over 
ROO Towns, Villages, Stations, Government Forts 
and Camps, Mountains, Lakes, Rivers, Sulphur, Soda 
ai'd Hot Springs, Scenery, Watering Places. Summer 
Resorts; where to look for and hunt the Buffalo, An- 
telope, Deer and other game; Trout Fishing, etc., 
etc. In fact, to tell you what is worth seeing — where 
to see it — where to go — how to go — and who to stop 
with while passing along the Union Pacific Railroad, 
Central Pacific Railroad of Cal., their Branches and 
Connections by Stage and Water, from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific Ocean. Sold by jjeiiodical dealers through- 
out the United States and iu European cities. Sent 
prepaid by Dewey it Co. for 75 cents; bound, $1.25. 

The above title gives a description of the 
character of the third volume and second 
annual revise of this progressive publica- 
tion, edited by Geo. A. Crofutt, publisher, 
who has spent years of active and adven- 
turous life in the heart of tho wild country 
portrayed by him in a natural and jileas- 



ing style, not in the least dry to the trav- 
eller on his way or the home reader who 
is made to roam with truthful fancy over 
the longest and most excitingly interest- 
ing railway line in the world. Mr. Crofutt 
makes this i^ublication his regular busi- 
ness, passing over the route and adding 
new material and improvements to his 
work constantly. It is now illustrated by 
over forty engravings. A large and com- 
plete colored lithograph map of the world 
shows the principal routes of travel, and 
very prominently the lines of a voyage 
around the world and time and cost of the 
only truly rouiultvip which travelers make. 
Ths map is worth more than the price of 
the book, for wall or pocket use. We have 
a bound copy worthy of any library, and 
must say this book differs from many 
"guides" in being worthy of preservation 
and worth buying to those who do not 
travel the route. 



Lake Superior Iron Mines. 

We have received a very interesting 
pamphlet on the mines and furnaces of the 
Lake Superior Iron District, writteu by 
A. P. Swineford, the able editor of the 
Marquette Mining Joarnal. A few 'items 
from the work may interest onr readers. 

The iron ores are generally found in 
hills, rising from 100 to 500 feet above the 
level of the surrounding country. These 
hills are simply immense deposits of iron 
ore, though i>artially or wholly covered 
by layers of earth and rock. The ores are 
also found in the valley, but where so 
found are usually covered with a deep 
drift, which renders their extraction more 
difficult. 

There are five varieties of ore: si^ecular 
hematite, yielding (50 to 70 per cent, of 
slightly red-short iron; soft hematite, 
yielding about 55 per cent.; magnetic ore; 
" flag ore," a slaty, silicious hematite; and 
asilicious ore containing a variable amount 
of oxide of manganese. 

There are 1'^ mines in operation, 16 blast 
furnaces, and one rolling mill. All but 
one furnace run on charcoal. All are hot 
blast and all but three have steam power. 
From 1856 to 1870, inclusive, there were 
produced 3,771,939 tons of ore and 213,460 
tons of pig iron, valued at $29,069,883. 
The average cost of extracting the ore is 
estimated at §2 per ton. 

Tho work gives a history of the district, 
and contains throughout interesting and 
valuable matter. 



Tulare County Soda Springs. — A cor- 
respondent of the Bulletin describes the 
McKelvey soda spring, situated on the 
north side of the south fork of Tule river, 
which delivers about sixty gallons of soda 
water per hour. It bubbles ujj continu- 
ously, is as strong as almost any one would 
wish, and too strong for some, until they 
let it remain in the cup a moment, and. I 
think, quite as gosd as artificial soda 
water, if sweetened with syrup, though 
most people prefer it without sweetening. 
It contains some iron, but not enough to 
spoil the taste. There are several other 
springs near by, some of which I think 
contain sulphur. There is also a spring 
on the north fork of Tule river, where, I 
am informed, hotel accommodations are to 
be had this summer. They call it Mount 
Tabor Soda Spring. It is not so strong 
with gas, but has more sulphur in it. 
With these healthy plains to live on in 
winter, and the soda springs as a summer 
resort, settlers will yet settle upon and ir- 
rigate this land, making Tulare county the 
Paradise of California. We have no mos- 
quitoes, fleas or other pests of that kind to 
bother us. 




The California Elastic Car Wheel. — 
We have seen several certificates of recom- 
mendation for the above invention of Dr. 
A. F. Cooper of this city. His wheels, 
originally illustrated in the Sctentifio 
Press, have been in use for over twelve 
months, and the endorsements of their mer- 
its for utility and durability are by officials 
of railroads leading out of Boston, where 
the inventor now tarries. 



. Poison in the Cloth. — A dressmaker 
was poisoned to death a few weeks ago by 
making up a green tarletan dress. So 
much of the arsenic entered the pores of 
her skin that she died a few days afterward. 



Conditions of Comfort. 

Every day we meet with persons who in their 
families are cross, ill-natm-ed, dissatisfied, find- 
•iug fault with everybody and everything, whose 
first greeting in the breakfast room is a com- 
plaint, whose conversation seldom fails to end 
in an enumeration of difficulties and hardships, 
whose last word at night is an angry growl. 

If you can get such persons to reason on the 
subject, they will acknowledge that there is 
some " want" at the bottom of it; the " want " 
of a better house, a finer dress, a more hand- 
some equipage, a more dutiful child, a more 
provideut husband, a more cleanly, or svstem- 
atic, or domestic wife. At one time it is a 
"wretched cook," which stands between them 
and the sun; or a lazy house-servant, or an 
impertinent carriage driver. 

The want of more money than Providence 
has thought proper to bestow, will be found to 
embrace all these things. Such persons may 
feel assured that people who cannot really 
make themselves comfortable in any one set of 
ordinary circumstances, would not be so under 
any other. A man who has a canker eating out 
his heart, will carry it with him wherever he 
goes; and if it be a spiritual canker, whether 
of envy, habitual discontent, unbridled ill-na- 
ture, it would go with the gold, and rust out all 
its brightness. ^Vhatever a man is to-day with 
a last dollar, he will be radically, essentially, 
to-morrow with a milhon, unless the heart is 
changed. 

Stop, reader; that is not the whole truth, for 
the whole truth has something of the terrible in 
it. Whatever of an undesirable ihspositiou a 
man has to-day without money, he will have 
to-morrow to an exaggerated extent, unless the 
heart is changed ; the miser will be more miser- 
erly; the drunkard more drunken; the de- 
bauchee more debauched; the fretful still more 
complaining. 

If you are not comfortable, not happy now, 
under the circumstances which surround you, 
and wish tu be more comfortable, more happy, 
your first step should be to seek a change of 
heart, of disposition, and then the other things 
v/ill follow — without the greater wealth! And 
having the moral comfort, bodily health will 
follow apace, to the extent of your using ra- 
tional means. Bodily comfort, or health, and 
mental comfort have on one another the most 
powerful reactions; neither can be perfect 
without the other, at least, approximates to it; 
in short — Cultivate health and a good heart; 
for with these you may be comfortable without 
a farthing; without them never, though you 
may possess milhons! — Hall's Jour, of Ilenllli. 

Medicinal Qualities of Pumpkins. 

At a recentmeeting of the the New York Farm- 
ers' Club, a correspondent wrote of the virtues 
of the pumpkin, giving the following instance 
of its value for inflammatory rheumatism: — A 
woman's arm was swelled to an enormous size 
and painfully inflamed. A poultice was made 
of stewed pumpkins, which was renewed every 
fifteen minutes, and in a short time produced a 
perfect cm'C. The fever drawn out by the poul- 
tices made them extremely offensive, as they 
were taken oft'. I knew a man cured of severe 
inflammation of the bowels by the same kind of 
application. I think such subjects as this 
proper for discussion iu a farmers' club. 

Dr. Snodgrass — I have no doubt -pumpkins 
make a good poultice. Whatever holds warmth 
best is the most suitable. 

Dr. Smith — In my travels in Syria I found 
pumpkin seeds almost universally eaten by the 
people on account of their supposed medical 
qualities — not because they are diuretic, but as 
an antidote against animalculre which infest the 
bowels. They are sold in the streets as apples 
and nuts are here. It is a medical fact that 
persons have been cured of tapeworm by the 
use of pumpkin seeds. The outer skin being 
removed, the meats are bruised in a mortar, 
into an oily, pasty mass. It is swallowed by 
the patient after fasting some hours, and it 
takes the place of chyle in the stomach, and 
the tapeworm lets go its hold on the membrane 
and becomes gorged with this substance and in 
some measure probably torpid. Then a large 
dose of castor oil is administered, and the 
worms are ejected before they are able to re- 
new their hold. 

Singular Case of Blood Poisoning in 
Boston. — Mr. John Snow, engaged in the 
fish business on Commercial wharf, re- 
cently had the misfortune to cut the toj} of 
the thumb on his right hand with a large 
and sharp knife which he was using. After 
applying a simple dressing to the wound, 
which bled profusely at the time, scarcely 
anything else was done to it, and Mr. 
Snow continued to attend to his business. 
On returning home last Wednesday even- 
ing he complained of severe pain in his 
hand and harm. During the night the 
severity of the pain increased, and inflamma- 
tion setting in. Dr. Hall was summoned, 
who, after making a careful examination, 
discovered that the matter which had 
formed around the wound had been ab- 
sorbed by the blood and consequently was 
circulating through the patient's system. 
The physician treated the case in the usual 
manner, but without any beneficial results, 
and the man continued to suffer apparently 



in great agony until last Saturday night, 
when death ensued. A consultation was 
held by several medical gentlemen, who 
stated that death resulted from pyaimia. — 
Boston Transcript. 

Sunshine in Dwellings. 

The time will very likely come when 
sunshine, or sunlight, will be so utilized 
as to be the entire remedy used for very 
many diseases. That it is a wonderful 
vitalizer, none can doubt who know any- 
thing about it. 

But how many houses are constructed 
with a view to getting all the sunshine pos- 
sible, especially when so much needed as 
in winter and spring? The living, or sit- 
ting-room, at these seasons of the year, at 
least, should have a full southern exposure, 
with large windows to let in the sunshine. 
Sleeping rooms, wardrobes, closets, pas- 
sage ways, should receive the cleansing, 
vivifying influence of the sun. Sickly 
persons should court the sunshine as much 
as possible, — sit in it, lie in it, luxuriate in 
it. It doesn't cost anything, only appre- 
ciation. 

A room warmed neither by the sun nor 
by fire, is unhealthy, and not fit for human 
habitation. It is a iioor theory that sends 
men, women or children off into a cold 
room to sleep, on health principles, when 
warmth has been excluded for a day or a 
week, or perhaps months. The change in 
the temperature of a room, having both 
fire and sunshine, after the sun goes down, 
is exceedingly marked. A perceptible 
chill is felt. — Ex. 



To Avoid the Ague. 

The first suggestion, of course, is to 
leave those districts where this trouble- 
some complaint prevails. Sometimes, 
however, one's residence cannot well be 
changed. To persons so circumstanced, 
there are preventions by the use of which 
the majority might generally escape it, 
which are referred in the Journal of Health 
as follows : 

1. Avoid exposing themselves to the 
malarial air after sunset and before sun- 
rise. 2. Occupy rooms at night on the 
sunny side of the house and up stairs. 3. 
Build a fire in the house as soon as the 
dew begins to fall. The heat of the fire 
will do much to kill the malaria. 4. Keep 
the skin healthy and active bj' a thorough 
bath every day on rising, iu a warm room, 
with sufficient friction to produce a healthy 
reaction. 5. Keep the bowels open by a 
proper diet. In nine cases out of ten the 
cause of ague would be easily overcome if 
the depurating organs were not overtaxed 
and morbid matters allowed to accumulate 
in the system to oppress it. 

What is the Cause of so Much Loss op 
Life. — What is the deeper cause of this 
wide spread and lamentable destruction of 
human life; and, if remediable, how is it 
to be remedied ? Obviously, the cause is 
want of the mental capacity of self-pro- 
tection, and the sole remedy is to supply 
that want, which is the true work of edu- 
cation. We hear of the instinct of self- 
preservation, but the idea is erroneous; 
there is an instinct of love of life, but self- 
preservation is an affair of the reason and 
of knowledge. Again, there is much said 
about the injurious consequences of break- 
ing the physical laws, but this also is a 
mistaken notion. It is not the physical 
laws that are broken in these cases, but the 
laws of reason; while the great mass of 
accidents from which people suffer, are 
simply the penal consequences of loose 
tinhking. 

Worthy OF Consultation. — T!he" Manu- 
facturer and Builder" says that the best ar- 
ticle for spectacles is crown-glass. Glasses 
of Brazilian pebble transmit to the eye the 
rays of heat, which form 70 per cent, of so- 
lar light and much more of artificial lights. 
Good crown-glass, free from lead, is much 
less permeable to heat rays and therefore 
less injurious. 

Most Healthpuij Seat in a Car. — 
Other things being equal, the forward 
seats in a street or railway car are the 
most healthful. The forward motion of 
the car causes a current of air backward, 
carrying with it the exhalations from the 
lungs of the forward passengers. In all 
cases avoid as much as possible inhaling 
another's ' 'breath." 

Lemon for a Cough.— Roast the lemon 
very carefully without burning it; when it 
is thoroughly hot, cut and squeeze into a 
cup upon three ounces of sugar, finely 
powdered. Take a spoonful whenever 
your cough troubles you. It is good and 
agreeable to the taste. Rarely has it been 
known to fail of giving relief. 



56 



T'A^QWm WWUAJZ^ PHIESS. 



[July 29, 1871. 




PtTBLISIIKD liY 

Z2£:^W£:ir <Sk CO. 

A. T. DEWKY. W. B. EWER. O. U. STltONQ. J. L. BOONE, 

PfiiNCiPAL Editor W. B. EWER, A. M. 

AasocLiTE Editoe I. N. HOAG, (Sacramento.) 

Office, No. 4U Clay street, ■where friends and patrons 
are iuvited to our Scientific Press Patent Agency, En- 
graving and Printing establisbmeitt. 

NEW YOKK OFFICE : 37 Park Row, Room 25. W. 
E. Pabtbidoe, Editorial and Business Correspondent, 

SUBSCRIPTION AND ADVERTISING RATES. 

Subscriptions payable in advance — For one year fl; 
■ix months, $2.50; three months, J1.25. Clubs of ten 
names or more $3 each per annum. $5, in advance, will 
pay for 1 }, year. Kemittauces by registered letters or 
P. O. orders at our risk. 
Advertisino Rates, — 1 week, 1 monUi, 3 monUis. 1 year, 

Purline 25 .80 $2.00 $5.00 

One-halfinch $1.00 $3.00 (J.OO 20.00 

One im-h 2.00 5.00 10.00 36.00 

Largo advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
in extraordinary type or in particular parts of the paper, 
inserted at special rates. 

SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 29, 1871. 



Our Weekly Crop. 

The entrance to our farm presents a most 
picturesque appearance, for here we have laid 
out, in most approved style, a Kice Field, 
in which our visitors can examine the best 
methods of growing this article. 

Beyond the rice field is the Library of Me- 
chanical and Scientific Progress with its inter- 
esting and valuable stores. Still further on 
we see Coal Beds exposed to the view, and a 
representation of a Golden City, — one actually 
existing in Colorado. On the high hills, which 
bound our ranch on one side, we see Mountain 
Farming, and from beyond the hills we hear 
sweet Notes from Oregon. 

In one part of the field we find assembled the 
Santa Cruz Farmers' Club, witnessing the per- 
formances of Lady Thome, the fastest horse in 
America, who goes flashing by the broad expanse 
of Mesijuit Grass, and past the Cranberry Pas- 
ture ; and while we walk on to the Orchard, we have 
opportunity to hear the Agricultural Notes of 
the week. 

In the Orchard, we talk of the Coloring of 
Fruit, the Effects of Sulphur on Wine, and con- 
cerning methods of Economizing the Fruit 
Crop. Coming to the Poultry Yard, we are 
told the History of the Brahmas, shown How 
to Make Hens Lay, and see some Heavy Ducks, 
Geese and Turkeys. 

We meet a company of authors and talk over 
the New Publications. We come across an as- 
semblage of doctors, and converse on Conditions 
of Comfort, the Medicinal Qualities of Pump- 
kins, Sunshine in Dwellings, the Ague, and 
other miscellaneous subjects relating to the 
matter of Good Health. We meet the oflicers 
in charge of the coming State Fair, and hear 
their plans concerning the proposed Stock Ex- 
change. The commission merchant has some- 
thing to say about ^larketing Pears. 

The Inventors show us a list of Patents, The 
lover of nature calls oui' attention to the need 
of more care for the Yosemite Valley and exhi- 
bits a photograph of the Y'osemite Falls. Wo 
vitness the Burning of a Coal Mine, and glance 
over a Ust of the approaching Fairs. 

As we linger around the Home Circle, we 
hear songs and stories, in which the Young 
Folks have a share. We are given lessons in 
Domestic Economy, followed by Hints and Re- 
ceipts, and; closing with Life Thoughts. Then 
we refresh our memory with a glance at the 
State Fair Premiums and the Market Reports, 
to keep posted on these things during the Com- 
ing week. 



To Correspondents. — We have several 
communications and queries on hand for 
which we shall endeavor to find room next 
week. Our friends will excuse occasional 
delays with their favors, which are some- 
times unavoidable. 



The A.mnual Faik of the Clark county 
Agricultural and Mechanical Society will 
be held at Vancouver, on the 19th, 20th, 
and 21st of September. 



The State Fair— Stock Exchange. 

The present appearances indicate that 

he ap])roaehiug State Fair willbe superior 
in all respects to any that have preceded it. 
Early in the season Corresponding Secre- 
tary Hoag opened correspondence with the 
secretaries of Eastern State societies, sug- 
gesting an exchange of fruits for exhibi- 
tion at the respective fairs here and there. 

Affirmative answers have i)een received 
from some fifteen of the Eastern States, 
and arrangements have been made with the 
different railroad and expi-ess companies 
plying between the Atlantic and Pacific 
States, by which all packages of fruit for 
exhibition at the several fairs will be trans- 
ported free of charge — both coming and 
going. This will give our State Fair an 
exhibition of fruits from some fifteen of 
the Atlantic States, besides the magnificent 
disj)lay that will be made this year by our 
own people. The prospects are good in 
all other departments. Applications for 
space in the jmvilion and for stalls at the 
park are coming in daily. Already 170 
stalls have been engaged, and many of 
these are already occupied. 
A New Feature 
And a very imjiortant and useful one is 
being inaugurated this year, in the nature 
of a Stock Exchange. 

A great demand is being develoi^ed on 
this coast for blooded stock of all kinds. 
We have in our State a large number of 
the best of thoroughbred colts, of pure 
blooded short-horn, and other cattle; of 
full-blood merino — south-down and other 
approved breeds of sheep and good breeds 
of swine. Many of these animals are for 
sale at prices less than it will cost to im- 
port equally good animals from the East- 
ern States or any other country. The State 
Fair of all other places and times jiresonts 
the best opportunity to bring such animals 
before the public, and to bring the buyers 
and sellers together. 

To facilitate the exchange of stock on 
this occasion, an office will be opened in 
the main building at the stock ground, and 
a stock exchange book will be opened in 
which will be entered the names of all par- 
ties having stock for sale, the kind, age, 
and pedigree of the stock, etc. Also the 
names of all parties wishing to buy, and 
kinds of stock wanted. All facilities that 
can be, will be given to both buyers and 
sellers, and it will be of general advantage 
to all interested if they will send in their 
names and desires to the Recording Secre- 
tary, Maj. Eobert Beck, at once. 

Preparations for the State Fair. 

Already the various committees are 
busily engaged preparing for the great 
gala season of the State— the State Fair. 
Applications for space in the Pavilion and 
stalls at the Park come in so rapidly that 
the board is astonished that more room will 
be I'cquired at both places than at any prc- 
vious fair, and they are determined to fur- 
nish it. At the Pavilion all the old parti- 
tions are being taken down in the basement 
so as to make one large room, the same size 
as the main hall above, the old floor is be- 
ing torn out and a strong new floor is be- 
ing substituted. 

At the Park 100 additional stalls are in 
l^rocess of construction for horses and cat- 
tle, and many pens and sheds being built 
for pigs and sheep. 

Additional stands and seats for visitors 
are being prepared and everything is be- 
ing made ready for the great occasion. 

CAiiiFOENiA Silk Manufacturing Com- 
pany. ^ — This company has just elected its 
Board of Trustees for the current year, as 
follows: Henry F. Williams, T. Ellsworth, 
C. J, Pilsbury, H. Rosekrans, C. W. Smith. 
Mr. Johnston goes out of the Board as 
General Agent, for the purpose of taking 
charge of a large cotton plantation, as else- 
where noticed. 



Marketing Pears. 

A correspodent of the New York Horti- 
culturist gives some excellent hints under 
the head of "How to Market Pears." We 
condense as follow-s: — 

The pear is a very delicate, tender and 
finable fruit, provided it is placed in mar- 
ket, sound, perfect in form, bright and 
beautiful; and in order to do that— admit- 
ting it is sound and perfect — it must be 
handled with the greatest care, and kept 
from too much exposure to the atmos- 
phere; for there is no fruit in this country 
so sensitive to clianges in the air as the 
pear, and just here is where the difficulty 
lies in marketing this fruit. 

The crate or basket is condemned as ut- 
terly unfit for a package in which to mar- 
ket pears. Half barrels are recommended 
as the best form of package, and the box as 
next, for convenience and proper fitness. 
But whatever package is emiiloyed , it should 
be clean; great care should bo used in re- 
moving all dust on any foreign substance 
that has a tendency to injure the fruit. 
The i^ackage should be properly ventilated 
by boring holea in the sides. The number 
of holes should be governed by the ripe- 
ness of the fruit, and the heat of the 
weather. 

It may be that the fruit is so green and 
hard that the owner may desire to hasten 
the ripening process; in that case it may be 
prudent not to ventilate at all. The 
grower may in this manner largely control 
the ripening of his fruit. And the real 
beauty of the fruit, after size and perfec- 
tion is considered, is produced by this 
ripening or sweating process. It produces 
a clearness of the skin, which is much 
sought after in pears, and which conse- 
quently greatly enhances their value. 

A little hay placed on the toj) and bottom 
of a package will i)rove a good protectcr 
from bruising, and will also assist the 
fruit to color properly, when it ^annot be 
left on the tree until ready for eating. 

When carefully packed, pears will bear 
transportation well, and the dealer is ena- 
bled to handle them to better advantage. 
As the wrter chooses the half barrel for 
his package, his hints for packing are not 
altogether a]5plicable to the box as used 
here; yet with some modifications they will 
be found very useful. VT e quote his direc- 
tions verbatim : — 

"In order to i)ack in the most approved 
mode, take out the end you design for the 
bottom; begin packing by placing the 
fruit in rows around the bottom, standing 
it on the blossom end. Be careful that 
this tier is packed tight with a good aver- 
age qualitj' of fruit; when completed re- 
verse the order for the next layer, cham- 
bering the stems so as to make all tight; 
then continue to fill in irregularly, until 
the package is full; then, on the top place 
a few imperfect ones that may be bruised 
with impunity, pressing the head down on 
tliem hard enough to hold the entire con- 
tents of the package so tight that none of 
it will move. Nail this liead strong, and 
on the other head place the variety, with 
your initials and tlie consignee's address, 
so it may be opened in order to show the 
fruit to a good advantage. 

In handling this fruit, always avoid 
breaking the stems, for they add to the 
beauty and value of it. 

There is another very essential point to 
be observed in i)ackiug, and that is, to 
have all the fruit in one package as near 
one degree of ripeness as jiossible; then 
part of it will not perish before the other 
ripens. The grower must also take in con- 
sideration the time it takes to get his fruit 
in market. 

In regard to sorting qualities of fruit I 
should be governed by the character of it. 
If the general quality is even in size, and 
of a fair average quality, I would reject 
the culls, and make but one quality of the 
remainder; but should a great diiOFerence 
exist, I would make three." 

The State Fair Premium List. — We 
would call the especial attention of our 
readers to the State Fair Premium List, 
which appears to-day for tl ^ last time, in 
our columns. Farmers and others will do 
well to look it over carefully, and select 
therefrom whatever they think they can 
best compete for. 



Rice Culture for California. 

We have placed upon our first page, 
from the California Eural Home Journal, 
(an excellent paper in its day, but long 
since discontinued) , a valuable article on 
rice culture, originally prepared for the 
journal mentioned by an intelligent gen- 
tleman, who has had much experience in 
that business in the Southern States. The 
article is accomp.anied by the original illus- 
trations, for which we are indebted to Mr. 
T. H. Hyatt, and by the aid of which the 
reader will be able to form a very correct 
idea of the manner of preparing the 
grounds for the cultivation of this import- 
ant cejeal. 

We have millions of acres of tule and 
bottom lands along the river valleys of 
California, which are most admirably 
adapted to the cultivation of rice. We 
have also a great plenty of the very kind 
of labor needed for rice growing, and 
some limited experiments have been made 
in the State which seem to warrant the 
conclusion that our climate is well adapted 
to such culture. The want of success, so 
far as it was shown in these experiments, 
from what we can learn, should be at- 
tributed to lack of knowledge and practi- 
cal experience in the business. 

The article we give to-day, and which 
will be concluded in our next issue, will 
be found a most invaluable aid to those 
who may wish to engage understandingly 
in the cultivation of rice; and we recom- 
mend its most careful perusal. It fur- 
nishes a complete manual for such culti- 
vation, and should receive the widest pos- 
sible circulation. 



A Destructive Fire. 

On Saturday last a destructive fire oc- 
curred among the manufacturing estab- 
lishments on Fremont and Mission streets. 
The Iniildings here being occujiied to a 
large extent by wood- workers, the fire 
rapidly made headway and was only over- 
come after a large amount of ground had 
been burned over. 

The loss of the Mechanics' Mill, whoso 
buildings, machinery and stock on hand 
were completely destroyed, is set down as 
SiO.OOO. Howland & Co.'s ore-reducing 
works were also destroyed, and the loss 
here is given as §50,000. B. F. Freeman, 
stair-builder, lost machinery, p.itterns, etc. , 
of the value of 810,000. The fire extended 
to the Pacific Boiler Works, which lost 
stock and machinery to the amount of §10,- 
000. J. M. Stockman lost 87,000 worth of 
patterns, machinery and stock. 

The largest loss, however, was that of 
Garrett's brass foundry, occupj-ing four 
buildings, including foundry, bell foun- 
dry, finishing shoj), and store house. 
This is estimated at nearly 8100,000, in- 
sured to the amount of 817,500. But Gar- 
rett & Co. are not easily daunted, and they 
have alreadj' started the erection of build- 
ings, and have commenced casting. 

The total estimated loss is given as 
nearly 82(!'2,000. The insurance was very 
small, as the rates are high for such estab- 
lishments. In addition, some 200 work- 
men have been thrown out of employ, 
which is a very great hardship at the pres- 
ent time. This last is certainly one of the 
most dejilorable results of the fire. 

Arrivals. — Gen. Horace Capron, Prof. 
Theodore Antisell, Major A. G. Warfield, 
Jr., and Stuart Eldridge, have arrived 
from Washington, and are at the Grand 
Hotel, Gen. Capron, with his associates, 
are on their way to Japan, in accordance 
with the commission which they hold from 
that government, and to which we made 
reference two weeks since. We trust that 
our visitors will receive all the attention 
and courtesy, and all the aid in the power 
of our people to furnish tliem with all 
needed information, as it will most un- 
doubtedly redound to the good of our 
whole coast by making our resources known 
to that government in whose interest he is 
now engaged. 



July 29, 1871.1 



^h 



57 



Patents & Inventions. 



Full List of U. S. Patents Issued to 
Pacific Coast Inventors. 

(Fbom Official Reports to DEWEY & CO., V. S. and 
FoEEiON Patf.nt Agents, and Publishebs of 

THE SCIENTIFIO PBESS.) 

For the Week Ekding July Uth. 
Medical Compound or Bitters.— Abram 

M. Loi-yea, East Portland, Oregon. 
Printer's Galley-Rest.— John M. Mnr- 

phy, Olympia, Washington Territory. 
Gang-Plow. —William Hay and Thomas 

B. Freeman, Hillsborough, Oregon. 
Shingle Machine. — Oliver A. Olmsted, 

Sebastojjol, Cal. 
Curtain Fixture. — Lodowick L. Sawyer, 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest time possible (by tel- 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
business for Pacific coast inventors transacted with 
greater security and in much less time than by any otli(?r 
agency. 



The State University. 

Last week we had the pleasure of visit- 
ing the chemical and physical laboratories 
of the State University. We had beard 
that some of the very extensive chemical 
apparatus, (purchased some years ago in 
Germany by Professor Fisher for the Uni- 
versity) had been unpacked, and Prof. 
Carr very kindly gave us the oi)portunity 
on inspecting the laboratories. 

It would fill up a very large i^ortion of 
our space to enumerate the articles which 
we saw, which comprise full sets for quali- 
tative and quantitative analysis of solids, 
liquids and gases, (the last to a certain ex- 
tent). Vessels of glass, porcelain and 
platinum, of every kind, a large assortment 
of the rarer and more difficultly obtainable 
chemicals, everything necessary for a com- 
plete laboratory, are here collected. Only 
a part of the apparatus has been unpacked, 
and we were shown the exterior of numer- 
ous boxes stored away in different jjlaces, 
whose contents are yet undisturbed. It is 
therefore very difficult to make comparisons 
of the amounts here and elsewhere, but we 
can at least say that we very much doubt 
whether any institution of the country has 
a larger collection than has the State Uni- 
versitJ^ 

This apparatus is intended for all the va- 
rious colleges of the University, agricul- 
tural, mining, medical, mechanical and 
classical, and hence its large size. It 
would appear as if the equipment of such 
a laboratory as Bunsen's, in Heidelberg, 
had been taken in part as a guide for its 
collection. 

We were also shown considerable appa- 
ratus for assaying, drawings of metallurgi- 
cal apparatus, and the basis of a mining 
library. We were next shown a collection 
of physical apparatus, some of it very ex- 
cellent, made by Prof. John LeConte. 

In the technological department were 
several sets of materials, showing the vari- 
ous substances and reagents employed in 
powder manufacture, sugar making, wood 
preserving and artificial stone manufact- 
ure (Ransome's) , and illustrating the vari- 
ous stages of each process, forming very in- 
teresting collections. 

A large geological collection and a num- 
ber of cases of minerals were likewise 
viewed. We saw enough to convince us that 
the University has sufficient equipment in 
these respects for full courses of study; 
and we likewise saw that it has not yet 
sufficient room for the proper arrangement 
thereof. Prof. Carr has, we understand, 
been occupied for some time in arranging 
what is now visible, and he has yet plenty 
of work to do. We believe that he has no 
assistant (we omitted asking him), but 
certainly he must need one, as the calls 
upon his time are very numerous, — more 
than any one man can properly respond to. 
For his kindness in devuting several hours 
to us, we are indebted to him, — and just 
as deeply indebted as if it were not vaca- 
tion for the students. 



The Yosemite Valley. 

A statement has been published, said to 
have been made by Galen Clark, Guardian 
of the Mariposa Grove and the Yosemite 
Valley, which shows that the State ought 
to do more for the preservation of these 
places. The Legislature of 18G5-6 made an 
appropriation of $2,000, which was to last 
two years and to pay all expenses incident 
to taking charge of the Valley and Grove. 
There are eight commissioners, it will be 
remembered, and all their traveling ex- 
penses, printing, building two bridges, 
etc., etc., were to be paid for out of 
this sum. Mr. Clarke was to receive $500 
per year for himself and a sub-guardian, 
or .$250 each. This has not been i^aid since 
18G7. 

Some complaint having been made with 
regard to 

tolls charged _ 

at the Valley, 
Mr. Clark ex- 
plains that a 
bridge over 
the Merced 
and a series 
of ladders 
and a trail 
leading up to 
the Nevada 
and Vernal 
Falls were 
considered a 
necessity. 
The commis- 
sioners had 
no money for 
them. They 
therefore al- 
lowed them 
to be built 
(and toll 
charged) 
with the un- 
derstan ding 
that the State 
can purchase 
them at any 
time at a val- 
uation which 
is to decrease 
every year; 
and at the 
end of ten 
years they re- 
vert to the 
State if not 
purchase d 
beforehand. 

While we 
were at the 
Mariposa 
Grove last 
month, Ave 
noticed with 
pain the rav- 
ages made by 
fires. It now 
appears that 
Mr. Clark 
spent eight 
days last 
year, and un- 
doubt edl y 
more p r e- 
viousl y, in 
checking 
fires. What 
we saw was 
probably the result of previous fires. 

Mr. Clark distinctly disclaims any desire 
to make complaints against the State for 
arrears of salary due him. But we, al- 
though we have never seen the gentleman, 
do complain of this on the very principles 
of justice. We join him in the expressed 
wish that action should be taken for im- 
proving the Grove and Valley. There is a 
most urgent necessity therefor. 

These two localities ought to be well 
preserved. They were given to the State 
with the understanding that they should 
be. The State dare not be meanly parsi- 
monious in the matter, for parsimony 
means destruction of many of their chief 
beauties. If the State is unable to take 
care of them, then she should re-convey 
them to the United States. Indeed, it 
would be better that they should be kept 
in proper condition as private property, 
thap injured through public neglect. The 
good condition of the Calaveras Grove shows 
that they can be i^rescrved. But the State 
ought to own tliem and to care for them . 
We hope the next Legislature will set all 
this matter right. 

The Yosemite Falls. 

In connection with these remarks, we 




JJEAR VIEW Of THE YO-SEMITE FALLS. — 2,G:;i FEET IN HEIGHT. 



give an illustration of one of the most re- 
markable features of the valley — the Yo- 
semite Falls, from Hutching's Scenes and 
Wonders of California. These are three 
in number; that is, the Yosemite stream 
makes three leaps from the cliff above. 
The upper fall is about 1,448 feet, although 
the view, being from a point close to the 
cliffs, does not give this impression. We 
lately climbed up to the foot of the upper 
fall, and indulged in a shower bath there. 
The trip was a pretty difficult one, but we 
were fully repaid by the wonderful views, 
both of the falls and of the valley and op- 
posite cliffs and peaks. 

A Coal Mine on Fire. 

The Philadelphia Bulletin describes the 
ineffectual efforts made to extinguish a fire 
in a coal mine in Pennsylvania, which was 
in progress in 1858. It says: The miners 
had as yet had no experience, and a very 
simple, in fact entirely too simple, means 
of extinguishing the fire was adopted. A 

dam of tim- 
ber was built 
across the 
gangway, of 
but little 
more power 
than a parti- 
tion between 
two rooms. 
This was in- 
tended to re- 
tain the water 
and back it 
upon the fire, 
Vv^hich would 
then certain- 
ly be extin- 
guished by it. 
The theory 
was good, but 
unfortunate- 
ly, when the 
water rose to 
a considera- 
ble hight, the 
dam gave way 
before the 
pressure. A 
second dam 
was immedi- 
ately erected, 
but met with 
the same fate. 
It was then 
decided t o 
build a dam 
which could 
not be burst- 
ed by all the 
Ijressure that 
could be 
brought to 
bear on it by 
the waters of 
the mine. 
F ou r f e et 
were cut out 
of the solid 
coal in the 
top, sides and 
bottom of the 
gangway, and 
a solid struc- 
ture of oak, 
strong as a 
canal lock, 
was erected, 
and clay 
packed in be- 
hind it for 
the space of 
ten feet. The 
water backed up against this, but now it was 
not the agent of destruction. The fire had 
made a detour through the coal, and had 
enveloped the dam on all sides, save one, 
and on that was the water. No human 
structure could exist in such a conflict of 
the elements. It was earth against fire, 
water and air, and earth succumbed. The 
dam having given away, the fire soon 
reached the mouth of the slojie, and the 
hopes of extinguishing it were given up. 
Since that time the mine has been closed. 
The fire will soon burn out, but will cer- 
tainly not be extinguished in any other way. 
Occasionally small tracts of land fell into 
the fiery furnace below. The effects of the 
fire and its accompanying heat are almost 
as well shown here as at Vesuvius or iEtna. 
The rocks are baked, and are of many 
shades of color; they have changed their 
stratified position, and are inclining in 
every direction. But perhaps the most in- 
teresting of all are the changes wrought in 
the rocks containing iron pyrites. The 
pyrites have been heated in the proximity 
of steam, which causes them to be soluble 
in water; they have then been dissolved out 
of the rocks, leaving ])erfectly cubical, 
glazed cavities in the solid rock, giving to 
it a honeycombed appearance. 



The Approaching Fairs. 

The San Francisco Bay District Horti- 
cultural Fair, and the Exhibition of the 
Mechanics' Institute will open the Fair sea- 
son one week from next Tuesday. The 
State and various County Agricultural 
Societies follow during the last week in 
August, and all the month of September. 
The time of holding such exhibitions is 
regularly published on the 13th page of 
every issue of the Rural Press. It is im- 
portant that those who intend exhibiting, 
should be making the necessary prepara- 
tions. 

The Pavilion, in this city, has for some 
time been a scene of busy activity, in 
preparation for receiving goods. The area 
of the Pavilion has been largely increased, 
so that it now occupies the entire square, 
with the exception of a little space in 
front, -which is absolutely needed for out- 
side room, to prevent encroaching upon 
the streets. This exhibition will undoubt- 
edly exceed anything of the kind ever wit- 
nessed in this State. 

The prospects are that the State Fair at 
Sacramento will also be superior in all 
respects to any which have preceded it„ 
Some notice of what is being done in that 
direction will be found in another column. 

Very little has been said about the vari- 
ous County and District Fairs, as yet; but 
it is fully time that active preparations 
were being made. The first County or 
District Fair, in point of time, will be that 
of the Santa Clara Valley Agricultural As- 
sociation, which will be oisened on the 
28th of August at San Jose. 

A meeting was held in Stockton on the 
20th inst., at which jsreliminary measures 
were taken to secure an exhibition there, 
which shall be creditable to the great and 
growing agricultural interests of the mag- 
nificent valley of the San Joaquin. 

At a meeting for election of officers to 
serve for the ensuing year for the Northern 
District Agricultural Society at Marysville, 
held on the 26th inst., it was unanimously 
voted to hold an exhibition this fall after 
the State Fair, the time for which will be 
duly announced. This society has nearly 
paid off its indebtedness of some $4,000. 
At the meeting as above, Mr. S. W. Selby 
was elected President, and the following 
gentlemen were chosen to constitute the 
Board of Vice-Presidents: — -William C. 
Murphy, J. B. McDonald, C. B. Kimball, 
Chas. E. Sexey, M. C. Dufficy, of Yuba; 
Charles Kent, of Nevada; John Boggs and 
John Devine of Colusa; G. W. Nickerson, 
of Placer; Harman Bay, of Butte; S. T. 
Brewster, of Plumas; D. J. Cole, of Sierra; 
Thomas Dean and W. P. Hardey, of Sut- 
tnr; C. F. Reed, of Yolo; J. B. Frisbie, of 
Solano. Mr. J. C. Donlay was chosen 
Secretary, and M. Marcuse, Treasurer. 

Silk Culture a Success in the Foot-Hills. 

We have good reports of silk culture 
from all quarters this year, but more par- 
ticularly in the foot-hills. We have re- 
ceived a letter from Albert Mosby at Col- 
oma. El Dorado county, in which he says: 
" The eggs commenced hatching in due 
season and in about four days all were out 
and went through their several ages with- 
out loss, and commenced winding on the 
21st day of feeding, and now, at the end of 
the fourth week, are very nearly all wound. 
Not a thousand remain. So I call my op- 
eration a success." Well he may, for this 
is the best time we have known worms to 
make in this State, by about six days. In 
China they spin in twenty one days; but it 
generally takes from 28 to 3C days here. 
The reason we have always attributed to 
our cool nights. Wo have always believed 
the foot-hills would prove the locality for 
silk culture and recent experience is dem- 
onstrating this to be a fact beyond peradven- 
ture. 

The San Joaquin Canal is being rapidly 
pushed ahead. Two miles have already 
been comj)leted. It will be finished to 
Grayson in season for next year's crop. 



58 



[July 29, 1871. 




Comlsg Home. 



O brcjtbcrs and sisters — growiug old — 

Do you all remember yet 
That Lome in the shade "of the rustling trees, 

AVhere ouce our household met? 

Do you know how we used to come from scbool 
Through the summer's pleasant heat, 

With the yellow fennel's golden dust 
On our tired little feet'y 

And how, sometimes, in an idle mood, 

We loit(!red by the way. 
And stopped in the woods to gather flowiTS, 

And in the Tu^lds to play ; 

Till warned by the deepening shadow's fall. 

That told ot the coming night, 
We climbed to the top of the last long hill, 

And saw our homes iu sight'? 

And, brothers and sisters, older now 

Than she whose life is o'er, 
Do you think of the mother's loving face, 

That looked from the open door':* 

Alas, for the changing tilings of time! 

That home in the dust is low. 
And that loving smile was hid from us 

In the darkness long ago. 

And wo come at last to life's last hill, 

From which our weary eyes 
Can almost look on that home that shines 

Eternal in the skies. 

So, brothers and sisters, as we go. 

Still let us move as one; 
Always together keeping step. 

Till the march of life is done. 

For that mother who waited for us here. 

Wearing a smile so sweet. 
Now waits on the hills of Paradise 

For her children's coming feet. 



How to 



Make Boys 
Farm. 



Dislike the 



"Well, well, Jo, youuccdu't say another 
word about it ! I can't Lave my garden 
filled up with such trash as this." 

And farmer Blake gave a coutomi)tuous 
cut with bis hoe, at the remaining dahlias 
and tulips, which were uieely sprouting in 
one corner of the yard; while his son 
stood gazing at a brulceu geranium which 
he held iu liis hand, with a grieved and 
angry look on his bright handsome face. 

'"Im going to have some cabbage here," 
continued Mr. Blake, as he finished cut- 
ting down the climbing rose in the corner. 
'•You'll find it you live as long as I have, 
that such fliimadiddles as these wont 
victual and clothe you." 

And tossing the bulbs and bushes over 
the fence, he went into the house for his 
cabbage seed. It was early in May. For 
the last month Mr. Blake had been absent 
from the farm a greater part of the time; 
and Joseph had imi)roved his leisure mo- 
ments during that while, in clearing away 
some rubbish, and nicely preparing a 
flower-lied in one corner of the garden 
which was seldom used. 

He had spaded and raked, whistling 
away as blithe as a lark. And the week 
before, one of his neighbors seeing him at 
work, as he was passing the house, called 
out. "Hallo, Joseph ! what's up now'?" 
"I'm going to have a flower garden, sir. 
Father don't use this corner, and I want to 
see some flowers growing at our house, 
once. ]\Iother likes them too, as well as I." 

" That's right, my boy," said the good- 
natured neighbor. The flowers will be 
good friends to you. Came over to The 
Oaks, and 1 will' give you as many plants 
and flower seeds as you want." 

" O ! thank you, sir," cried JosepIi,his 
eyes sparkling with pleasure, "I've been 
wondering where I could get some." So 
Joseph got his plants, and set them out 
with the greatest care, and watered and 
tended them, until they were all flourish- 
ing nicely, when his father came home 
who having learned iu his absence that 
he might make a few cents by selling 
cabbage jilauts, at once made up his uiind 
that he would raise some for the market. 
So on going into the garden and seeing 
what Joseph bad done he concluded tliat 
he must liave that jiarticular spot (though 
there was plenty of room elsewhere) , be- 
cause he detested flowers, and was not 
going to encou)age his children to waste 
their time in that way. Therefore in spite 
of all poor Joseph's e.xpostulations and 



entreaties, over the fence went his precious 
plants in a twinkling. As soon as his 
father bad gone into the bouse, Joseph 
threw down the geranium, and walking 
slowly and sadly out of the garden, went 
round to the front of the bouse and threw 
himself down under the great maple, 
whose cool shade was bis favorite resort in 
time of trouble. 

There his sister Nellie, having beard of 
the fate of bis garden, from bis father, 
found him a few minutes after. Although 
there were throe other children, Nellie 
and Josei)b being the eldest, were all in 
all to each other, and neither bad a pleas- 
ure or a sorrow that v/as not shared by the 
other. 

"O ! Joe, it's too bad, isn't it," said 
Nellie, mournfully, sitting down by bis 
side and laying her hand on his curly 
bead. "Too bad ! its downright mean !"' 
cried Joe, wrathfully, as be sat bolt up- 
right, and dashed away the tears that 
would come in spite of bis fifteen years. 
"It's no sort of use trying to do anything ! 
I hate this old farm and I'll get away 
just as soon as I can." "O busli ! Josie, 
don't talk so," suid Nellie, with a quivering 
voice. " You don't want to go and leave 
mother and the boys do you'?" "And 
you, Nell," added Joe thoughtfully. "No, 
of course I don't , but father is bound I 
shan't have a good time about anytliing 
unless I steal it; there's nothing but this 
everlasting drudge, drudge with him, and 
I tell you I can't stand it." "I don't be- 
lieve fatlier knew bow much you thought 
of those flowers," suggested Nellie. "I 
don't believe be cared," interrupted ho, 
flaming up again at the thought of his 
ruined ))lants. 

Nellie sat looking at the nodding dan- 
delions in the grass; at last she said, "I 
wonder what makes us so difl'erent from 
other folks. Now over to The Oaks, Mr. 
Gilinore's, where you got your flowers, 
the children have a real nice time, and 
they work too, about as bard as we do, but 
they mver seem to mind it." 

"I know it," was the rejily, "and they 
have the cutest little yard, fenced oil' for 
flowers, and Mr. (iilmore tells tliem how 
to plant their seeds and Us. it all to look 
nicely, and seems to like it Just as well as 
they do. Then if they are going any- 
where, they can always take the horse, if it 
isn't busy; dear me, father would rather our 
horse would stay in the barn a month than 
to let me drive it. And don't you know, 
Charley and Willie Gilmore have some 
rabbits and a tame coon, that they have 
lots of fun with"? Frankie told mo too, 
when I went after those flowers, that last 
spring his father gave him a swarm of 
bees ! and be got as much as forty jiouuds 
of real nice white lioiiey from them, all for 
his own. Then be showed me bis water 
wheel, down in the brook front of the 
bouse. I tell you, it was just splendid ! 
My father would smash it all to bits if I 
should make one. I wish be loved any- 
thing beside" work aud money. 

"I suppose bo really does after all," 
said Nellie, " for when mother was sick, be 
sat up with her night after night, and 
took the best care of her, and bo does 
of us too. I suppose be means to be good 
to us; be gives us all the good things to 
eat we want, aud the clothes we really 
need; but then he don't want we should 
have anything pretty, when wo can just as 
well as not. I sometimes wonder what 
people have eyes for that never care bow 
anything looks." "So they can see to 
work, I suppose." And Joe gave a hand- 
ful of grass a spiteful toss in the air. 
"Now, there's our kitchen and dining 
room," said Nellie, beginning to think of 
her troubles, "I really am ashanuid to 
have anybody come to see us — holes in the 
floor, paint oft' of the doors, and tlio ceiling 
so dingy. It would cost but a few dollars 
to make it real neat and pretty, and we 
should feel so much better. I know mother 
wouldn't look so sad as she does now. 
But then if I say anything about it 
father riles up, looks daggers at me, and 
says, ' Well, gal 1 d'ye think I'm made of 
money ? I tell you a fine house never sup- 
ported anybody yet.' So there it is; we 
may as well make the best of it and say 
nothing." " I sujipose so, sis, but as soon 
as I'm twenty-one, I'm ofi!" and rolling 
over on the grass, Joe sprang to bis feet, 
and went to his work at the barn. 



Passing over a jjeriod of fifteen years, 
let us look once more at the homestead of 
farmer Blake. The brown, one-story 
house stands under the wide-sjireading 
maple.'very much the .same as of old, exce))t 
it is a little more weather-beaten and out 
of repair. Looking within, we find the 
years have borne heavily ujiou the gray- 
haired and feeble old farmer, while the 
careworn face of ^Irs. Blake yet wears the 



old look of patient endurance. Faithful 
Nellie, too, is there, for she would not 
leave her much-loved mother and feeble 
father in their need. Y'et the sad look in 
her once merry eyes tells that life has 
not been to her what " it might have 
been." 

But the boys are not found at the old 
homestead. Joseph made good bis inten- 
tions, and left home the moment be was 

at liberty. Going to the city of B , 

he worked steadily till he bad saved money 
enough to buy him a farm, when be re- 
turned, and ]jnrchased laud, but a short 
distance from the old homo, that he might 
be near " mother and Nellie," for bis na- 
tive love for the true enjoyment and in- 
dependence of a farmer's life was not en- 
tirely killed by bis early training. Hav- 
ing built a neat and commodious house 
and barn, with bis young and clieerful 
wife, prosperous and happy, be is living 
<jut bis idea of what a farmer's life may 
be. ^ 

But the younger boys, lacking Josejib's 
strength of character, early brought sorrow 
to the home under the maple. Harry, the 
next younger, impatient of bis father's 
rigid discipline, ran away to sea when bo 
was but sixteen, and ho has never since 
been beard from. While Edward and 
Herbert with their youthful longing for 
pleasure, entirely unsatisfied at homo, 
learned to steal ofl" to the village saloon 
and places of like character, where card- 
playing, drinking and smoking were the 
chief amusements. Attwentj'-one Edward 
died witli the deliriums Iremen. And Her- 
bert is drifting about from jjlace to place, 
with no permanent business or purjiose of 
life. 

Mr. Blake mourns that none of his boys 
would stay at home to care for him in liis 
old age, and wonders that they have 
turned out no better when hetraimed them 
so strictly. I fear that many other farmers 
wonder why their boys will not stay on the 
farm. But Mr. Gilmore at The Oaks 
needs not to ask that question. — Xdliomd 
AgricidturUit. 

Wom.\.n's Influence. — It was alia dream 
that made the w^ife of Julius Ciesar so anx.- 
ious that he should not go to the Senate 
chamber on the fatal Ides of IMarch; and 
had he complied with her entreaties be 
might have escaped the dagger of Brutus. 
Disaster followed disaster in the career of 
iIai)oleon, from the time lie ceased to feel 
Joseplane's influence on bis impetuous 
spirit. Washington, when important ques- 
tions were submitted to him, often has said 
that he should like to carry the subject to 
his bedcliamber before be had formed bis 
decision, and those who knew the clear 
judgment and elevated jiurpose of Mrs. 
Washington tliougbt all the better of him 
for wishing to make her bis confidential 
counsellor. Indeed, the great majoi-ity of 
men who have acquired for themselves a 
good and great name, were not only mar- 
lied men, but liappily married— both 
paired and matched. 

Domestic Life. — The banes of domestic 
life are littleness, falsity, vulgarity, harsh- 
ness, scolding, vociferation, an incessaat 
issuing of superfluous ])robibitions, and 
orders, which are regarded as impertinent 
interferences with the general liberty and 
repose, and are provocative of rankling or 
exploding resentments. The ble.ssed anti- 
dotes that sweeten and enrich domestic life 
are refinement, high aims, great interests, 
soft voices, quiet and gentle manners, mag- 
nanimous temjjers, forbearance from all 
unnecessary commands or dictation, and 
generous allowances of mutual freedom. 
Love makes obedience higher than liberty. 
Man wears a noble allegiance, not as a col- 
lar, but as a garland. The Graces are 
never so lo\ely as when seen waiting on 
the Virtues; and, where they thus dwell 
together, they make a lieavenly home. — 
Al[/er's "Friendxhij))! of Wiymeu." 

COSVEKSK WITH ClIIIiUEX. — Do uot talk 
to your child of your right over bim, or of 
the limits of your right; but exercise this 
right so that the child shall feel and ac- 
knowledge it himself, -without thinking of 
looking for its limits. 



Yoilfq pOLKs' CoLdivifi. 

Keep Away from the Wheel. 

Little Charlie Williams lived near a 
manufactory, and be was very fond of go- 
ing among the workmen and the young 
people who were at work there. The fore- 
man would say to bim: " Keep away from 
the wheels, Charlie." Charlie did not 
mind, and would often say: "I can take 
care of myself." Often be would go near, 
and the wind of the wheels would almost 
suck him in, andtwoor three times be grew 
so dizzy, that be scarcely knew which way 
to go. At length one day be staggered 
while amid the wheels, and fell the wrong 
way; the bands caught his little coat, and 
drew bim in, and he was dreadfully man- 
gled. 

So it is, boys, when you go in the way 
of tomi)tation; you may think you can take 
care of yourselves, and keep clear of the 
wheels; but oh ! you may find yourselves 
dreadfully mistaken. Before you are 
aware of it, you may be caught and de- 
stroyed. Keep away from the wheels. — 
Yoniifj Reaper. 

" I Feel it Pull7' 

A little boy was sitting, at twilight, in 
the doorway of bis parents with both bands 
extended ujjward and holding a line. 

" What are you doing, my little friend?" 
said a gentleman passing by. 

" Flying my kite, sir," was the prompt 
reply. 

" Flying your kite !" exclaimed the gen- 
tleman. "I can see no kite — 30U can see 
none." 

" I cannot see it, but I know it is there, 
for I /eel iljndl." 

A few years back said the gentleman, 
in relating the above circumstance, the 
angels came and bore far above us, out of 
our sight, one that was very dear to us all. 
The attachment of our heart was not 
lu-oken. The connecting ties wore length- 
ened, not sundered. We loved her while 
here, we love her still. She loved us 
while in the flesh. Wo are sure that she 
loves us none the less in her now condi- 
tion. Kising higher and slill higher in the 
heaven of heavens, we feel her mjiuence, 
and attracted thereby we are tending to- 
wards her perfect home with a x>rospect of 
a future union there. 



A LITTLE girl, when her father's table 
was honored with an esteemed guest, began 
talking very earnestly at tlie first jiause in 
the conversation. Her father cheeked her 
very shar])ly saying, " Why is it that you 
always talk so much?" " Tause I've dot 
somesin to s.ay," was the innocent reply. 

One of the best ways of decreasing crime 
among the members of both sexes is to de- 
stroy the belief (which is steadily spread- 
ing) that it is vulgar to work for a living. 



Don't T.vttle. — Children don't talk 
about each other. — Don't call one of your 
si^bool mates ugly, another sJingy, another 
cro.ss, behind their backs. Such things are 
uot pretty — they are mean. Even if they are 
ugly, or stingy or cross, it does you or 
them no good to say so to another. We 
should always avoid telling the faults of 
others; it makes us forget our own— it 
makes us uncliaritable — it makes our souls 
grow small — it takes the generous blood 
of kindness out of our hearts. Who 
would be a tattler ? Tell all the good you 
know of your playmates; but keeij their 
faults to yourself, or tell them in a kindly 
manner, when you are alone with them. 

Fob tece Bots. — A certain man who is 
very rich now, was ^■ery poor when a boy. 
When asked bow be got his riches, be 
said: " My father taught me never to play 
till my work was finished, and never to 
spend my money till I had earned it. If I 
bad but an hour's work in the day, I must 
do that the first thing, and in an hour. 
Aud after that I was allowed to play; and 
then I could play with much more plea- 
sure than if I bad the thought of an unfin- 
ished task before my mind. I early formed 
the habit of doing everything in time, and 
it soon became easy to do so. It is to this 
I owe my in-osperity." 

Avoid Sweakino. — Nearly every gentle- 
manly person, although be may himself at 
times indulge in profanity, utterly con- 
demns it. Boys, never acquire the habit. 
A true man would rather treat an oflience 
with contemiJt, than show his indignation 
by an oath. It is vulgar; altogether too 
low for a decent m.an. It is cowardly; no 
brave man will use vile words. It is un- 
gentlemanly. A gentleman is well bred, 
and refined. It is oft'ensive to delicacy, 
and extremely unfit for human ears. 



L()^'E AND Lakob. — One morning I 
found little Dora busy at the ironing ta- 
ble, smoothing tlio towels and stockings. 
"Isn't it bard work for the little arms?" 
I asked. A look like sunshine camo into 
her face, as she glanced toward her mother 
who was rocking the baby. "It isn't hard 
work when I do it for mother," she said, 
softly. How true it is that love makes 
labor sweet! 



July 29, 187 1. 1 



^59 



\ 



OMESTIC 



,CONOMY. 



To Clean Marble. 

Marble mantles, hearths, table tops, etc., 
are easily discolored by coal gas, pitchy 
Bmoke from pine kindlisgs, fender rust, 
grease, ink, etc.; and it is sui-prising how 
often, otherwise careful housekeepers will 
neglect such discoloration, until it is too 
late to remove it, when it becomes a jjer- 
manent and unseemly disfiguration. Gen- 
erally such discolorations, if taken in hand 
at once, may be removed by a little hot 
soaf) and water applied with a plenty of 
elbow-greese. For ink and other stains a 
little diluted suli)hnric acid may be rubbed 
on with a cloth, and removed Avith clean 
water as soon as the stains disappear. 
Discoloration from coal smoke may be re- 
moved in the same manner; but the appli- 
cation should be made as soon as noticed, 
or the stains will so jjenetrate the marble, 
that any attempt to remove it with acid 
will so disfigure the marble as to deface it 
worse than the stain. If the discoloration 
has iJenetrated to any considerable depth, 
the only way is to cover it up, which may 
be done by the application of a thin stucco 
made of fine marble-dust. This applica- 
tion gives the marble a pure white coating, 
without any gloss. The gloss may be se- 
cured by varnishing the stucco with a so- 
lution of soda or water-glass. This last 
application forms a very good looking and 
durable covering and may be also used 
for renovating old or neglected statuetes, 
etc. 



A Wooden Kitchen ob Daiky Flooe, 
or a floor for any other room which you 
do not wish to carpet, but which it is de- 
sirable to keep scrupulously clean, maj' be 
prepared with as good a surface or polish 
as marble, by simjjly coating it with sev- 
eral applications of water-glass. The 
cracks and crevices should first be filled 
up, even with the floor surface, by a putty 
made of water-glass and gypsum. Four 
coats of the water-glass will form a hard 
durable coat, not affected by heat, and but 
little liable to wear. It will moreover 
look as bright and handsome as marble, 
and may be even more easily kept clean. 
If color is desired, it may be added, in the 
form of mineral paint, to the last applica- 
tion. A floor prepared in this manner will 
last six or eight years, and the cost is very 
small, as the silicate of soda, from which 
the water-glass is made, is very cheap. 

Tomato Beer. 

A Georgia correspondent of the Southern 
Planter tells how to make tomato beer. He 
says: " Gather the fruit once a week, stem, 
wash and mash it; strain through a ccarse 
linen bag, and to every gallon of the juice 
add a pound of good, moist brown sugar. — 
Let it stand nine days, and then pour it off 
from the pulp, which will settle in the bot- 
tom of the jar. Bottle it closely, and the 
longer yon kee2) it the better it is when you 
want to use it. Take a jiitcher that will 
hold as much as you want to use — for my 
family I use a gallon pitcher — fill it nearly 
full of fresh sweetened water, add some of 
the preparation already described, and a 
few drops of essence of lemon, and you 
will find it equal to the best lemonade, 
costing almost nothing. To every gallon 
of sweetened water 1 add a half tumbler of 
beer." 



A Eei'reshing Beverage. — Dr. Waller 
Lewis, in describing the precautions against 
cholera adopted at the General Post Office, 
in London, Eng., says: "The men employed 
in sorting letters and newspapers suffer 
much from thirst, especially in the hot 
weather, and consequently drink much 
water while engaged in their duties. Al- 
though the Post Office is supplied with ex- 
cellent water, mucli diarrhoea was, never- 
theless, the result of this practice. To 
remedy this the oflicers, clerks and men of 
all classes have of late been sui)plicd from 
the medical department with a most agree- 
able drink, which not only assuages the 
thirst, but has, moveover, strong antisep- 
tic and anti-diarrhfca pi'operties. It is 
called orangeade, and is thus composed: 
Take of dilute sulphuric acid, concen- 



trated infusion of orange peel, each twelve 
drachms; syrup of orange peel, five fluid 
ounces. This quantity is added to two im- 
perial gallons of water. A large wine- 
glassful is taken for a draught, mixed with 
more or less water, according to taste. 
The officers drank this with pleasure. It 
is being consumed in large quantities 
daily, and I am convinced it will be the 
means of warding off' a great deal of sick- 
ness." 



How to Green Cucumbers. 

There is no way to impart a green color 
to cucumbers, that would not be injurious 
to health, except by the use of green leaves, 
like those from the gra2)e-vine. Possibly 
sap green, which is a preparation from the 
juice of buck-thorn berries, would answer 
the purpose if it could be obtained here. 
Verdigris can be detected in nearly all the 
pickles of commerce; but its use is highly 
objectionable, as it is a poisonous acetate 
of copper. Pickles may be colored with it 
if the people place a higher regard on the 
color of the condiment they eat than on 
their health. Nearly all the shades of 
green are produced from some combination 
of arsenic, but this fact does notpreventthe 
use of them for coloring confeotionery. 
Cannot some one introduce a new fashion 
in the color of pickles? 

Nuts and Cheese promote digestion as 
a general rule; the conditions being that 
the nuts should be ripe and the cheese old, 
both to be eaten at the clo.se of dinner; the 
digestive agent in both is a peculiar oil 
which has the property of acting chemi- 
cally on what has been eaten, and thus pre- 
paring it for being the more easily appro- 
priated to the puri)oae of nutrition. Many 
think that the more solid portions of the 
nut should not be swallowed. This is an 
error; those particles of solid matter are 
not digested, it is true, but they are passed 
through the system unchanged, and act as 
a mechanical stimulant to the action of the 
internal organs, as white mustard-seed 
swallowed whole are known to do, thus 
preventing that constipated condition of 
the system which is so invariably produc- 
tive of numerous bodily discomforts and 
dangerous and even fatal forms of disease. 

Patchwoek and Mental Cultivation. — 
We heartily endorse the following from a 
correspondent of Hearth and Home: Farm- 
ers' wives have little enough spare time at 
the most, and any woman who desires to 
have an intelligent and well informed 
mind will prefer to spend her kisure 
hours in trying to get wisdom, instead of 
wasting them in making patchwork quilts, 
especially as a clean white spread for the 
outside covering of a bed, looks nicer, 
and is in better taste, than all the patch- 
work quilts in existence. 

It is no doubt a good plan for little girls 
to busy themselves piecing calicoes, but 
there are very many who have no little 
girls, and to all such I say, improve your 
time in reading good books and papers, 
and cultivating your intellect instead of 
making "isatchwork quilts." 

To Wash White Woolens.— Put a ket- 
tle of clear soft water on the stove and 
shave enough soap into it to make a strong 
suds; let it come to a boil, and pour itover 
the flannels placed in a tub; let them stand 
until they are cool enough to handle, and 
then rub or squeeze slightly iyid wring out. 
If they were very dirty, repeat the opera- 
tion; if not, make a very weak suds, boil- 
ing hot, and after it is taken off the fire put 
in some blueing and proceed as before; 
then shake well, and hang up to dry. You 
will find the flannels will not full up and 
get too .small, but will be as soft as when 
new. 



How TO liEEP Meat Fbesh. — As farmers 
are at a distance from meat markets, the 
following directions for keeping meat may 
be of use to those that try it: Cut the meat 
in slices ready to fry. Pack it in a jar in 
layers, sprinkling with salt and pepjjor, 
just enough to make it palatable. Place 
on the top a thick paper or cloth, with salt 
half an inch thick. Keep this on all the 
while. I have kept meat for three weeks 
in the summer, and the last was as good as 
the first. — Rural American. 



To Take Grease out of Carpets. — Cover 
the spots witli whiting and let it remain 
until it becomes saturated with tlie grease; 
then scrape it off and cover it with another 
coat of whiting, and if tliisdoes not remove 
the grease, repeat the application. Three 
coats of whitingwill, inmostcases, remove 
the grease, when it should be brushed ofl' 
with a clothes brush. So says one who 
pretends to know. 



Domestic Receipts. 

Lemon Pie. — One lemon, one cup of 
sugar, two eggs, three table-spoonfuls of 
flour, one cup of milk; grate the rind of 
the lemon; mix the whole together, leaving 
out the whites of the eggs; jaour in the 
milk last. Bake in a deep plate lined with 
pastry. Beat the whites of the eggs to a 
stiff' froth; sweeten with four table-spoon- 
fuls of siigar; put it on the top when 
baked, and return the pies to the oven and 
brown lightly. 

Ginger Stir C.a.ke. — Three eggs, 1 cup 
of lard, 3 do molasses, 4 do flour, 2 tea- 
si^oons of saleratus, Y^ cup of cold coffee, 
1 tablespoon of ginger. 

To Test Soai>.— The readiest way to find 
whether soap will injure the delicate skin 
of women and children is to test it with the 
tongue. Good soaji, in which the caustic 
alkali is neutralized by thorough combina- 
tion with the fat, will not have a sharp 
taste. The soap used in medicine, and the 
transparent soaps, are neutral and good. 
Many toilet soaps, and especially the imi- 
tation marbled castile soap, .so abundant in 
the trade, contain too much free alkali. 
They have not been thorougly boiled, and 
are very sliarp. Do not use them upon 
delicate skins. 

Elder Ointment. — Take a double hand- 
ful of dried elder flowers separated from 
the stems, and boil them in one quart of 
water, until it is reduced to half a pint; 
then strain it, and add to this strong elder 
tea, two large spoonfuls of melted lard 
(fresh) , two large s])oonfuls of melted 
mutton tallow, and simmer it until the 
water is all evaporated. This makes an 
excellent healing ointment. 

A Blacking Paste for Boots. — The 
Maiuifacturer & Builder says: — A good 
paste for blacking boots is made from 
twenty parts tincture boneblaek, twenty 
parts syrup, three parts castor oil, one 
part sulphuric acid, well mixed. A cheaper 
prescription is ten parts minced potatoes 
treated with one part strong sulphuric acid, 
till the whole mass is a lustrous black, 
then add four parts of boneblaek and two 
parts of any fat, lard or oil. 

To Make Ground Pea Candy. — Parch, 
shell, and beat the peas. Take up the 
candy before it has boiled as much as in 
the first receii)t, and use more butter; stir 
while boiling. When poured out, mix in 
the peas. Almonds and grated cocoanut 
may be used. 

Mechanical Hints. 

Lubricators. — Tallow is the best lubri- 
cator for wood axletrees, and castor oil for 
iron. Just enough grease should be ap- 
plied to the spindle of a wagon to give it a 
liglit coating. 

■Rat and Mice Proof House. — James 
M. Hartwell, of Colesbrook, N. Y., gives 
a plan, which he says has proved fully 
successful. 

After the frame of the building is up 
and boarded, and the jjartitions for the 
rooms are made, take some mortar and 
bricks and lay one or two thicknesses of 
brick between the lower and upper floors. 
Then lath and plaster to the floors and 
put on a narrow mop or washboard, not so 
high as to have the upper edge came above 
the bricks, as the rats and mice gnaw in 
just over or just under the washboards. 

Improved Paste for Wall. — A new 
form of paste for attaching paper hangings 
to walls, and one which, besides possess- 
ing the merit of cheapness has the advan- 
tage of preventing the paper from separat- 
ing or peeling ofl', is prepared by first soften- 
ing 18 pounds of finely powdered bole (fat- 
ty clay) in water, and then draining oft' the 
surplus water from the mass. One and a 
quarter pounds of glue are next to be 
boiled into glue water, and tlio bole and 
two pounds of gypsum are then stirred in, 
and the whole mass forced through a seive 
by means of a brush. This is afterward di- 
luted with water to the condition of a tliin 
I^aste or dressing, when it is ready for use. 
This paste is not only mn(;h cheaper than 
the ordinary floor i)astie, but it has the ad- 
vantage of adhering better to whitewashed 
surfaces, especially to walls that have been 
coated over .several times, and from which 
the coating has not been cart^fully removed. 
In some cases it isadvis.able, when putting 
fine i)aper on old walls, to coat them by 
means of this paste with a ground paper, 
and to ap])ly the paj)er lianging itself to 
this with the ordinary paste. 

The Largest Planing TNIill.- Burling- 
ton, Vt., has the largest planing mill in 
the world. The luml)cr yard, docks, sheds, 
mills, etc., of the firm cover an area of 
nearly fifty acres, and in this area there 
are about seven miles of j)lank road. To 
carry on this establishment fi-om 400 to 
500 men and boys are employed. 



LifE TlioilqtfYs. 



Tenderness, says a sentimental philoso- 
pher, is passion in repose. 

Desire is a tree in leaf, hope is a tree in 
flower, and enjoyment is a tree in fruit. 

What a pity that common sense, for 
want of use, should have become uncom- 
mon. 

Exteeioe beauty is a recommendation 
written with such pale ink, that time effaces 
it. 

It often happens that they are the best 
people whose characters have been most in- 
jured by slander, as we often find that to be 
the sweetest fruit which the birds have 
been iiecking at. 

Some people are afraid of anything like 
joy in religion. They have none of them- 
selves, and they do not love to see it in 
others. Their religion is something like 
the stars— very high, and very clear, but 
very cold. 

Golden Words for the Young. 

Peter Cooper, of New York, now eighty 
years old, and one of the most successful 
business men in the country, is, as is well 
known, the founder of the great Institu- 
tion in New Y'ork which bears his name. 
On the occasion of a recent gathering there 
of the young men who have enjoyed the 
advantages of his noble generosity, Mr. 
Cooper made the following address, every 
line of which is made up of golden words, 
which should be read and i^ondered by 
every young man in the country: 

While yet a child, I learned that the 
"hand of the diligent makcth rich," and 
whatever of wealth I have achieved, has 
been due primarily to habits of patient in- 
dustry formed at the outset of my career. 
I soon learned that " waste makes want," 
and I therefore saved what I earned; and, 
by taking " stitches in time," guarded 
against the loss which unavoidably attends 
upon neglect and want of foresighl. It 
did not take long for me to learn that 
drunkenness was the parent of the larger 
portion of the poverty, vice and crime 
which afflict the American peojjle; and 
hence, until advancing age seemed to de- 
mand moderate stimulants, I carefully 
avoided alcoholic liiiuors as the greatest 
curse of the young, and the most deadly 
foe to domestic happiness and the public 
welfare. 

Next, I observed that most of the ship- 
wrecks in life were due to debts hastily 
contracted, and out of in-oportion to the 
means of the debtor; hence I always 
avoided debt, and endeavored to keep some 
ready money on hand, to avail of a favor- 
able opportunity lor its profitable use. 
With economy and industry it is easy to 
do this in this favored land, and in my 
case the result has been that, amid all the 
financial revulsions through which I have 
pas-sed, no obligation of mine has ever 
been a day in arrear. Debt is a slavery 
which every young man ought to avoid, or 
if assumed, ought not to endure for one 
day beyond the shortest time necessary to 
set him free. Shunning intemjjerance and 
debt, and practicing industry, rigid econ- 
omy and self-denial, it was ea.sy to bo 
honest, and to acquire such knowledge as 
the ojjportunities of this city ofi'ered in the 
days of my youth. 

I was cheered, comforted, sustained and 
encouraged by the greatest of human 
blessings, a diligent, wise, industrious, 
faithful and afi'cctionate wife, aided by the 
earnest sympathy and active cooperation 
of my children, who justly regarded as the 
richest portion of their inheritance, that 
portion of my wealth which I desired to 
consecrate to the jjublic welfare. Hence 
my last lesson for the young is to marry at 
the proper age, when, and not before, thej' 
can see their way to a decent and comfort- 
able support, and thus fulfill the first law 
of nature with a high and holy sense of its 
happiness, and its duties, the greatest and 
most serious in the path of life. Love and 
duty I have over found to be tlie '" jjass- 
words" of all that is true and noble in life, 
and when they are separated, the fires on 
the family altar die out, and life loses all 
its charms, never to be compensated by the 
false jewels which are often worn in the 
public gaze. 

Reform, to be of any ])ernianont value, 
must be based ujjon peisoiial virtue, not 
force; and it seems to me that the mil- 
lenium will not bo far off when eaf'h indi- 
uidual sliall set about reforming himself, 
rather than society, and conforming his 
life to the great law of loving God and his 
fellow men. 



60 

Calitobnia Geological SuB^^Ey. — The 
London Saturday Revieu), of June 24;th, 
gives a very flattering notice of our State 
Survey, wliich -we are obliged to condense. 
It says: Often as we have noted the imi^or- 
tant and elaborate works compiled by ofli- 
cial authority, at the public expense, 
whether by State or Federal Government, 
on subjects which in other countries, and 
especially in England, are left to the dis- 
interested and unremunerated industry and 
zeal of individual men of science or of vol- 
untary societies, we do not remember any 
series equal in its prospective- extent, and 
in promise of value and completeness, to 
the so-called " Geological Survey of the 
State of California." That survey, "though 
called geological, was intended to embrace 
the natural history and topograi^hy of the 
State, as well as its geology." Conceive 
such a work undertaken in this country at 
tlie public exi)ense, and carried out on a 
scale of which absolute perfection would 
appear to be the aim, and exhaustion of 
materials the only limit, by the co-opera- 
tion of the ablest men in each branch of 
knowledge ! Of the manner in which the 
work ordered by the State of California is 
being executed, we have an example before 
us. If each department of Natural History 
is to be completed in the same style, the 
work will be one of the most perfect, in re- 
lation to its limited scope, that the world 
has seen. * * * The elaborateness of 
the work, and the pains-taking visible in 
its execution, are remarkable; and having 
been submitted to the revision of eminent 
ornitliologists, its accuracy may probably 
be relied on. This specimen will certainly 
induce all who see it to watch with interest 
and curiosity for the other volumes of the 
series; while the example of Californian 
liberality may be commended to the con- 
sideration of certain highly-placed and in- 
fluential English "Liberals." 

The Tbumpet Flowee. — The Sentinel de 
scribes Ibis flower now in bloom in the gar- 
den of Mr. H. Gushee, in Santa Cruz: The 
Bif/nonia or Tecoma (sometimes called the 
"Trumpet Flower") is a species of elegant 
tubular i)lant, consisting of both evergreen 
and deciduous shrubs and climbers. There 
are many varieties, mostly climbers. The 
specimen now blooming is about ten feet 
high in the center and has a circumference 
of some thirty feet, although but six years 
old from the planting. The flowers are pure 
■white, bell-shaped and very fragrant, of 
lilac odor; each flower is about one foot 
long, (hanging pendant) , and six inches 
across the mouth, which is shaped like a 
trumpet — hence the name — with a double 
floral center of beautiful design. There 
are about two thousand flowers now in full 
bloom, many having withered and fallen 
oflf, while others are just turning from the 
pale green to deep white, or in all the var- 
ious stages of growth from bud to blossom. 
Mr. 11. K. Eastman counted twenty-five 
full-blown flowers on a stem not any larger 
than his index finger. 

Buckwheat fob Potato Bugs. -The Mon- 
roe (Ohio) Sentinel says it has been ascer- 
tained by persons in that vicinity that 
buckwheat flour sprinkled on the vines 
when the dew is on, will have the eSect to 
make the stupid bug " get up and go ofi' — 
bag and baggage," — " it puts their eyes 
out." It should be put on dry, or the 
bugs will make pancakes of the ilour, and 
demand syrup to eat on them. The reason 
given by those who have made the potato 
bug a studj', for buckwheat being so eflica- 
cious in destroying these pests, is that the 
flour coming in contact with the bug and 
vine forms a combination which is rank 
poison, and yet harmless to the potato. 

An exchange remarks:—" If buckwheat 
is an effectual remedy as stated above, its 
use is preferable to anything we have be- 
fore heard of — being both safe and cheajj. 
Our faith in it, however, is not strong 
enough to venture much upon it before 
making a small trial. 




[July 29, 



Eighteenth Annual Fair 



CALIFORNIA 



Heedebs fob Keen County. — According 
to a written contract, says the Bulletin, be- 
. tween a gentleman in Turriff, Scotland, 
and A^ale A: Warner, of the San Francisco 
Employment Office, there are to be thirty 
sheep-herders transjilanted from the " bon- 
nie hills of Scotland" to our matter-of-fact 
Kern county. Among them are two or 
three married coiiiiles, who were receiving 
SIC per month and boarding themselves, 
but will receive here §50 per month and 
found. They are to pay their own ox- 
jjenses to this country. 

HisTOBio Feuit.— " As the apple tree 
among the trees of the wood, so is my be- 
loved among the sons. I sat down under 
his shadow with great delight, and his 
fruit was sweet to my taste."— <So^. 2: 3. 



State Agricultural Society, 



To commence on the 18th and end on thf 23d of 
September, IS71, at SACEAMENTO CITY. 



OVER 5^20,000 APPROPRIATED FOR PREMIUMS! 



Liberal SPECIAL PEEMIUMS for aU worthy articles 
exhibited, not nieutionod in the Schedule. AlBO, in ad- 
dition to the Premiums named, the Society will give a 
GOLD MEDAL to the most Meritorious Exhibition in 
each of the seven duijartments. 



The Pavilion will be open for the reception 

ol Artiili s for Exhibitiuu ou Frid.iy and Saturday, 
Seiitember 15th and lUth,"l871. 

LlSiiT OF £»rem:ixj»is^. 

Open to all the States and Territories. 

FIRST DEPARTMENT. 

LIVE STOCK. 

HORSES. 

In this department the same animal cannot be entered 
more than once, except in sweepstakes, or as a colt with 
its sire or dam, as a member of a family. 

No animal will be allowed to compete for a premium 
unless free from disease or blemish which can be trans- 
mitted to posterity. 

CLASS I-TlIOROfGHBRED HORSES. 

In this class none will bo iiermitted to compete but 
such as furnish a complete p<idigree— tracing the entire 
line of descent to the English parent on the side of both 
sire and dam. The standard of authority for the i>edi. 
gree of thoroughbred horses will be the English and 
American Stud Books. 

Best stallion, four years old and over $7.1 

Best stallion, three years old ."iCI 

Best stallion, two years old 40 

Best .stallion, one year old 30 

Best colt under one year 20 

Best mare, foiu* years old and over, with colt 60 

Best mare, four years old and over JjO 

Best mare, three years old 40 

Best mare, two years old 30 

Best mare, one year old 25 

Best marc colt under one year 20 

Families. 
Best thoroughbred sire, with not less than ten of his 

colts, all tlioroughbred 100 

Best thoroughbred dam. with not less than four of 

her colts, all thoroughbred 60 

Best stallion, othir than thoroughbred, with not 

less than ten of his colts, open to all 75 

Best dam, other than thoroughbred, with not less 

than three of her colts 50 

CLASS II-IIOKSES OF ALL WORK. 

Best stallion, four years old and over 40 

Best stallion, three years old 30 

Best stallion, two years old 20 

Best stallion, one year old 15 

Best mare, four years old and over, with colt 40 

Best mare, four years old and over 30 

Best mare, three years old 20 

Best mare, two years old 15 

Best mare, one year old 10 

CLASS IlI-GRADED HORSES. 

In this department none will be allowed to compete 
but such as furnish satisfactory i)roof of a crossof either 
sire or dam with thoroughbreds. 

Best stallion, four years old and over $.50 

Best stallion, three years old 40 

Best Ktalli(<n, two years old 30 

Best stallion, one year old 20 

Best colt under one year, without reference to sex. . 20 

Best mare, four years old and over 40 

Best marc, four years old and over, with colt 50 

Best mare, three years old 30 

Best mare, two years old 20 

Best mare, one year old 15 

CLASS IV-DRAFT HORSES. 

Best stallion, four years old and over 40 

Best stallion, three years old 30 

Best stallion, two years old 20 

Best stallion, one year old 15 

Best mare, four years old and over, with colt 40 

Best mare, foiu: years over 35 

Best mare, three years old 25 

Best mare, two years old 20 

Best mare, one year old 15 

CLASS V— ROADSTERS. 

All animals competing for a premium in this depart- 
ment must Ix^ exhibited in harness. 



Best stallion, four years old and over $50 

Best stallion, three years old 40 

Best stallion, two years old 30 

Best gelding, four years old and over 40 

Best mare, four years old and over 40 

Best mare, three years old 30 

Best mare, two years old 20 

CLASS VI— CARRIAGE HORSES. 
Best matched span carriage horses, owned and u.sed 

as such by one person, silver goblet, worth 40 

CLASS VII-ROADSTER TEAMS. 
Best double team roadsters, owned and used as such 

by one person, silver goblet, worth 40 

CLASS VIII-SADDLE HORSES. 

Best Saddle Uorse Fine Bridle 

CLASS IX-COLTS. 

Free to all except those entered as thoroughbred and 
graded. 

Best yearling horse colt $30 

Best sucking horse colt 20 

Best yearling mare colt 20 

Best sucking mare colt 15 

Best exhibit of not less than six colts, owned by one 

person, of any age or sex, can be entered in other 

classes when allowed by the general rules 60 

CLASS X-SWEEPSTAKES. 
Open to all. In the awards in this department blood 
will have the pri:l'< rence only when in the examination 
all other qualiHeatious shall be found equal. 

Best stallion of any age, silver pitcher worth $150 

Best marc of any age, silver pitcher worth KK) 

CLASS XI-JACKS AND MILES. 

Best jack 50 

Best jennet 40 

Best mule two years old 20 

Best mule one year old 15 

Best mule under one year old 10 



100 



CATTLE. 

CLASS I-DURHAM CATTLE. 

Best bull, four years old and over 75 

Best bull, three years old and over 40 

Best bull, two years old and over 30 

Best bull, one year old and over 25 

Best bull calf 15 

Best cow, four years old and over 50 

Best cow, three years old and over 40 

Best cow, two years old and over 30 

Best cow, one year old and over 20 

Best heifer calf 15 

Devons, Herofords, Aldemeys, Ayrshires and Hold- 
eruesB— same premiuius as for Durhams. 
CLASS II-GBADED CATTLE. 

Best bull, four years old and over 40 

Best bull, three years old and oyir 3ii 

Best bull, two years old and over 20 

Best bull, one year old and over l.-> 

Best bull calf 10 

Best cow, four years old and over 30 

Best cow, three years old and over 20 

Best cow, two years old and over 15 

Be St cow, one year old, full blooded 10 

Best herd of cattle of any one breed, not less than 
ten, owned by one person 

CLASS III-SWEEPSTAKES. 

Best bull of anyagi> or stock, silver pitcher worth. . 100 

Best cow of any age or stock, silver pitcher worth . . 75 

SHEEP AND GOATS. 
CLASS I-STOCK SHEEP AND MLTTON. 

Bast ram two years old and over 20 

Best ram under two years 15 

Best three ewes two years old and over 15 

Best three ewes under two years 10 

CLASS II-FINE WOOL SHEEP. 

Best Spanish merino ram two years old and over .10 

Best Spanish merino ram under two years 20 

Best three Spanish merino ram lambs 20 

Best three Spanish Meriuo ewes two years old and 

over 20 

Bef t three Spanish merino ewes \mder two years. ... 20 

Best five Spanish merino ewe lambs 20 

Best French merintj — same premiums as for Spanish. 
Best Cotswold and Leicestershire — same premiums. 

Cross between any two thoroughbreds, same i)remi'n8. 
CLASS III- GRADE OR CROSS WITH SPANISH 
MERINO. 
In this class a statement must be filed with the Com- 
mittee, of the degree of the cj-oss and the breed of the 
sheep crossed with. 

Best ram two years old and over $20 

Best ram tinder two years 15 

Best three ram lambs 20 

Best three ewes two j-ears old and over 15 

Best three ewes under two years 15 

Best five ewe lambs 15 

Best grade or cross with French merino — same pre- 
miums as for Spanish. 
Best cross with Cotswold and Liccstershire — same 
premiums as for Spanish. 

CLASS IV-SWEEPSTAKES ON SHEEP. 

Best buck of any age or breed, silver goblet $30 

Best ewe of any age or breed, silvergoblet 25 

Best pen of not less than five ewes of any age or 

breed, silver goblet 30 

CLASS V-CASHMERE AND ANGOKA GOATS. 

Best thoroughbred buck ;.... $30 

Best thoroughbred she gout 20 

Best thoroughbred three kids 20 

Best graded lot of three 15 

Swine. 

CLASS I-LAR(iE BREEDS. WHICH. WHEN FAT. 

WILL WEIGH AT MATURE AUE OVER 300 POINDS. 

Best boar two years old and over $30 

Best boar under two years old 20 

Best boar six months old and less than one year. ... 10 

l^st breedi..g sow two years and over 25 

Best breeding sow one year <tld 15 

Best sow six months old and under one year 10 

Best lot of not less than six pigs, not less than five 

nor more than ten months old 20 

POULTRY. 
CLASS L 

Best lot of white or gray Dorkings $5 

Best lot of black Spanish 5 

Best lot of black Poland 5 

Best lot of Jersey Blues 

Best lot of Htlliiatra game 5 

Best lot of English game 6 

Best lot of liglit Bramahs 5 

Best lot of any other distinct variety 5 

Best lot of turkeys 6 

Best lot of ducks, any good variety 6 

13est lot of geese B 

Best lot of Guinea fowls c 



SECOND DEPARTMENT. 

Kachiuery, Implements, Etc. 

Models in Classes I, II, III and IV cannot compete 
with full sized machines. 

All machinery, as far as practicable, to be exhibited 
in motion. 

All articles named in Classes I. 11, III, IV, V, VI and 
VII of this Ueiiartment, if of California mantifacture, 
will receivt the premium offered and diploma; if not, 
they will be awarded a diploma only. 

CLASS I-MACHINERY, ENGINES, ETC. 
Best display of general machinery from one shop.. . $50 
Best light portable prospecting mill for reducing 

quartz « 25 

Best machine for saving quartz" snlphurets 25 

Best concentrator for copper ores 25 

Best grinding and amalgamating pan combined 25 

Best turbin wheel (Cal manufacture) 25 

Best quartz crusher (Cal. manufacture) 25 

Best steani engine (Cal. mantifacture) 50 

Best portable steam engine (Cal. manufacture) 25 

Best iiortuble sawmill 20 

Best saw gummer , 2 

Best self-setting san'mill head block 6 

Best stave machine B 

Best shiugle machine B 

Bc'^t lathe machine 6 

Best hoop machine 6 

Best moliling machine 6 

Best mortising machine 5 

Best sash maehine 6 

Best tenoning machine 6 

Best scroll sawing machine fi 

Best wood turning lathe S 

Bese iron turning lathe 5 

Best iron planing machine in 

Best wood planing machine 10 

Best water wheel ifl 

CLASS II-AGRICl'LTIRAL MACHINES (FIRST 

DIVISIO.V). 
Best display of agricultural machinery by any one 

house (Cal. manufacture) $.50 

Best threshing machine Fr. diploma 

Best sweep horse power (Cal. manufacture) 10 

Best endless chain, horse power (Cal. manufacture) 10 
Best threshing machine, operated by endless chain 

power 10 

Best circtilar sawmill, operatei} by horse power 10 

Best log crosscut sawniill, horse power 10 

Best clover huller and cleaner 6 

Best clover huller 5 

Best hemp and flax dressing machine 10 

Best cider miU and press 10 

Best horse hay rake 10 

Best hay and straw cutter' S 

Best hay press 20 



Best power corn sheller 5 

Best hand com sheller ''.'.'' 5 

If possible, the Board will manage to have a grand 
trial of reaping and threshing machines, to come off 
during th« Fair, and will give special premiums for the 
same. 

CLASS IlI-AGElcrLTlHAL MACHINES (SECOND 
DIVISION). 

Best header (Cal. manufacture) $50 

Best wheat drill (two hors<0 lo 

Best wheat dril 1 (one horse) 5 

Best grain broadcast sowing machine 10 

Best maehine for cutting and shocking com 

Best clover seed harvester s 

Best self-raking and reaping machine 10 

Best reai)iug machine 10 

Best mowing machine 10 

Best combined reaper and mower 20 

Best display of reaping and mowing machine knives S 

Best hay lutching maihine 5 

Best corn planter ( horse jjower) 8 

Best corn planter (hand) 2 

Best potato planter 5 

Best potato digger 5 

Best field roller and crusher 10 

Best harrow 5 

Best one-horse corn cultivator 5 

Best two-horse com cultivator 10 

Best horse hoe fl 

Best double shovel plow 6 

CLASS IV-AGRICl'LTrRAL MACHINES (THIRD 
DIVISION). 

Best smut machine $10 

Best fami feed mill 10 

Best fanning mill 6 

Best flour i>acking machine 6 

Best self.regtilatiug windmill 15 

Best st<tck scales for general puri>ose8, to be set up 
by exhibitor, and be used by the Board during the 

Fair, free of charge 28 

B<st platform scales 6 

Best stump extractor 10 

Bist brick niuchlne 10 

Best drain tile machine 10 

Best farm gate 15 

Best beehive (without bees) 3" 

Best refrigerator 6 

Best agricultural Ijoiler 6 

Bi'St portable fence 20 

B<st ornamental fence 10 

Best economical fence for tuleland 25 

CLASS V-TOOLS AND HOISEHOLD IMPLEMENTS 

Best display of haying and harvesting tools $20 

B«;st set of draining tools 6 

Best farm road scraper 2 

Best garden seed drill 2 

Best cheese press lo 

Best cheese vat. with heater attached 10 

Best cheese shelf model 5 

Best chum 10 

Best butter worker 5 

Best cabbage cutter 2 

Best sausage meat cutter and stuffer 5 

Best washing machine Diploma and 5 

Best clothes wringer Diploma 

Best mangle or ironing machine 5 

Best eloth<-s horse, to occupy the least space 5 

Best will pumi 10 

Best apparatus for raising water for irrigating pur- 
poses 20 

Best apparatus for raising water for mining purposes 20 

CLASS VI-PLOWS. 
Best steam plow, to be teste-d to the satisfaction of 
the Committee, and its utility fully demonstrated. $200 

Best two-gang plow 40 

Best plow for general purpoB<-s 10 

Best stubble plow 10 

Best sod plow 10 

Best steel plow 10 

Best cast iron plow 10 

Best subsoil plow 10 

Best sidehill plow 5 

Best one horse plow 5 

Best mole or blind ditching plow 10 

Best open ditching plow 10 

Best dynamometer IQ 

The Board will fumish to exhibitors suitable grounds 
for practically testing their plows, ixndcr the direction 
of the Awarding Committee. 

CLASS VII-VEHICLES. 

Best two-horse family carriage Diploma and $30 

Best one-horse family carriage Diploma and 25 

Bi-st top buggy Diploma and 20 

Best trotting wagon Diploma and IS 

Best farm wagon for general purposes 15 

Best spring market wagon 16 

Ilest cart 5 

Best stret-t goods wagon 6 

Best wagon or carriage brake 6 

Best jaekscrew 6 

Best carriage or cab for children 5 

Best display of carriage wheels, bubs, etc 10 



THIRD DEPARTMENT. 

TEXTILE ^FABRICS-MILL'AND DOMES- 
TIC PRODUCTS. 

Textile Fabrics and Materials of which they 
are Made. 

Articles to be exhibited by manufacturer, and articUs 
which heretofore have received a premium, to be ex- 
cluded from competition, except in Class VI. 
CLASS 1-FABRICS MADE FROM CALIFORNIA SILK. 
Best specimen of silk manufactured, not less than 

five yards $20 

Best pound reel silk, made in family 10 

Best pound sewing silk, made in family .* 10 

Best siK'cimen of raw silk goods 10 

l}est pair of silk stockings 10 

Best pair of silk gloves 10 

Best silk shawl 20 

Best silk cravat 10 

Best piece of pocket handkerchiefs 10 

CLASS II-MILL FABRICS. 

Best display of woolen goods by one manufactory.. . $.50 

Best display of cotton gooels by one manufactory. . . 50 

Best ten yards woolen cloth .''> 

Best ten yards cassimere 5 

Best ten yards satinet 5 

Best ten yards jean .'■ 

Best ten yards floor oil cloth lo 

Best ten yards tweed 5 

Best t<u yards cloth of flax cotton 5 

Best piece cotton sheeting 5 

Best ten yards of flannel 6 

Best fifteen yards woolen carpet 20 

Best fifteen v;uxls tow cloth 5 

Best ten yards linen 20 

Best ten yards linen diaper 10 

B'*st ten yards kersey 5 

Best hearth rug 8 

Best double carpet coverlet 5 

Best pound linen sewing thread 5 

Best shawl 5 

Best mackinac blanket 5 

Best pair woolen blankets 6 

Bi-st stocking yarn 3 

Best oil cloth table cover .". . . 5 

Best display of cordage Diplom and 6 

CLASS III-NEEDLE. SHELL AND WAXWORK 

CLOTHI.N'd, HATS. CAP.S, FIRS. ETC. 
Best exhibit and greatest nuuiber of articles in this 

class Tt. Diploma and $10 

Best ottoman cover 6 

Best table cover 6 

Best fancy chsirwork with needle s 




July 29, 1871.] 



Best fancy chair cushion -and back 6 

Best woolen Bbawl 5 

Best crotchet Bhawl 5 

Best worked shawl 6 

Best lace cape 3 

Best lampstand mat 3 

Best ornamental needlework 5 

Best sJlk embroidery 5 

Best embroidered sofa cushion 5 

Best embroidered mantilla 5 

Best embroidered table spread 5 

Best embroidered dressing gown 5 

Best embroidered lady's robe 5 

Best embroidered lady's dress 5 

Best embroidered children's clothes 5 

Be 5t embroidered undersleeves 3 

Best embroidered lady's collar 3 

Best embroidered handkerchief 3 

Best chenille embroidery 5 

Best embroidery with beads S 

Best tatting collar 3 

Best worked collar 3 

Best worked veil 3 

Best worked handkerchief 3 

Best silk bonnet - 5 

Best velvet bonnet 5 

Best knit cloak 3 

Best exhibit of men's clothing 10 

Best exhibit of boys' clothing 5 

Best exhibit of men's hats and caps 5 

Best collection of furs 10 

Best assortment leather gloves and mittens 5 

Best variety of linen embroidei"y 10 

Best group of artificial flowers 10 

Best variety of artificial flowera 5 

Best specimen of wax flowers 5 

Best group of wax flowers 6 

Best specimen of wax fruit 5 

Best and largest variety of wax fruit 5 

Best specimen of moss or lichen work 5 

Best specimen cone work 6 

Best specimen leaf work 5 

Best specimen flower work 6 

Best specimen shell work 5 

Best braid of straw or grass 6 

Best specimen of braid work 5 

Best embroidered picture 10 

Best white quilt 6 

Best worked quilt 6 

Best silk quilt 5 

Best patchwork quilt 5 

Best children's affghan 5 

Best display of millinery 20 

CLASS IV-HOUSEHOLD FABRICS. 

No Article manufactuaed in factories or out of the 
family will be received in this class. Exhibitors must 
accompany their articles with a certificate of manufac- 
ture in the family within the year. 

Best ten yards jean $10 

Best pair woolen blankets 10 

Best ten yards flannel 10 

Best woolen carpet, fifteen yards 10 

Best ten yards linen 10 

Best ten yards linen diaper 10 

Best ten yards kersey 5 

Best pair kersey blankets 10 

Best rag carpet, fifteen yards 10 

Best fifteen yards of tow cloth 5 

Best hearth rug 5 

Best double carpet coverlet 5 

Best pair woolen knit stockings 3 

Best pair of cotton knit stockings 3 

Best pair by misses under twelve years of age 6 

Best pound of linen sewing thread 3 

Best pair of woolen fringe mittens 3 

Best pair of woold mittens 3 

Best pair by misses under twelve years of age 5 

Best pair of woolen stockings by misses under 

twelve years of age 5 

Best linen handkerchiefs 5 

Best netting 3 

Best worsted knit stockings ~ 3 

Best stocking yarn 5 

Best woolen shawl 5 

Best mill bag 5 

Best woolen knit drawers 5 

Best woolen knit shirt 6 

Best foot mats 3 

Best straw hat 6 

Best straw bonnet 5 

Best grass bonnet 6 

Best grasp hat 5 

Best gentleman's shirt 5 

Best knit bedsi)read B 

Best wove bedspread 6 

Best ten pounds dressed flax 10 

Best five pounds flax cotton 10 

Best five pounds flax yarn 5 

Articles exhibited by misses under ten years of age, 
entrance free. 

CLASS V-SADDLERS' AND SHOEMAKERS' WARE 
AND MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES. 

Best traveling trunk $10 

Best carpet sack 5 

Best set of can'iage harness 10 

Best set of farm harness 10 

Best display of leather 10 

Best display of saddles and bridles 10 

Best display of hames 3 

Best display of saddletrees 3 

Bast display of briishes 3 

Best display of shoe lasts, pegs and lasting ma- 
chine 5 

Best pair of dress boots 6 

Best pair of heavy boots 5 

Best pair of gent's dress shoes 6 

Best pair of Congress gaiters .'5 

Best pair of ladies' Kaiters 3 

Best pair of ladies' slippers 3 

Best pair of bootees 3 

Best display of bound account books 5 

Best display of raper 5 

Best display of paper hangings and borders 5 

Best silk hat 6 

Best soft hat 5 

Best made suit of gentleman's clothing 10 

Best display of printing 10 

Best display of gloves and mittens 3 

Best display of ladies' furs 10 



FOURTH DEPARTMENT. 

MECHANICAX. PRODUCTS. 

All products of industry competing for premiums are 

to be exhibited by or for the maker or improver or in- 
ventor. 

CLASS I-WORKED METALS. 

Best display of copper work Diploma and If 20 

Best display o( brass work Diploma and W 

Best display of axes 5 

Best display of locks 5 

Best display of door trimmings 5 

Best display of window trimmings B 

Best display of window, blind or shutter trimmings 5 

Best display of saddlers' hardware 5 

Best display of horseshoes 6 

Best display of horseshoe nails 5 

Best display of plumbers' goods and ware 

Diploma and 10 

Best display of gas chandeliers and burners 

Diploma and 10 

Best display of lamps 10 

Best display of general hardware 10 

Best display of iron and steel S 

Best display of iron fencing including post 10 

Best display of mechanics' tools 10 

Best display of table cutlery 6 

Seat display of pocket cutleiy 6 



Best display of silver ware 10 

Best display of Britannia ware 5 

Best display of clocks 10 

Best display of kitchen utensils of brass or copper. . 10 

Best displ.ay of kitchen utensils of tin 5 

Best circular saws 5 

Best mill saws 5 

Best hand saws 5 

Best display of files .'.... 5 

Best burglar and fireproof safe 20 

Best collection of California marble 25 

CLASS II-STOVES, CASTINGS, ETC. 

Best cooking stove for wood $ 5 

Best cooking stove for coal 5 

Best parlor stove .• 5 

Best warming furnace or other furnace 5 

Best cooking range 10 

Best iiarlor grate 3 

Best pair ornamental iron vases 3 

Best specimen of marbleized iron 3 

Best specimen of marbleized stone 5 

Best specimen of marbleized wood 5 

Best display of hollow iron ware 5 

Best ornamental statuary 5 

Best ornamental fruit and flower stand 5 

Best church bell 20 

Best farm bell 5 

Best chime of bells 5 

CLASS III-MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, CABINET 
WARE-CALIFORNIA MANUFACTURE. 

Best grand or semi-grand pianoforte $20 

Best boudoir piano 20 

Best square piano ' 20 

Best parlor piano 10 

Best dressing bureau 10 

Best sofa 10 

Best lounge 6 

Best extension table 5 

Best office chair 5 

Best set of parlor chairs 10 

Best center table B 5 

Best pair of side tables 5 

Best set of parlor furniture 20 

Best display of furniture 20 

Best display of mattresses 5 

Best seats and desks for schools 5 

Best writing desk 5 

Best book case 5 

Best wardrode 10 

Best sick chair or couch 5 

CLASS IV-WOODEN WARE. 

Best display of cedar ware $ S 

Best display of pine ware 5 

Best display of oak ware 5 

Best display of window shades 5 

Best display of window blinds 5 

Best display of willow ware 10 

Best display of splitwood baskets 5 

Best display of pine, oak or walnut doors 10 

Best display of fiour, pork and tight barrels '. 10 

Best display of turning-lathe work 5 

Best display of osier willow 5 

Best wine cask 10 

Be.st display of wooden ware 50 

CLASS V— PHILOSOPHICAL, SUR(;iCAI/, DENTAL, 
DRAWINt;, PAINTINC;. SURVEYING AND LEVEL- 
IN(i INSTRl MEN'rS AND APPARATUS, ETC., OF 
FINE WORKMANSHIP, EXHIBITED BY MAKER- 
AMERICAN MANUFACTURE. 

Best surgical instruments Diploma 

Best set optical instruments Diploma 

Best dentist's insiruments Diploma 

Best set of mathematical and philosophical in- 
struments Diploma 

Best specimens dentistry Diploma 

Best theodolite Diploma 

Best level Dijiloma 

Best surveyor's compass Diploma 

Best achromatic telescope Diploma 

Best reflecting telescope Diploma 

Best optical apparatus , Diploma 

Best balance ; Diploma 

Best thermometer Diploma 

Best b.arometcr Diploma 

Best electro-magnetic apparatus Diploma 

Best electric telegraph Diploma 

Best electric machine Diploma 

Best galvanic battery and apparatus Diploma 

Best set dra'sving instruments Diploma 

Best chronometer Diploma 

Best clock (eight day) Diploma 

Best specimen silverware, with agricultural 

designs, suitable for premiums Diploma 

Best specimen Argentine or Britannia wai-e Dijiloma 

Best turned and cast Britannia Diploma 

CLASS VI-CHEMICALS. 

Best ivory black : $ 5 

Best Prussian blue 6 

Best copal varnish 5. 

Best glue 5 

Best prussiate of potash 5 

Best linseed oil (5 gallons) 10 

Best white lead 5 

Best display of soap Silver Med.al 

Best display of soap (California make SO 

Best specimen of lard oil 5 

Best five gallons of castor oil 10 

Best display of potash, saleratus, pearlash and 

other alkalies 5 

Best display of writing fluid 2 

Best display of blacking 3 

Best display of lubricating petroleum 5 

Best display of illuminating petroleum 5 

CLASS VII— (ILASS, CROCKERY, STONKWARE, 
BRICKS AND TILES- AMERICAN MANUFACTURE. 

Best specimen Rockingham ware .'i .Diploma 

Best stoneware Dijiloma 

Best specimen ground glass Dii^loma 

Best specimen stained glass Diploma 

Best water pipe of water lime Diploma 

Best sample drain tilo $5 

Best roofing tiles 5 

Best flooring ^ 5 

Best looking glass Diploma 

Best plate glass Diploma 

Best window glass Diploma 

Best flint glass Diploma 

Best bottle glass Diploma 

Best bottles, gi'een glass Diploma 

Best tincture and other stoppered bottles and 

vials Diploma 

Best retorts and receivers, tubulated and plain. Diploma 

Best demijohns Diploma 

Best carboys Diploma 

Best terra cotta Diploma 

Best fire bricks $3 

Best pressed brick Diploma 

Best pottery, various kinds Silver Medal 

Best display of stoneware $10 

Best display of glassware 10 

Best display of queensware ' 5 

Best dressed stone 5 

Best mill stone ' 5 

Best marble of California 10 

Best barrel common salt 3 

Best sack table salt 3 

Best barrel lime 5 

Best hydraulic cement 5 

CLASS VIII-MINERALS, FOSSILS, BIRDS, FISHES, 

ETC. 
Best set of useful minerals of California, including 
coals of California, iron ores of California, lime- 
stones of California, marbles of California, sand- 
stones of California, marls of California, peats of 
California, soils of California, salt waters of Cali- 
fornia, minerals of California, potters' clay of 
California, fire clay of California, burr stones of 

California, gypsum of California $20 

For the following articles, such awards as the Board 
shall deem best, on the recommendation of the Com- 
mittee, will be made: 



Best collection of minerals illustrating the geology of 
California. 

Best collection illustrating the ornithology of Califor- 
nia. 

Best collection of natural fishes, living or dead. 

Best suit of crystallized minerals of California. 

Best suit of crystallized minerals from all parts of the 
world. 

Best suit of fossils of California. 

Best suit of the vegetable kingdom, including the 
woods and most useful plants and native g asses of 
California. 

Best suit of the animal kingdom, including insects 
injurious to the farmer. 



FIFTH DEPARTMENT. 

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. 
Farm Products, Food, Condiments, Etc. 
CLASS I -SILK. 
Best exhibition of the silk business, from the mul- 
berry tree to the silk cocoon, including the'feeding 

of the wonns, their eggs, etc $50 

For the greatest number of useful forest trees 
planted in permanent plantation during the year.. 50 

CLASS II-FLOUR AND GRAIN. 
All parties desiring to compete for premiums on flom', 
wheat or barley, and who will send the required sam- 
ples to be exhibited to J. W. H. Campbell, San Francis- 
co, or to H. G. Smith, Sacramento, will be paid the 
market price for the flour or grain, and the same will be 
properly labeled with the producer's name and be ex 
hibited for him; and also, will be paid any premiums 
awarded to the same. The object of this an-angement 
is to secure a good exhibition and to save trouble to the 
producer. 
Best sack wheat flour (California manufactured and 

California wheat) Silver Medal 

Best two bushels of wheat of the Chile variety $10 

Best two bushels of wheat of the Australian variety 10 

Best two bushels of the Club variety 10 

Best two bushels of any other variety 10 

The premium wheat to become the property of the 
State Board of Agriculture. 

Best sample of rye, not less than two bushels 10 

Best s.ample of oats, not less than two bushels 6 

Best sample of barley, not less than two bushels. . . 5 
Best sample of buckwheat, not less than one-half 

bushel 6 

Best sample of flax seed, not less than one-half 

bushel 5 

Best sample of hops, not less, than twenty-five 

pounds ' 6 

Best sample of timothy, not less than one-half 

bushel 5 

Best sample of clover seed, not less than one-half 

bu.shel 6 

Best sample of blue grass seed, not less than one- 
half bushel 5 

Best sample of red top seed, not less than One-half 

bushel 6 

Best sample of orchard grass seed, not less than one- 
half bushel 6 

Best bushel yellow corn 5 

Best bushel white corn 5 

Best bushel early com 5 

Best exhibit garden seeds of California production, 

not less than twenty-five varieties 10 

Evidence must be presented showing that the grain, 
vegetables and products have been grown by the exhib- 
itor. 

CLASS III-CHEESE (DOMESTIC MANUFACTURE). 

Best cheese one year old and over $iry 

Best cheese under one year old 10 

CLASS IV-CHEESE (FACTORY MADE). 

Best cheese one year old and over $15 

Best cheese under one year old 10 

CLASS V— SWEEPSTAKES ON CHEESE. 

For the best and largest display of cheese 

• Diploma and $20 

CLASS V-BUTTER, BREAD, ETC. 

Best lot ten pounds of butter, in rolls $10 

Best tub of firkin, not less than twenty-five pounds, 

at least three months old 15 

Best four loaves of baker's bread not less than forty- 
eight hours old 3 

Best pilot bread 2 

Best biscuit 2 

Best soda biscuit 2 

Best crackers, butter 2 

Best crackers, sweet 2 

Best crackers, Boston 2 

Best domestic corn bread 5 

Best domestic rye bread 5 

Best domestic brown bread 5 

Best domestic wheat bread 5 

CLASS VII-HONEY, PRESERVES, PICKLES, ETC. 

Best ten pounds honey $5 

Best canned tomatoes 3 

Best canned blackberries 3 

Best canned raspberries j 3 

Best canned peaches 3 

Best canned pears 3 

Best canned apples 3 

Best canned quinces 3 

Best canned cherries • 3 

Best canned gooseben'ies 3 

Best canned currants 3 

Best canned grapes 3 

Largest and best variety of canned fruits Diploma 

Largest and best variety of canned jellies Diploma 

Largest and best variety of canned preserves. . .Diiiloma 

Best apple jelly $3 

Best currant jelly 3 

Best peach jelly 3 

Best quince jelly 3 

Best preserved quinces 3 

Best preserved peaches 3 

Best preserved pears 3 

Best preserved apples 3 

Best preserved plums 3 

Best tomato catsup 3 

Best cucumber catsup 3 

Best pickled cucumbers 3 

Best pickled peaches 3 

Best pickled tomatoes 3 

Best pickl<d walnuts 3 

Best pickled mangoes and melons 3 

Best pickled onions 3 

Best pickled gerkins 3 

Best specimen of concentrated vegetables 3 

Best specimen of concentrated milk 3 

CLASS VIII-WINES, SUGARS, SYRUP AND BRANDY. 

Best white still wine, four years old $10 

Best white still wine, three years old 10 

Best white still wine, two years old 10 

Best white still wine, one year old 10 

Red wines — same premiums as white wines. 
White sparkling wines - same premiums as white 
still wines. 

Best port wine 10 

Best claret wine 10 

Best sherry wine 10 

Best exhibit of wines from foreign gnipes 20 

Best exhibit of wines from native grapes 20 

Best brandy made from grapes, one year old 10 

Best brandy made from gi'apes, two years old , 15 

Best brandy made from grapes, three years old and 

over 25 

Best brandy made from peaches ; 15 

All wines and brandy must be the product of the ex- 
hibitors. 
Best one hundred pounds of sugar made from sugar 

beet $20 

Best one hundred pounds or sugar made from Chi- 
nese cane , 20 



Best one hundred ijoimds sugar made from melons . . 20 
Best five gallons syrup from either of the above 

named articles 30 

CLASS IX-VEGETABLES, ROOTS, ETC. 

All articles in this class are to be raised by the exhib- 
itor. 

Besi half bushel red potatoes $5 

Best half bushel white potatoes 5 

Best half bushel of any other variety 5 

Best and greatest variety of Irish potatoes, half peck 

of each variety 10 

Best half bushel sweet potatoes 5 

Best twelve parsnips 3 

Best twelve caiTots 3 

Best six long blood beets 3 

Best six turnip beets 3 

Best six sugar beets 3 

Best display of beets in variety and quality 5 

Best peck of tomatoes 3 

Best display of tomatoes, variety and quality 5 

Best six drumhead cabbages 3 

Best sixheadsof red Dutch cabbage 3 

Best six heads of any other variety 3 

Best three heads of cauliflower 3 

Best three heads of brocoli 3 

Best siz heads of lettuce 2 

Best half peck of red onions 3 

Best half peck of yellow onions 3 

Best half peck of white onions 3 

Best display of onions in variety and quality 5 

Best half peck of peppers for pickling 3 

Best display of peppers in variety and quality 3 

Best twelve roots of salsify 3 

Best six stalks of celiiy 3 

Best six marrow squashes 3 

Best six Hubbard squashes 3 

Best six crookneck squashes 3 

Best disjjlay of squashes, variety and quality 10 

Best and largest pumpkin 5 

Best display of pumjikins, variety and quality 5 

Best dozen of sweet corn, green 3 

Best display of sweet corn in variety and quality, 

green or dry 5 

Best throe mountain sweet watermelons 2 

Best three watermelons of any other variety 3 

Best three green-fleshed muskmelons 3 

Best three yellow- fleshed muskmelons 3 

Best and greatest display of melons ef all varieties, 

both watermelons and muskmelons 10 

Best six cucumbers 2 

Best half peck Lima beans, in pod 3 

Best half peck white beans, dry 2 

Best half peck kidney bush beans, in pod 3 

Best half peck pole beans, other than Lima, in pod. 2 

Best half peck field peas, drj' 2 

Best half peck garden peas, dry 3 

Best half peck castor oil beans 5 

Best and greatest variety of peas, dry 5 

Best half peck gerkin cucumbers 3 

Best three purple egg plants 5 

Best and greatest variety of vegetables raised by one 

exhibitor 50 

CLASS X— FLOWERS. 

Best miniature flower garden $50 

Best display growing flowers 25 

Best display cut flowers 25 



SIXTH DEPARTMENT. 

FRUITS. 

CLASS I— GREEN FRUITS. 
Best twenty varieties of apples, pioperly named, 

five specimens each $40 

Best ten varieties of apples, properly named, five 

specimens each 20 

Best twenty varieties of pears, properly named, five 

specimens each I 40 

Best ten varieties of pears, properly named, five 

specimens each 20 

Best ten varieties of peaches, five specimens eai'h. . 20 

Best five varieties of peaches, five specimens each. . . 10 

Best ten varieties of plums, five specimens each. ... 20 

Best five varieties of plums, five specimens each. ... 10 
Best twenty varieties table grapes, not less than two 

bunches each 40 

Best ten varieties table grapes, not less than t«o 

bunches each 20 

Best display of Mission grapes 20 

Best single variety of grapes, not less than two 

bunches ■ 10 

Best and greatest variety wine grapes 40 

Best display of tropical fruits 20 

Greatest number and best specimens oranges 5 

Greatest number and best specimens lemons 5 

Best display of «edliug fruits 10 

Best general display of fruit embracing best and 

greatest varieties 100 

CLASS II-DRIED AND PRESERVED FRUITS, NUTS, 

tTC. 
Greatest number of varieties and best specimens, 

not less than three pounds each $10 

Best dried figs, prepared so they will keep in condi- 
tion for export, not less than six pounds 10 

Best twenty- four pounds raisins 15 

Best ten pounds dried prunes 10 

Greatest number of varieties and best specimens 
fresh preserved fruits, not less than one jar each, 

nor less than six varieties 10 

Best half peck English walnuts 6 

Best half peck soft-shelled almonds 6 

Best half peck peanuts 3 



SEVENTH DEPARTMENT. 

FINE ARTS. 

CLASS I-DRAWINGS, PAINTINGS, ETC. 

Best life-size photogi'aph, colored in oil $20 

Best specimen of portrait painting, in oil, by Cali- 
fornia artist 50 

Best specimen of landscape painting, in oil, by Cali- 
fornia artist 50 

Best specimen in water colors 10 

Best specimen uncolored photograph 20 

Best specimen of not less than twelve different ob- 
jects of natural history, in water colors, by Cali- 
fornia artist Diploma and 25 

Best specimen fruit painting 10 

Best specimen of California landscape, in oil, by 

California artist 20 

Best exhibition of paintings Diploma and 60 

Best fancy painting in water colors Diploma 

Best engraving Diploma 

Best wood engi-aving Diplema 

Best lithography Diploma 

Best porcelain painting and gilding Diploma 

Best specimen penmanship $S 

Best crayon drawing B 

Best pencil drawing B 

Best pen drawing B 

CLASS II-SCULPTURE, ETC. 

Best sculpture $20 

Best collection of marble work ; • • 50 

Best carving in wood Dii)loma 

Best collection and greatest variety of California 

birds, prepared Diploma and $15 

Best collection and greatest variety of quadrupeds, 

prepared Diploma and 15 

CLASS MI-DESIGNS. 

Best design for farm house Diploma 

Best design for farm barn Diploma 

Best design for carriage house and stable Diploma 

Best design for dairy house Diploma 

Best design for poultry house Diploma 

Best design for farm gate Diploma 

Best granary Diploma 

I Best bridge (model of) Diploma 

Best domestic apparatus (or model of) Dlplom* 




p&Qmio 



[July 29, 1871. 



FIRST PRE\rnTAI AWARDED ut the St:it,> Tair, 1S70, 
for the be»^t Farm Wagou: a!so for the best iiiiiiroved 
Thimble Skein. All kinds of Wagons on hand and 
made to order, of the Best Eastern Material, and War- 
ranted to give satisfaction. 

E. SOULE, 



ap22-.3m 



Corner Eleventh and I streets, 
Saceamekto, Cal. 



BAKER & HAMILTON, 



IMPOKTEns OF 



Hardware, Farming Implements, 

MACHINES, ETC. 




THE EXCELSIOR MOWER. 

Are Sole Agents for 
EXCELSIOR MOWER AXD REAPER, 

CHAMPION MOWER AND REAPER, 

BURKES EAGLE MOWER AND REAPER, 

NEW YORK MOWER AND REAPER, 

Haines' Genuine Illinois Harvester, 

Pitts' Improved California Thresher, 

Portable Steam En^nes, Etc., 

With a full stock of all kinds of implements needed in 
JTarming. 

Send for List of Prices. 




THE CHAMPION SELF-RAKE REAPER. 

9, 11, 13 and 15 J street, SACRAMENTO. 
13, 15, 17 and 19 Front Street, SAN FRANCISCO. 
17-Tl-3m 

E009<I >:OG»-«! EGGS! 

STEVENS BROS' 

Patent Egg Boxes, 

We would respectfully call the attention of all pirsons 
■who ship or handle EfjKS, to the advantage to be derived 
from uriing Stevens' Bros. Patent Kn^ Cases. 

These cases hold thirty dozen Eggs each, self count- 
ing, and can be packed with ease and facility. Eggs 
shipped in the above cases sell quicker and give more 
satisfaction to buyers than any otlier package in use, as 
the contents are not damaged, and buyers subjected to 
no trouble as regards the covint. 

NO BROKEN EGGS ! NO HEATED EGGS! 
NO PACKING REQUIRED I 

To the Trade. 

We offer these Egg Cases at the following rates : 
SCALE OF PRICES : 

100 cases or over, cash price $3 00 each 

50 cases or under, cash price 3 60 each 

CAITIONI 
Stevens' Patent Eoa Boxes, patented Feb. 26, 1807. 
All persons are hereby cautioned against manufactur- 
ing, selling and using any cases for packing and trans- 
porting eggs, constructed with compartments, by 
placing a separate diaphragm horizontally between each 
tier, from the bottom to the top of each case, and any 
and all infringements up<m said patent, either for man- 
ufacluring, selling or using without authority from the 
undersigned, will be prosecuted. Parties desiring In- 
formation will apply to the owners. 

STEVENS & GRAY, 
Union Market, H4)ward street, 
18-vl.3m Between Third and Fourth streets. 

GILES H. ORaT. JtMBS H. BAVKM. 

GRAY & HAVEN, 

ATTORNEYS AND COUNSELORS AT LAW, 

In Building of Pacific Insurance Co. N. E. corner Call- 
foiniaaut Lelaesdort) streets, 



WtW 



RAH FBANCISCO. 



ATWOOD & BODVTELL, 





MANUFACTURERS OF 



EXCELSIOR AND GOLDEN STATE WIND MILLS. 

LITTLE GIANT HORSE POWERS, 

PUMPS AND WATER TANKS, 

Nos. 211 and 213 Mission Street, SAN FRANCISCO. 



N. B. — We have made the manufacture of the above Machinery a Specialty for the 
past ten years, and guarantee all our work. 4v2-lam3m 



GEO. 

Comer Sixteenth 



B. BAYLEY, 

and Castro Streets, OAKLAND. 




Importer and Breeder of 
CHOIOK POULTRY. 

Every variety of Fancy Poultry constantly on hand 
and for sale. 
Address, with stamp, P. O. Box G.TO, San Francisco. 



CHOICE POULTRY. 

The undersigned. Importer and Breeder of 

Light and Dark Brahmas, 

Partridg-e and Buff Cochins, 
Houdans, 

Black Red Game Bantams, 

Black African Bantams, and 
Aylesbury Ducks. 

OFFERS FOR SALE BOTH 

IMPORTED AND CALIFORNIA BRED STOCK. 

ALSO, 

msss for Hatelllng, 

No orders filled 0. O. D. 
For further particulars address 

C. M. NICHOLS, 

Fruit Vale Avenue, 
Brooklyn, 



21vl-tf 



Alami'da Co., 
Cal. 



T II r: 

ASPHALTUM PRESSURE PIPE 
c o m: JP A IV Y, 

IT VVIXO KKECTKn (% MAXUFArXORY 

of sufficient capacity to supply their Asphaltum Pipe in 
large quantities, 

Are now Prepared to Take Orders 

AiVD MAKE CONTKACTS. 

This Company Tvill manufacture Pipe and ;;riiarantee 

it to bland any pressure required; itis lighter than iron 
pipe and more durable, it is not affected by chemical 
action, cannot corrode, and being glazed imparts no dis- 
agreeable taBtc to water. To miners and farmers it in 
invaluable; any body can put it down; it is twenty per 
cent cheaper than iron pipe and ten times more durable. 
For further particulari*. apply at the office of the C!om- 
paiiy, Room No. 2, 645 Market street. 
Bb^ Circulars sent on application. 16v21-tf 



FRUIT BOXES! FRUIT BOXES 

Good News for Fruit Growers. 



MATIE UP. 

17 cents t Regular 

18 cents ) sizes. 



IN SHOOKS. 

Redwood 14 cents. 

Pine 1.5 cents. 

Send for Circulars and Samples. 

MORGAN & CO., 

3T2-lm 103 Washington St., near Drumm. 



Farmers and Teamsters, 

SAVE YOXJIt B10r»JEY! 

BT USING THE 

Patent Wood Horse Collars and Hames 

Combined, 

Which has many advantages over the Leather Stuffed 

with Straw. 

1st. DtTRABiLrTT, lasting at least ten times as long. 

2d. Convenience. Opening below, can be laid on and 
off the Horse, having one fastening in place of two or 
three. 

3d. Is one. third lighter than leather collar and hame. 

4th. Can be easily fitted, as it is so constructed thai 
the length and width can be changed in a few minutes. 

5th. As there are no stitches to break, or stuffing tci 
l)ress out, IT NEVER LOSES ITS SHAPE, always bearing 
upon the muscular part of the shoulder, near the neck— 
the proper place for draft. 

6th. Its smooth, hard surface, giving equal pressure 
on the whole line of draft, never sweats or rcbs okf 

THE HAIP. 

7th. It has an important advantage in the stationary 
curved arch, keeping the collar from seitino tight 
AROUND the top OF THE NKCK When heavy tongues have 
to be earned (as in some machines), thus KEEfiNO the 

NECK coot,, AND FREE FROM SORES IN THE HOTTEST 

WEATHER. Leather Collars will tighten over the top 
of the neck, and heat and gall the animal. 

8th. Wood being a non-conduitor of heat the soreness 
caused by Leather Collars becoming wet by perspiration 
is avoided. It has many other advantages which cannot 
he known without atrial, ThisColhir is WARRANTED 
to Cure Horses with Sore Shoulders in Three Weeks, 
Working Every Day. Give them a trial. 

For Circulars, price of Collars, and all other particu- 
lars, apply to or a<ldres8 

WILDMAN & MAKBLE, 
No. 30 California street, San Francisco, Cal. 
Sole Matinfacturers and Dealers for the Pacific Coast. 
Agents wanted. 19vl-3ra 

Holbrook's Patent Swivel PlowSt 

For Level Land and Side Hill. 

WON THI! 

HIGHEST PRIZE 

•t N.Y. Slate Trial, 
ISTO, for Plowing 
Send Stamp for Circular, Sod &> Stubble 

They leave no dead furrows nor ridges, but an even 
surface for the Heaper, Mower, Kake, and Irrigation; 
turn deep flat fiirrow-slices on level land; clear and pul- 
verize thoroughly; are of easy draft, strong and durable. 
Have self-adjusting, self-clearing hinged (-tee! Cutters. 
Changeable Mould-boards for sod and stubble. 

They are particularly well adapted for reclaiming 
Bog Meadows, with the Patent Stocl-Edged Swivel Share 
and Side Draft Clevis. 

UanMfacturcd and sold by 

F. F. HOLBEOOK & CO., 




19vl-7Hm 



Boston, Massachusetts 



n. K. CT7MMIN0S. 

1858. 



I. M. MAXWELL. 
1871. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commission 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 1858. 

415 and 417 Davis street, cor. of Oregon, San Francisco. 

Our business being exclusively Commission, we have 

no interests that will conflict with that of the producer. 

4v23-ly 



WM. M. LANDRUM, 

BREEDER AND niPOWTER OF 

liOng'-'Wool Varieties 'and Southdown 
SHEEP AND ANGORA GOATS. 



Offers a fine lot of all grades of RAMS for sale. 

WM. M. LANDRUM, 
Q2vl-6m Watsonville, Santa Cruz County, Cal. 

SWEET CHESTNUT TREEST 

ONE-HALF MILLION, besides a large general Nursery 
Stock. A Sixteen-page Circular Free. Also a Trade 
List for Nurserymen and Dealers. Can send safely to 
California. Small Tree."; by mail; large ones by freight 
or express. Address STORKS, HARRISON & CO., 

Iv2-6m Painesville, Lake Co., Ohio, 



Phelps' Patent Animal Trap, 




FOR GOPHFRS, SQIRRELS, RATS, CATOTES, 
and other " Varmints." 

This Trap, as may be seen, is of sittiple construction, 
and not likely to get out of order, and very durable. 

It is Very Efficient 
and can be used conveniently by women or children. 
THE CHEAPEST AND BEST YET INVENTED. Price 
.50 cents. By mail, prepaid (to places where express 
charges are high), $1. A liberal discount to clubs or 
dealers who buy by the dozen. Address the inventor 
and manufacturer. D. N. PHELPS, 

al-ly-av>bp San Leandro, Alameda County, Cal. 




SEJiEZEK 




Sects and Creeds differ, but there are no dissent- 
ers from the general principle, that a great medicine is 
a great blessing. We have many of these blessings, but 
among them all, in the province to which it belongs, no 
greater than 

Tarrant's Effervescent Seltier Aperient. 
\ column would not suffice to enumerate the ailments 
for which it is prescribed by physicians of the highest 
standing. It does not belong to the class derisively 
termed patent medicines, but is an article based on 
scientific analysis, and will stand the test of the sharp- 
est and most rigid medical criticism as > cathartic, a 
stomachic, an auti febrile preparation, and an admirable 
remedy (or all bilious complaints. Let there be no 

MISTAKE. SECI'RE THE OENUINE ARTICLE ONLT. 

SOLD BY ALL DRUGGISTS. 




!SEWrZEK 




THE MASONIC MIRROR, 
A QUARTO-MEDiUM SIXTEEN PAGE 

Literary and Family Newspaper, 

AND THE 

OrBiinot'the MnH.*nlo Frnf ernlty on the 
faclflc rolint. 

Subscription Reduced to $2.50 per Year. 

enhorsemxnt of the oband lodor. 

The following resolution was unanimously adopted by 
the M.-. W.-. Grand Lodge, F. . A ■. M. . of the State of 
California, at its Annual Communication, October, 1S70. 

■\Mierea8. In the opinion of this Grand Lodge, a well 
conducted Masonic Journal is of great benetit to the 
craft, in disseminating Masonic information among the 
fraternity, as well as furnishing a medium for general 
Masonic intelligence. Therefore, 

Resolved, That this Grand Lodge, recognizing in the 
Masonic ^Iirror, edited by Brothers Amasa W. Bishop 
and Edwin A Sherman, and published by the Ma«onic 
Publishing Company of San Francisco, a Masonic Jour- 
nal of the charact^?r above set forth, do hen by recom- 
mend the said Masonic Mirror to the craft generally, 
as worthy of their most favorable consideration and 
support. 

ENDORSEMENT OF THE GRAND LODGE OF NEVADA. 

At the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of 
the State of Nevada, held October. 1870. the following 
endorsement was unanimously adopted: 

Ji'-.^olrrd, That we recommend the Masonic Mirror, 
published In San Francisco, to the support of the Craft 
at large. 

ENDOBSEMENT OF THE GRAND COVSI6TOBT. 

At the communication of the M •. P.'. Grand Consis- 
tory, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemason- 
ry in and for the State of California, held October, 1870 
at San Francisco, the following resolution was unani- 
mously adopted: Resolved, That the Masonic Mirror, 
published in this city be the oflicial organ of this Grand 
Consistory. 

TO ADVERTISER!*. 
The Mirror presents the best Advertising medium on 
the PaciBc Coast, as it circulates in every town an! 
hamlet, and among a class of citizens that it will be o. 
advantage to advertisers to reach. 

. BISHOP SHERMAN, 

608 Market Street, an Francisco. 



HOOKER'S 

Improved 

DEEP-WELL 




The best and cheajx-st Domestic Pump in the market. 
Wholesale Agents, 112 California St. San Francisco. 



ARTIFICIAL LIMBS. 

A. A. MARKS.No. 675 Broadway, N.T. City, 

the inventor and author- 
ized United states Govern 
ment manufacturer of the 
celebrated first premium 
Artificial Limbs with Rub- 
ber Hands and Feet, has 
piiui.siied a new and enlarged edition of his IlluhirateJ 
Pamphlet, of importance to all who have suffered am- 
putations, especially to officers and soldiers who lost 
their limos in service. Copies sent free to applicants 
21vl-13ts-12tr 




X 



July 29, t^yt.] 



THE PATENT 

Novelty Mill and Grain Separator 




(iO 




l8 OOP of the grf-atest improvementB of the age for 
cleaning and separating fiiaiu. while it combines all the 
essential qualities of a first-class Fanning Mill. It also 
far excels anything that has been invented for the sepa- 
ration of Grain. It has been thoroughly tested on all 
the different kinds of mixed Grain. It takes out Mus- 
tard, Grass Seeds. Barley and Oats, and makes two dis- 
tinct qualities of wheat if desired. „m^-»T-c. 
For further information apply to K. STONE, 
25vl-'m 422 Battery street, San Francisco. 



Important to Wool Growers. 




PUKE BLOODED 

FRENCH MERINO RAMS 




ron SALE iiv 



ROBERT BLACOW, 
Of Centerville, Alameda County, Cal. 



WIESTER & CO., 

No. 17 New Montgomery Street (Grand Hotel), San Francisco. 
IPATEIVTS BOUGHT AISTD SOLO 0]V COMEIMISSSIOIV. 

Patent Saiifl-Caps for IIiiTjs of "Veliiclcs. 

The invention consists of a ring of metal which is made 
conical in form and has its smaller end attached to the axle 
near the collar. The edge of the larger end projects into a 
groove, which is formed in th ■ inner end of the hub, and 
thus etrectually protects the collar and the axle-box from 
sand and dust. In the illustration, A is the hub of the 
wheel, B the axle, which may be fitted in any of the ordi- 
nary ways, C the collar, and E a ring of wood or metal, 
which may be put on by removing C. In the case of axles 

already m;cde, or in new wort, the ring may be slipped on before the axle is welded up. Town, County, Shop and 

State llights lor Sale. 

A. IVe-w fatent -A-tmosphci'lc Attadnnent to Dental Plates. 

Can be applied to both New and Old Plates, so as to retain them firmly in the mouth while eating or talking; 
superior to any thing ever before invented, cost of applying it small, and the greatest improvement immediately 
felt by the wearer. 

All who have badly-Stting plates can, by the application of this Attachment, wedr them with perfect comfort 
and usefulness while eating, talking, etc. State, County and Office Rights for Sale. 

Hill's Grate Bar. 

This Bar will withstand 800 degrees more heat than any other Bar now in use. It is unequalled in durability. 
It generates more steam from the same quantity of coal, making a saving of from 10 to 15 per cent, in fuel. It has 
been examined and used by some of the most scientific Engineers in the Unit d States, and pronounced the best 
Grate Bar extant for marine or land boilers. The Patent Right to the Pacific Coast is placed in our hands for sale. 
A complete model can be seen at our office, or a descriptive circular will be sent on application. 

A. 2Ve-vr Potato Uigger. 

County Rights for Sale and one Digger free. 
A. jVe>v Patent Stencil Plate tlxat ^vill M:ark any iJVamc or iVxiniljer. 

A. Complete Self-acting Nut Roastei'. 

The Best Horse Hay Ralce e^v^cr invented.. County Rights for Sale. 

NcT^' Gas l-ilght. 

This Lipht takes the place of the Candle, the Kerosene Lamp and Coal Gas. Each Lamp is a perfect Gas 
Factory, making its own gas as fast as it is required, It is a safe, cheap and beautiful light. Circulars and full 
particulars sent on application. 

Tbe TrlTitn-pli "Washing IMTacliine. 

He who finds a good wife finds a " good thing "—so we have heard It said - and he who finds a Washing Ma- 
chine such as the one invented by Mr. Hockabout, finds a thing that will do to talk about. The fact is, this 
Machine is beginning to be talked aboiit a great deal, and the more it is talked about the more fully people are 
becoming convinced that there is at least one Washing Maf bine that is not a humbug. It is simple in con- 
struction, and more simple in its operation. All that is required is to feed it with clothes and turn the crank. It 
is provided with a heating chamber which keeps the water hot and steams the clothes. TjVhile in operation there 
are three rollers which pass over the clothes very rapidly yet so gently as not to break the buttons or injure ihe 
garments. It would be difficult to enumerate in a brief advertisement all the superior merits of this novel in- 
vention. It can be built by any ordinary mechanic at a moderate cost and allow a handsome profit. State and 
County Rights for sale. A complete working model and large machine can be seen at our office. 
I-itisliei-'s "Ve(i-etal>le Cutter. 

There are few inventions for which there is a more general want than a good, cheap and rapid Vegetable Cut- 
ter. We think the one recently patented by John Lusher, of Indiana, luUy meets this want. It costs but a trifle, 
never colors or rusts, will laiit many years and always keep sharp. It operates equally well on Potatoes. Cabbat^e, 
Turnips, Beets, Cucumbers, etc., cutting six slices at each mov ment of the hand. It can be made by any Tin- 
smith, and at a trifling cost. State, County or Shop Rights for Sale. Circulars sent on application. A sample 
can be seen at our office. 



NASH & CUTTS' 
FANNING MILL AND GRAIN SEPARATOR. 



<^^ 




FIRST PREMIUM at thi! ( alifornia State Fair of 1870 
over all other Mills in the State, niter a Th-rough Prac- 
tical Trial by the Committee of Faims, with all kinbs 
OF GRAIN. It is the Cheapest and Best Mill in use, and 
the only one that will completely separate Barley, Onts, 
Smut, Chess, and all kindsof Grass and Weed Seed, from 
Wheat, and at the same time sepa' ate perfectly the dif- 
ferent qualities of Wheat. Also separates Oats and all 
foul seed from Barley, or Barley and Wheat from Oats. 
It will clean Beans, Peas, Corn, and all kinds of grain, 
perfectly, and more rapidly than any othfT Mill ever 
built. For sale by NASH, KING, MILLER & CO., at 
Manufactory, comer K and Tenth streets, Sacramento, 
Cal. 2Cvl-3m 



These Rams are guaranteed to be pure blooded 
French Merino, and I would respectfully call attention 
to them from tboso who desire to see or purchase the 
best and purest of stock. Iv2-8t 



THE STUDEBAKER 




THE BEST FAJIM WAGON; 

THE BEST EAKCII WAGON; 

THE BEST TEUCK WAGON; 

THE BEST TEAM WAGON; 

THE BEST HE^VDER WAGON; 

The Best Thimble Skein and Iron Axle 

W A. G O IV 8, 

Sold for $100 to $175. 

AMES & WOOLVERTON, 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast. 
5vl-3mr 217 & 219 K St., SACRAMENTO, CAL. 



CALIFORNIA CHEMICAL PAINT COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



AVERILL'S CHEMICAL 
Purest White, and 100 



PAINT, OF 
, »..u .^J^J, Different Shades, 

MIXED READY FOR APPLICATION-ANY ONE CAN APPLY IT. 



THE 



This Is the ONLY PAINT OF COMMERCE manufactured, being always held in solution by its peculiar 
chemical combination, and sold by the gallon. It is warranted not to pc e!, crack, nor chalk off ; has a greater 
body and covering property, and will last twice as long as the best of othi r Paints, with a fine, hard, glossy sur- 
face, impel vious to the atmosphere, and extremely durable. 

Office, 40*^ Ciilifoi-iiin, .«iti-eet. 

MANUFACTORY, Corner Fourth and Townsend Streets. 

G. W. OSBORN, 
apS-3m C. F. BROWN, 



Ag-ents. 



H. K. CUMMINGS. 

Iii58. 



J. M. MAXWELL 

1S71. 



HENRY K. CXJMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commission 

House, 

ESTABLISHED 18.'J8. 

415 and 417 Davis street, cor. of Oregon, San Francisco. 

Our business being exclusively Commission, we have 
no interests that will conflict with that of the producer. 

17vl-tf 



^1 O M J2 

California Cotton Growers 

AND LIANUFACTUEEES 
ASSOCIATION. 



J}^ANU 



FACTU 



«ts 



To Merchants, Manufacturers, 
Farmers and Nurserymen. 



Tenders will bo received to the 25th of September 
next for the following supplies for the service of the 



California Cotton Growers and 
facturers Association. 



Manu- 



THOS. BUTTERFIELD & SON, 

Breeders and Importers of the 

Cotswold, Lincoln, Leice.ster, Texel and 

South Down Sheep ; 

ALSO, THE ANGORA GOAT. 

Now oflTer for sale the Pure Bred and High Grades. 
We have a good lot o' crosses between the Cotswold and 
South Down, between the Lincoln and Leicester. 

THOS. BUTTERFIELD & SON, 

24vl-llw HoUister, Monterey County, Cal. 



PURE BERI^SHIRE SWINE. 

R. S. THOMPSON, 

Importer and Breeder of 

Improved Berkshire Hogs, 

NAPA, CALIFORNIA. 



Twenty tons Cotton Seed, 12 Farm Wagons, 30 Plows, 
15 Harrows, 15 Cultivators, 100 Hoes, .')(i Spades, lil 
Shovels 12 Road Scrapers. 12 Wheelbarrows, 12 Stoves. 
12 Axes, 12 Hatchets, 12 Hammers, 12 Picks, 12 Hand- 
Saws, 4 Cross-Ciit Saws. 4 Augers, 4 Brace and Bits, 4 
Complete Sets Carpenters Tools, 4 Sets Light Harness, 
4 Saddles and Bridles, 00 Sets Draft Harness, 250,0u0 feet 
Lumber, dressed and undressed, 100 Doors, 200 Butt 
Hinges, 100 Locks and Keys, 300 Sash, glazed or un- 
glazcd, 100 Kegs Nails 1,000 pounds paint, 00 gallons 
Oil, 500 000 Mulberry Trees, 500,000 Grape Vines. 5,000 
Fruit Trees in Variety, 209 Sacks Flour, 400 Bushels Po- 
tatoes, 300 Bushels Indian Corn, CO Draft Horses, 30 
Cows and 20 Hogs. 

Address Tenders to 

JAMES DALE JOHNSTON, 
Secretary and General Agent Cal. Cotton Growers and 
Manufacturers Association, San Francisco. 19vl-3ra 



Orders solicited. 
19-Tl-lm 



R. 8. THOMPSON. 



SACRAMENTO SEMINARY, 

I street, between Tenth and Eleventh, 
SACRAMENTO, CAL 

The Seventkenth Semi-Annttal SFSsiONof this Semi- 
nary for Young Ladies, owned and conducted by Mr. and 
Mrs. Hermon Perry, assisted by a full and eflicient corps 
of Professors and Teachers, will commence ou MON- 
DAY, AUGUST 7TH, 1871. 

For particulars address 



FULL BLOODED SHEEP! 

For Sale, at Fair Prices, 40 Rams and 20 
Ewes, of 

JFxill I51oodetl Silisian Stoclc, 

from the celebrated "Electoral" Flock of William 
Chamberlain, Esq., of Red Hook, Duchess County, New 
York. These are the purest and best bred Silesian Sheep 
in the United States, if not in the world, and have 
carried off the 

FIRST PREMIUMS 

In Fine Wool Classes at the State and National Fairs 
since 1854. 

ALSO FOR SALE, 

Full Blooded Cotswold and Full Blooded 
Leicestershire Kams and Ewes, 

just selected from the Best Flocks in England by one of 
the best of judges, Wm. T, Wilson, Esq., and imported 
by him especially for this market. 

Also, California Bred, Full Blooded 

COTSWOLD AND SOUTHDOWNS, 

and Vi and other crosses between these Breeds and be- 
tween each of these Breeds and Full Blooded 
Spanish Merinos. 

Also, Full Blooded Berkshire Pigs, 

selected and imported by the same party above named. 

HIGHEST PRICES PAID FOR WOOL, 

and Wool Pressed and Shipped for Exporters, with Care 
and on Reasonable Terms. Also good Farming and 
Grazing Land, well located and in quantities to suit, by 

ROBERT BECK, 

At the Office of the Secretary of the Cal. State Agricul- 
tural Society, Sacuamenio, Cal. 
20vl-3m 



STEINWAY & SONS' 

Pntcnt Afi-r-ti ll'o Pianos, 

GRAND, SQUARE AND UPRIGHT. 

Pianos to Let. 



24^.2m 



HERMON PERRY, A. M., 

Sacramento, CaL 



mal8-t{ 



A. HEYMAN, 

I street, between Sixth and Seventh, 
Opposite old Capitol, Bacbamento. 




LELAND STANFORD 

i?i-esi<lent. 
H. F. HASTINGS, Vice Proaidonl 
JOS. CRACKBON, - Socrotarj 

^cnclal ddgenti-j ^lyme 0^f^ 

3v2-3m 137 Montgomery street, San Francisco. 

WE HAVE SENT 

IIXJlVTJTtEDS OF SI]VGX^"E: 

T^ALTH aim: ttatciie.s 

To the Pacific Coast 

BY MAIL AND EXPRESS, 

And in every case with satisfaction to the purchaser. 

The Prices are now all Reduced! 

SOLID SILVER HUNTING WATCHES as low as $1.^. 
SOLID GOLD HUNTING WATCHES as low as $G.5 . 

Our Prices are all in Greenbacks, and we deal In none 
but Genuine Waltham Watches. 

Every one who wants a Watch or feels a desire to be 
posted, should write to us for our Illustrated History of 
Watchmaking. It will cost you nothing, as we send it 
postpaid without charge, and with it a full Catalogue of 
all the Watches with jirices of each. When yon receive 
this you will be surprised at the low rates, and you will 
then understand our plan of sending Watches to any 
place, however remote, without any risk to the pur- 
chaser. 

We send any Watch you order, and let you examine it 
before you pay for it. Do not order a Watch until you 
have lirst sent for the Price List, and when you write 
please mention the SciENTiric Press. 

Address in full, 

HOWARD & CO., 

"Watchmakers and Jewelers, 

NO. 865 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

We have a full stock of extra heavy Cases, such as 4, 
5, G and 8 oz., always ou hand, and can fill all orders 
promptly. 26vl-bp-aw 



FISH CULTURE. 

FOR SAI,E, AT THE TAHOE FISH- 
ERY, situated five miles from Truokee 
City, C. P. B. R., 

One Hundred Thousand Mountain Trout, 
one year old. and Five Hundhed Thousand just 
hatched, suitable for stocking Springs, Ponds, Lakes 

Orders solicited by COMER BROS. & CO., 

2v2.16p-0w Trucliee. 



HAY PRESS. 



Call and examine PRATT'S IMPROVED HAY 
PRESS, 113 Commercial street, San Francisco. 

3T2.3m H. G. PRATT & CO, 



64 



[July 29, 1871. 



Cdlifjraia Industrial Fairs for 1871. 

The Statu Fair bejrins on the 18th, and ends on the 23d of 
September, at Sacramento. 

The San Francisco Mechanics' Institntc Fair bcginR on 
the 8th of August, and continues four weeks. 

Thfl S. F. Bay Horticultural Fair begina on the 8th of 
Auifust and continues four weeks. 

The San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Fair begins on tho 
I'2ih. and ends on the IMh of September, at Stockton. 

The Upper Sacnimento Valley Agricultural Society's 
Fuir begins on tho 'i<>th of September, atChico. 

Tho Santa Clara Valley Agricultural Society's Fair begins 
August 28th, and ends September l&t, at San Jose. 

The Sonoma and Marin District Agricultural Fair will be 
held on the 2.Hb of September, and continue six days, at 
Petal uma. 

The times of the other Fairs will bo inserted as received, 
and kept standing until the several Kxhibitions shall take 
place. 

The Annual Fair of the Clarke County Agricultural and 
Mechanical Society will be held at Vancouver on the 19th. 
authand2l8tof September. 



City p/f^^KEx f\Epoi\T. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE AT WHOLESALE. 

(The prices ffiiren below are those for entire consignments 
from tirst hands, unloys otherwise specilied.l 

San Francisco, ThiirB., a. m., July 27th. 

FLOUR— Has been in improved demand for 
export, and dealers generally report a good 
jobbing trade. There is evidently an increased 
demand for superfine flour for the Houkong 
market, and we last week noted a small, but 
unexpected shipment, by steamer, to Sydney. 
It is thought that this may jjossibly lead to a 
trade of some moment in this direction, as 
among the first fruits of our newly establislicd 
semi-monthly steam service with those distant 
regions. The Milton Badger and Zephyrs will 
also take a considerable quantity to Central 
America. 

Transactions embrace 3,000 bbls. California 
extra, 2,500 bbls. Oregon extra, and 10,000 bbls. 
California suj)erfine. The latter on private 
terms. We continue our cjuotations of last 
week, without change, as follows: 

Superfine, $f!.r2''i@0.25; extra, in sacks, 
$G.75@G.87. Standard Oregon brands may 
be quoted ?C.02{g,6.75. 

WHEAT — The receipts are meagre for the 
season — less than the general expectation, not 
so much from the scarcity, however, as from 
the general unwillingness of the farmers to 
market their grain at present. There seems to 
be a disposition to hold on and wait later Eu- 
ropean advices concerning tho crop prospects 
there, as well as to ascertain more fully whether 
our crop will be largely in excess of the home 
demand for consumption and seed. The latter 
fact cannot be arrived at with any degree of cer- 
tainty until late in the fall. Enough is al- 
ready known to fully establish the fact that we 
have a surplus; and that fact established it 
matters but little whether it be large or small, 
so far as affecting the price of wheat in this 
city is concerned. The value of any surplus, 
whatever, must depend upon the European 
market. We venture the opinion that farmers 
will do well to realise at once, and save storage, 
shrinkage and interest. 

There has been a better enquiry for shipping 
grades and a fair demand for milling purposes, 
both at a slight reduction in prices. Sales have 
aggreted about 2.5,000 sks. fair to choice at from 
$2.12%fe2.25 for new and 12.25(0 2.30 for old. 
The second vessel for the season is now load- 
ing. 

The Liverpool market remains at lis. 5d. 
New York rates, $1.65. 

B.^ULEY — The new crop is coming in freely 
and prices have declined. Sales during 
the week have aggregated about 10,000 sks. 
The range of new crop may be quoted at $1.50 
(aj.1.57% — choice old brewing, is in good de- 
mand at from $1.90:^2.00. 

O.A.TS — Have been in fair demand at a 
slight decUne. Sales of 3,000 sacks are re- 
ported at from $1.80@2.00 from fair to choice — 
$2.05 extra choice. 

CORN — The market may be quoted at $2.15 
@2.2o — an advance. 

CORNMEAL— Is quotable at $2.50@3.25. 
according to quality. 

BUCKWHEAT— StiU quotable at $3. 

RYE — Nominal at $2.50 for choice. 

STR.\W— Quotable at $H(o.$l() by the cargo. 

BRAN— The mill price is $27.50. 

MIDDLINGS— For feed are now selling at 
$3S@$I0— and $45 for fine. 

OIL CAKE MEAL— Is quotable at $40 from 
the mill. There is a continued good demand 
for this valuable feed, with sales as fast as 
made. 

HAY — The receipts are fair with good de- 
mand. We quote ordinary to choice at $15.00 
@$20.50 ^ ton. Tame oat, $18. Three car- 
goes fair to choice are reported at from $17(«i 
20.50 — the latter for choice wheat. 

HONEY — We quote Los Angeles strained 
13@14c. Small lots of choice white, from San 
Diego have been sold at 30c. Potter's in 2-!b 
cans. $4.50 per doz. 

POTATOES— The receipts have been large 
during the week, and demand Umitcd. At the 
close, receipts have fallen off giving a little 
more tone to the market; but without produc- 
ing any change in prices. Prices for good to 
choice may be quoted, at from G2(w85c — a de- 
cline, since our last reference, at from 20@25c. 
A slight improvement is remarked as we go to 
press. 



In view of Ibis depocatiou, the Mission po- 
tato growers have called a meeting, for the pur- 
pose of devising means for protecting them- 
selves from the ruinously low prices at which 
they are now obliged to sell their products. One 
isroposition it is understood is that each cultiva- 
tor shall withhold shipments from the market 
two days each week. 

SWEET POTATOES— Two or three small 
lots of Carolina have been received, first of the 
season, and sold at 8(S14c '^ lb. 

HOPS — Demand light — prices nominal at 9 
@12%c. for California. 

HIIJES — We quote Dry, slaughterer's stock, 
17@lKc; Salted, 8@9c. Sales during the 
week 1,059 Cal. dry, and 1,586 suited. 

WOOL — There is a ready sale for all that 
comes to market. Receipts, liowever, are very 
small, as usual at this season of the year. We 
quote the range of .fair to choice shipping 
grades at 30@35c for CaHfornia, and 37%(» 40c 
for Oregon. Sales of some 20,000 jrounds arc re- 
ported for the week. 

Fall shearing has already commenced in the 
southern portion of the State, but no consid- 
erable lots are expected in market before the 
last of next month. It is yet too early to as- 
certain how the market will open. Oregon is 
still arriving quite freely, and is selling at 40@ 
43%c per ft). 

T.\LLOW — The extremes may bo quoted 
from 8@y V4C. — The latter extra choice. 

SEEDS— Flax 3@3Xc., Canary, 7(5)80., Al- 
falfa, 16c. 

PROVISIONS— California Bacon 14^@15c; 
Oregon, 15@15J/i; Chicago 18c; California Hams 
14(n!l5; Oregon do, i5%@lGc; California 
Sugar-cured Hams, 16@17c; Oregon do, 17(S 
18c; Eastern do, 18@.20c; Cahfornia Smoked 
Beef,13@14c. 

BEANS. — Extremes of quotations — Bavo, 
$2.75@$3.00 Butter, small White and Pea, 
$2.O0(a/$2.25; Pink, $1.75. 

ONIONS— We quote red at 80@90c, and yel- 
low at 90c(«i$1.00. 

NUTS— California Almonds, 10@,15c for 
hard and 20@25c for soft shell ; Peanuts, 7@ 
8c; Hickory and Walnuts, l'2y,c; Pecan, 23(0} 
25c ■^ ft). 

FRUIT — Tahitian Oranges, $12.50(a;$15; 
Limes, $15(^$20 "f, 1,000. Sicily Lemons, $16 
'^ box: California, do, $G 1^ 100. Banansis, 
$1 50(a $2 50 '^ bunch; Cocoauuts, $12.50(«:15 
"0100; Apples, ij0c(ni$l 50: Pears, 75c(ffi$l fibox. 
and Bartletts $2.50 ; Peaches, $1 , and Crawfords, 
.$1.50 '^ basket; Apricots, $1(|;1.25; Nectarines, 
$1.2.5@$1.50 f»j box. Cherries, 16c for Oregon; 
Currants, 5@7e; Raspberries, 12^c ^ lb; 
Plums, 50c(ai$l '^.basket. Prunes, 8@12^^c; 
Strawberries, 8(^yc; Blackberries, 5(o7c; Figs, 
8(ffa0c; Grapes, 3@.6c ^ lb. 

VEGETABLES— Cabbage is selling at l^(g> 
l'4c; Asparagus, 6c; Rhubard, 2(«;,3c; Garlic, 1 
((64 J/^c; Green Peas, 2(3*2 ''4c; String lieans, 2% 
@3c;Stimmer Squash, $1(0 125, Tomatoes, $1% 
@$3, Cucumbers, 50c@$1.00 ^ box; Green 
Corn, 10(ff<25c ^ doz; Watenuelons, 16(a!l8c 
each, and Cantelonpes $3(rtj^5 fi, doz; Egg 
Plant. 3c; Okra, Gc 1^ ft). Marrowfat Squash, 
$6@10$ V, ton. 

FRESH MEAT— We quoto slaughterer's rates, 
as follows: — ■ 

BEEF— American, 1st quality, 8(nllOc ^^ fli. 

Do 2d quality G@ 7c ~^ B>. 

Do 3d do 4(g» 5c li fc. 

VEAL— Extremes, KwlOc. 
MUTTON— 45/^(a{5i-ic ^ ft). 
LAMB— May be quoted at fromG^(S.7c T^ ft). 
PORK — Undressed is quotable at 5(g6%c. 
dressed, 8%(g9%c. 

POULTRY, ETC.— Is in limited demand- 
Hens $5.(^.50; Roosters $.5(g6.50; Ducks, tame, 
f 4.50@5.50 ■^ doz; geese, tame, $1.50(ail.75 ^j 
pair; live turkeys, n@liic ^ lb. 

WILD GAME— Hare, $1.50(a;.$2.00; 

DAIRY PRODUCTS— Cahfornia Butter, 
fresh, in rolls, may be quoted at 27%(^30c; 
California firkin butter, 2.5(g30c. Two or 
three fancy dairies are realizing 32 %c. Eastern 
firkin 15{a!25c. 

Cheesk — In fair supply, California new, 10 
(gl4c., California Factory 16c., Eastern, 15@16c. 
for new. 

Eoos— Catifomia fresh, 3G(g;37c. Ducks, 30c 

LARD^California Lard, U-ftj tins, 14(rtil5c; 
Oregon in bbls. liYtC.; Eastern do. 13 (ajl4^c. 
in bulk, and 145/i(^15c in tins. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

AGRICULTURAL lilPLEMENTS— Busi- 
ness in this line still remains (juiet. At the 
same time stocks of all kinds are said to be 
complete, which are sold at reasonable prices. 
BUILDING AND FENCING MATERIALS— 
In fair demand for export — local demand more 
quiet. Cargoes of Oregon sell as fol- 
lows: Rough, $14@ 14. 50; Dressed, $24; Spi-uce, 
$16.50. The following cargo rates for Redwood 
Lumber have been established by the R. W. 
Lumber Association : 

Merchantable. Refuse. 

Rough $16 00 $11 no 

Surfaced 28 00 18 00 

Tongued and grooved 28 00 18 00 

Ton(.ued and grooved, beaded. . . . 28 00 18 00 

RuBtic, worked 31 00 20 00 

Siding and battens, H-iuch 20 00 14 00 

Surfaced, )4-lnch 25 00 18 00 

Picket, rough H 00 

Picket, rough, pointed 16 00 

Picket, dressed 22 50 

DRIED FRUITS— The market quiet. We 
quote prices as follows: Cal. Dried Apples, 
10(^12c; Oregon do, — ; Languedoc Almonds; 
25c; Figs, Smyrna, 15(^20c; Prunes, German, 
lie '^ lb; Raisins, layer, $3.25@3.75 per box; 
Currants, Zante, 10^. 



TAHLE OK MISfKLLANEOl S. 

Sujrar. crsh'd, lb $ 14^'(ui$ 1.^ [Hi-mp Seed. Ib,$ 7 lai S 

Hawaiian, do. H lu^ 12 (.'.istor Beans, lb. 4 (i> 4k 

Cotfee, Cos. R, lb l.S'^ « l(i ( astnr Oil. iral. I 7.1 (.42 00 

Kio. do Hi @ Linseed Oil. gal 1 (IS (Sjl 10 

Tea, Japan. ^ ft. .V) dn BO linioni Corn.%1 ft 3 (3i 5 

lireen, do .W (il 00 Beesnni, |i lb... 21 Oi 30 

Riee. Haw'n.f^lb H'ut^ » I'eanuts.WBi ,■> la ^ 

China.do K m 7' '. f'nrn Meal, cwt. .2 ."iO ^4 00 

Coal Oil, i^ eal . SO (^ 60 Unions, cwt ISO @3 90 

Candles, i4 lb... \!> ® IS , 

Leather Market Report. 

[Corrected weekly by DoUiver & Bro., No. 109 Post St.) 
San FllANCIst'O, Thursday, July 27. 

SoLK T.KvTunt.— Eastern sliipmoi.ts still keep the mar- 
ket ti m antl the demand good. 

City Tamicil I.c-.-ither. V ft 2l'>(7-3l1 

Santa ('riiz Leather, f* ft 2ti(a30 

Country Leather, i' ft . 24.t2« 

The Freneh market remains the samo. California kips 
are hiuher and in demand. 

Jodot.SKil, iK^rdoz $«2 (Hka 

Jodot, II to 19 Kil..perdo7. M2 llOi/i % on 

Jodot, second choice It to l.*) Kil. ^ do7. (9* (Hh'ij HH OU 

Lemoine, IH to 19 Kil .^ do?. ufi Olkra 

I.evin. 12 and Vi Kil., per doz Si INIi'V 70 00 

Cornellian, 10 Kil., per doz 72 OOtu^ 

C'orncllian. 12 to 14 Kil., perdoz 6'< tlO>i< 70 

OKerau Calf, V doz hi mil) 

MercirrCalf, l(> Kil., per doz W OOlo) 

(.'ommon French Call Skins, ^ doz S-l 00(n> 7.5 00 

French Kips. V ft liOft 130 

('aliforniaKip. « do7. 60 00(^ 'h OU 

Kasterii Wheel Stuffed Calf, ^ ft mO) 12") 

liastern Bench Stulfed Calf, li* ft 1 lOiii 1 J.'i 

ICastern Calf for Backs, %* ft 1 l.Vg) 125 

Sheep Roans for ToppiUK. all colors, ^ doz S ai(a) 13 00 

Sheep lUians for LiniuiP^.'H doz 5 .Wf^ 10 50 

t'ahfornia Russett Sheep Linings 1 7ygi 5 50 

Best Jodot Ca f Boot Legs. IH pair 6 2'> 

Good French f-alf Boot Legs, t( pair 4 50@ S 00 

French Calf Boot Legs,'^ pair 4 00 

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By order of the Board of TruHtees. 

JAmES DALE JOHNSTON, Secretary. 

San Francisco, July 1st. 1K7I. Jul 8-^t 



E. J. FRASER, M. D., 

SUSGEON, 
No. 108 StooIiToii Nti-oet, S. y.. Cnl 



F. A. ROULEAU, 

SEARCHER OF RECORDS,' 

No. 620 Washington Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

2v2-2m 

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NEW IMPROVED FAMILY 

KivixTiivG m;aciiiive. 

kpljUUO ^° ipOjUUU can make in almost 
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Eighth Industrial Exhibition 

— or THE — 

MECHANICS' INSTITUTE 

WHX BE OPEN TO TUE PUULIC 

AT 11 A. M. TUESDAY, AUGUST 8, 1871, 

With the utsual OTemoiiics. 

HON. MILTOlirS. LATHAM 

Has consented to deliver the OPENING ADDRESS. 
The EXHIBITION BUILDING is situated on 

TJnion ftStj^iiare, 

In the heart of the city of San Francisco, and on the 
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ground area of U5,'JUU feet, and is complete in all its 
ai>pointment6. 

Steam pow-jr and wat^r supply furnished free to 
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Rules and Regulations can be obtained from any of 
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In conjunction with the Industrial Exhibition, the 
BAY DISTRICT HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY will 
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California, occupying a space of SJUxAO feet. 

PRICES OF ADMISSION: 
Season Tickets admitting gentleman and one lady $5 00 

Season Tickets admitting one p<-rson S 00 

Season Tickets admitting juTenilesunder U years. 1 r>0 
HT" The above Tickets are not Transferable. '^1 

Single Admission ^ 60 cts. 

Childreu under H years 25 cts. 

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Stores in the city. 

C" No bills will bo paid unleul ordered by the 
proper Committees. By order 

A. S. HALLIDIE, President. 

W. H. WnxuMB, Secretary. 2v2;l-lCp 4t 



i. 




Volume II.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, AUGUST 5, 1871. 



[Number 5. 



Modes of Growing Rice in South Car- 
olina—With IllnstratioDs. 

CONCLUDED. 

I here below represent the position of 
the trunk with a small part of the river, 
trunk-dock and ditch to the field as seen 
looking vertically down upon them. 

The process I have described implies 
great experience and labor in bringing a 
rice plantation into cultivation. 

There are however great variations in 
practice, where circumstances permit, tend- 
ing greatly to diminish both the cost of 
improvement of the land and its culture. 

The cultivation of an inland swamp plan- 
tation much resembles that of tide swamp, 
except that having no command of tide 
waters, the upper part of the swamp is 
used as a reservoir for water, which is kept 
there by a heavy bank made across the 
lower end of the reservoir, and the lower 
part of the swamp forms the rice field. 
But I have never cultivated inland swamp. 

I have of coiirse omitted many minutiie, 
aiming at pointing out what is essential 
and peculiar to the cultivation of rice here. 

The bank and ditch around the land be- 
ing finished, and the trunk in its place, or 
bed, the land can be kept dry, and the next 
step is to clear the land by denuding it of 
its natural growth. I need not state the 
mode of doing this. Clearing new lands 
for any kind of culture varies according to 
the crop to be cultivated. Much, in fact 
most of the rice land in South Carolina 
was originally heavy timbered, and cost 
much labor to clear. If on flooding the 
land which has been taken in and sur- 
rounded with bank and ditch, it is found to 
be so uneven that somo large parts are 
more than a foot lower than the rest, it is 
desirable to divide it into two or more sep- 
arate fields, putting the lower portion of 
the land in one field, and the higher por- 
tion in a separate field, as far as such a 
separation is practicable. The highest al- 
luvial land is generally near the river, and 
the lower further back from it. (See the 
diagram of land divided into four rice 
fields.) The fields are separated from each 
other by a bank, which need not be as large 
as the large bank next to the river, and a 
ditch always runs around each field 15 or 
20 feet distant from, and parallel to the 
banks. Each field has a trunk to itself. 
After the land is cleared it receives a 
further draining by cutting small ditches 
across the field from the ditch on one side 
of the field to the ditch on the other side. 
These small ditches are called " quarter 
drains," they are straight, parallel to each 
other, usually about 105 feet apart, and 18 
inches wide by two and a half or three feet 
deep. When the land has been several 
years cultivated it will need more draining, 
and then two more quarter drains, dividing 
the field into long strips of land or beds, 
about 35 feet wide. 

Cultivation and Management of the Crop. 

On an old rice field the land is usually 
ploughed, or dug with a hoe, in winter, 
and harrowed, or chopped fine with a hoe, 
towards spring. On absolutely new land 
this is not necessary, and if the land has 
many stumps and roots remaining on it, it 
cannot be easily done. 

In preparing to sow the seed the land is 
drilled or trenched, on old lands sometimes 
with a trench plough, but usually by hand. 
The laborer uses a narrow hoe, about eight 
inches long and three or four wide at the 
edge, and steps backward in doing his 
work. In order that the drills or trenches 
might be straight, several rows of four or 
five stakes are set lap across the field, 
the rows of stakes being five feet 
apart, a skillful laborer makes a trench in a 
line with each row of stakes, and less skill- 
ful laborers make three trenches between 



every two made by the first. As the work 
is finished in one part of the field, the 
stakes are shifted over to the next part un- 
til the whole field is trenched with straight 
parallel drills fifteen inches apart. Four 
hands (men) trench about three acres. The 
trenches are about two inches deep. 

The sowing of the crop is begun after 
the middle of March, and continued at in- 
tervals, dependent on the spring tides, un- 
til the middle or end of May. One or 
more fields being trenched, you begin 
to sow the grain some days before 
the last spring tides in March, or the 
first of April. The seed is sown by hand, 



ble until the rice is about five inches high 
and h.as four leaves. It is then hoed for 
the first time. The laborer using a hoe six 
or seven inches wide, gives a light and very 
shallow digging to the surface of the land 
between the rows of rice, stepping forward 
as he works, superficially stirring the soil 
and cutting up any grass growing there. 
After hoeing through his task, he goes ear- 
fully over it, and with his hand or a short 
stick removes any clods which may have 
fallen on the rice plants. After two days, 
if the weather be dry, allowing that time 
for the sun to kill the grass which has 
been dug up by the hoe, or immediately if 




VERTICAL SECTION OF BANK, TRUNK-DOCKS, ETC. 

o— Eiver. 6— Outer Tnink-Dock. c — Inner Trunk-Dock, d — Ditch around Rice Field, e «— Trunk. /—Level 
top of the Bank, g g — Sloping sides of the Bank, h h — Logs, called " string-pieces," laid across the trunk and 
fastened by stakes, to keep the trunk flrmly in its place, and to support the earth at foot of bank. 

the weather be wet, the field is again 
flooded. This is called the " long water." 
The field is deeply flowed, overtopping the 
rice for three or four days, and all the trash 
which drifts to the bank raked off as be- 
fore. The water is then slacked down to 
about six inches deep on the general level 
of the field. A mark or notch is cut on the 
trunk post or elsewhere, and the water is 
kept as nearly at that hight as practicable 



about two and a half bushels to the acre, 
as equally distributed along the trench as 
possible. Each sower (usnallj' a woman) 
sows two to two and a quarter acres. Tliree 
hands follow her, covering the seeds lightly 
with soil thrown out in making the trench. 
The laborers in covering the seed, use a 
simple tool called a "cover-board," made 
of a piece of inch board, sixteen 
or eighteen inches long, four or five 




Profile of Cross Section of Part of River, Outer Margin, Bank over the Trunk. Inner Margin and Ditch. 

a— Bank made over the Trunk. 6— River, c— Ditch, e <— Pins to secure Logs. /—Trunk. 



wide, beveled at the sides and ends, and 
with a large auger hole in the middle to 
receive one end of handle five feet long. 
In use it is intermediate between a hoe and 
a rake — the light soil is drawn obliquely 
into the trench to cover the seed, and the 
clods , if any, are crushed by a smart blow 
with it. 

As soon as a field is sown and covered, 
the outer door of the trunk is opened and 
the tide let in and the field flooded one foot 
or more deep. The water is kept there 
from three to six days — the warmer the 
weather the shorter the time. While the 
water is on the field, all the trash which 
floats and drifts to the bank is raked off 
and heaped on the bank or outside of it. 
A very few hands can do this while the 
rest are at work in another field. Tliis 
flooding is called the "sprout flow," and 
when the water is drawn off the grains have 
begun to germinate. The field is then kept 
dry a week or more, until you can see the 
fine points of the rice plant coming out of 
the ground, visible for thirty feet along the 
trench. This i^called the " needle state" 
of the rice. The field is then flooded. This 
is called the "point flow," and is kept on, 
say one footdeep, from four to eight days — 
the warmer the shorter the time. This flow- 
ing helps to destroy the young grass which 
has begun to grow, but if kept on too long 
is apt to stretch and weaken the rice, so 
that it falls down when the water is taken 
off. The field is then kept as dry as possi- 



for twelve or twenty-three days, according 
to the quality of the land, the heavy or stiff 
lands requiring the longest water. The 
water should not be turned off at the end 
of fifteen days, as drying at that period is 
known to injure the rice. If not turned off 
at twelve days, it must be kept on several 
days over fifteen. The water is then grad- 
ually slacked off in the course of a day or 
two, for the rice in the lower parts of the 
field having been stretched and weakened 
by the greater depth of water there, is apt 
to fall down on the water being suddenly 
drawn off. This shows the importance of 
a rice field being as level as possible, other- 
wise the rice in the lower spots is mater- 
ially injured, and in the high places the 
grass is not destroyed by the water. Dur- 
ing this flow, what grass has not escaped 
the hoe, and was too old to be killed by the 
water has been growing rapidly. It is de- 
sirable, if you have time, to jjull it up by 
hand out of the rows of rice, before or at 
the time you are slacking the water off the 
field. 

As soon as the field is thoroughly dry, it 
should be hoed again. This time it is dug 
as deep as practicable with a hoe about 
eight inches long, but not more than six 
inches wide, through each space or alley 
between the rows of rice. In digging, the 
sod should be turned over, and after the 
laborer has hoed through his task — one 
half acre — he goes over it again and pulls 
up any long grass left in the rows of rice, i 



The field is now kept as dry as possible for 
twenty-two or twenty-three days after the 
long water, when it should be hoed again, 
but very shallow and superficial hoeing, so 
as not to injure the roots of the rice, but 
merely to level the clods of the former dig- 
ging, and destroy the young grass. The 
task is half an acre, and any long grass is 
pulled by hand out of the rice rows as be- 
fore. A day or two after the " lay by water" 
is put on. That is, the field is flooded to 
about the same depth as marked on the 
trunk post, or other convenient place, 
lower or higher, according to the growth 
of the rice. Care must be taken that when 
the rice is "in belly," that is when the ear 
begins to form in the plant, that the water 
should not get above the swollen or en- 
larged part. When the plant has shot out 
its ear the water may be deepened, but 
never to beyond eighteen or twenty inches. 

During this flow, which generally con- 
tinues more than two months, when the 
rice has got strong enough to stand with- 
out the support of the water, the water is 
changed as often as you conveniently can. 
That is at every spring tide you run the 
water off, being certain that the next tide 
will be high enough to enable you to re- 
place it with fresh water. 

The crop is kept flowed this way, with- 
out any further labor, if it has been well 
weeded, until the rice is nearly ripe. Eice 
sown on the 1st of April, and well culti- 
vated and judiciously watered, is usually 
ripe by the 1st of September. Sown the 
15th of May it will be ripe by the end of 
September. The grains are now yellow, 
plump and pretty hard, except those to- 
ward the lower end of the ear. The water 
should now be turned off, and the field al- 
lowed to dry for three or four days. The 
rice is then cut with a sickle, and laid for 
one or two days on the stubble, which is 
usually left from fourteen to eighteen 
inches long. It is then tied into sheaves 
and stocked in cocks in the field for a few 
days, or carried at once to the barnyard 
and put up in small stacks until thor- 
oughly cured. Care must be taken that it is 
not tied into sheaves or stacked while damp. 
But I need not further particularize the 
mode of treating it, as it is much the sam« 
as with other small grain crops. 

Without going further into detail, I will 
merely state that after a rice plantation is 
taken in and ready for cultivation, it is 
found here that from six to eight acres can 
be cultivated to the hand, the hands being 
the men and women of a gang of negroes, 
who are neither too young or too old to be 
efiicient laborers. 

On new lands of good quality, well cul- 
tivated, the crop is heavy, yielding fifty- 
five, sixty, or seventy bushels to the acre. 
On old lands, which have been cultivated 
in rice for fifty years or more, the yield 
varies from fifty to forty-five, down to 
thirty bushels per acre, according to the 
quality of the soil. On a plantation with 
300 acres rice land, the 300 acres may be 
divided into 15 or 20 fields, and there are 
often 50 hands, negroes, men and women, 
who with children and old people will 
make more than 100. 



The Tables Turned. — There was a time 
when some considerable alarm was felt, on 
account of the earthquakes here; but if 
we are to credit the Eastern papers, the 
earthquakes, tornadoes and thunder storms 
in the Atlantic States are now so severe 
that Californians may well hesitate about 
going East, without first getting their lives 
insiired, for the benefit of the friends they 
leave behind. The loss of property and 
life at a single tornado at the East has 
exceeded the total casualties of all the 
earthquakes on this coast since the mem- 
ory of "the oldest inhabitant." 

Fruit is now abundant in this market. 



66 



[August 5, 1871. 



ECHANICAL ^ROGRESS. 



Siemen's Resistance Pyrometeb. — The 
principle of this rests on the following 
facts: The electrical resistance of a con- 
ducting •wire of given metal, at a fixed 
temperature, to a current of constant in- 
tensity, depends ujion its diameter and its 
length; but when the temperature of the 
■wire increases, the resistance increases. 
So that if we have a platinum wire of con- 
siderable length, whose electrical resist- 
ance at some known temperature is ascer- 
tained, we can determine some unknown 
higher temperature by determining the re- 
sistance at that temperature. The p^-rome- 
ter consists of a tube of thin iron (to be 
inserted part way into the furnace) con- 
taining a porcelain spiral grooved cylin- 
der, on which is wound a platinum wire. 
The ends of this wire pass through clay 
tubes inside of the iron pipe to a sufficient 
distance, aud finally are covered with insu- 
lating material outside of the pipe. With 
tli^ current constantly passing through 
the coil, the resistance to it may be meas- 
ured either by the deflections of a magneto- 
galvanometer, or, preferably, by a suitably 
constructetl differential voltameter. The 
voltameter used by Mr. Siemens consists 
of two voltameter tubes, fixed upon gradu- 
ated scales; which are so connected that 
the current of a battery is divided between 
them, with one branch including a known 
and i^ermauent resistance, and the other 
the resistance to be measured. Changes 
of atmospheric pressure afl'ect both sides 
equally, and therefore do not influence the 
results; but a reading at the atmospheric 
pressure is obtained by lowering the little 
supply reservoir with dilute acid to the 
level indicated in the corresponding tub<;. 
The upper ends of the voltameter tubes 
are closed by small weighted levers with 
india-rubber cushions; after each observa- 
tion these are raised, and the supj)ly reser- 
voirs moved so as to cause the escape of 
the gases until the liquid in the tubes 
comes again to the zero line of the scale, 
when the instrument is ready for another 
observation. The leading wires between 
the thertnometric coil and the measuring 
instrument, would exercise a considerable 
disturbing influence, but this is eliminated 
by means of a third leading wire common 
to both branches of the measuring instru- 
ment. This can be used easily to deter- 
mine at any time temperature even at 
points miles away. — Engineer. 

"Piano-Mecanique." — At the Interna- 
tional Exhibition, Mr. Debrain has ex- 
hibited a "piano-mocanique" or mechani- 
cal substitute for a luanist, — an addition 
to an ordinary piano, so that the instru- 
ment can be played on by machinery or in 
the usual way. On opening the lid of the 
piano, we see, according to the Mechanics' 
Mag., a row (about 5 in. long) of steel 
points, running transverely to the length 
of the piano. These points connect, by 
levers, with hammers placed above, and in- 
deiiendent of, those used with the ordi- 
nary key board. In line with the points is 
a steel bridge, alx)ut 1 in. high, with a flat 
spring on its underside. A series of small 
boards— planchettes— are placed, face down, 
on the top of t